Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Biology

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Classified in Biology

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1. Bioelements O biogenic elements.

Are the chemical elements that are part of living matter. We found about 70 chemical elements forming part of living matter, these are in various proportions and not all are present in all living things. In accordance with its wealth divide:

  • Bioelements Primary: These are found in greater proportion, are present in all biomolecules. Represents around 95% by weight of living matter. They are the C, O, H, N and to a lesser extent P and S.
    These items have been selected among all those who constitute the Earth's crust to form living matter, although except oxygen are the most abundant, possessing features among which are the following:

1-have incomplete outer electron... Continue reading "Bioelements" »

Advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 2.92 KB.

GMO - Genetically modified organisms

Benefits and Risks
Key benefits of biotechnology are:
Superior performance. By GMO crop yield increases, giving more food for fewer resources, reducing crop losses as well as environmental factors

• Reduced pesticide Whenever a GMO is modified to resist a particular pest is helping to reduce pesticide use associated with it that often cause widespread environmental damage and health. [

• Improved nutrition can be reached by introducing vitamins and protein on food and reduce the allergens and natural toxins. You can also try to grow in extreme conditions as auxiliaries to the countries that have less food available.

Improves the development of new materiales.La application of biotechnology... Continue reading "Advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology" »


Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 9.49 KB.

Supine or dorsal
In the anatomical position, the patient remains with his hands on either side of the body, arms extended, adducted thumbs and hands of pronation.
The head is held erect and the feet pointing forward. The knees and fingers in slight flexion
The patient is lying on your back with legs extended, attached to the upper and lower body together.
· Examination of the chest, abdomen, upper and lower limbs.
· Postoperative.
And Accommodation in bed
· Position change.
· Palpation of the breasts.
· Elders.
· Lung disease.
Sick of long-term ·
Prone position or ventral

Also called prone. In this position the patient lies on his abdomen and chest, his head... Continue reading "Positions" »

Example of classification of animals: kingdom, family, class, order and scientific names

Classified in Biology

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Animal Kingdom
Phylum Chordata
Vertebrate Subphylum
Mammal Class
Carnivore Order
Family canids
genus and species) Canis familiaris.

Animal Kingdom
Phylum Chordata
Vertebrate Subphylum
Mammal Class
Carnivore Order
Cat Family
Scientific name (genus and species) Felis catus
Kingdom: Animal
Family: Phasianidae
Class: Bird
Genus: Gallus
Order: Galliformes
Species: domesticus

Kingdom Plantae
Traqueofita Division
Angiosperm Class
Subclass Monocotyledoneae
Cereals Order
Family Poaceae (Gramineae)
Scientific name (genus and species) Zea mays


Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Phaseoleae
... Continue reading "Example of classification of animals: kingdom, family, class, order and scientific names" »

Cultivation of bacteria

Classified in Biology

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Culture medium: removed liquid, semisolid, solid, allowing the growth of bacteria and fungi.
Essential conditions of culture medium: nutrient content appropriate absolute sterility, pH 6.8-7.4, to be distributed in suitable containers.
The culture media are used to:
- Studying bacteria.
- Maintain pure cultures.
- Collect bacterial strains.
- Analyze the toxins produced x bacteria.
- For industrial purposes.
Complex growth media: peptone, hydrolysed extracts, Agar-Agar, additives, pH indicator., Redox indicator, selective substances.
Classification of culture media
According to chemical composition
.- Natural media (potato, carrots)
.- Synthetic media (nutrient agar)
According to Fitness
.- Liquid medium (nutrient broth)
.- Semisolid
... Continue reading "Cultivation of bacteria" »

Formation of urine

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 18.67 KB.

pituitary: is the main endocrine gland and is involved in regulating the balance hydrosaline among other functions. Hypothalamus: is a structure of the nervous system that controls the functioning of the pituitary. Formation of hypertonic and hypotonic urine: Glomerular filtration changes in its composition as it progresses through the various passages that form the renal tubule in them are removed from the blood of harmful substances, but reabsorvibles into the peritubular capillaries, varying amounts of water and solutes, which contributes to the formation of urine more dilute (hypotonic) or more concentrated (hypertonic). hypotonic urine formation: the formation of dilute urine is produced by an increased reabsorption of solutes, ade +

... Continue reading "Formation of urine" »

Systems pf the bosy

Posted by Soto88 and classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 3.48 KB.


Right atrium:

Deoxygenated blood inters the right atrium through the inferior and superior vena cavas. The right side of the heart then pumps this deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary veins around the lungs. There, fresh oxygen enters the blood stream, and the blood moves to the left side of the heart, where it is then pumped to the rest of the body

Right ventricle:

As deoxygenated blood flows into the right atrium, it passes through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle, which pumps the blood up through the pulmonary valve and through the pulmonary artery and to the lungs.

Tricuspid valve:Impids blood to go backawards, separates the right atrium and the right ventricle.

1 b.Heart attack:

2.aDifferences between excretion... Continue reading "Systems pf the bosy" »


Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 10.05 KB.

  • Centre Of Resistance: It is the point on the tooth when a single force is passed through it, would bring about its translation along the line of action of the force

Factors affecting Centre of Resistance:

    1. Number of roots
    2. Degree of Alveolar Bone loss
    3. Degree of Root Resorptio

ANCHORAGE:    It is the Resistance to Unwanted Tooth Movement

Absolute Anchorage: Appliances gaining anchorage from extraoral  structures

Ex:Titanium screws implanted into the alveolar bone through the gingiva

  • Intraoral Anchorage: Anchorage value of a tooth is proportional to the surface area of the root
  • Different Types of OTM: CONTROLLED TIPPING  -----UNCONTROLLED TIPPING----BODILY MOVEMENT---rotation ---root up righting ---- intrusion --- extrusion
  • Forces Delivered by Appliances:
... Continue reading "Orthodontics" »

Uses of cheatle forceps

Classified in Biology

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quotient.RSI:repetitive stress injury.SAD:seasonal affective disorder.SIDS:sudden infant death syndrome.GP:general practioner.HAV:hepatitis a virus.MD:medical doctor. Medicamento-tratamiento: Decongestant: decreases nasal stuffiness and relieves a runny nose. Anticoagulant::prevents or delays blood clotting. Sedative:relieves symptoms os stress,irritability or excitement. Laxative:relieves constipation. Digitalis:strengthens the failing heart. Diruretic:removes excess fluid from the body. Antibiotic:to treat infections caused by bacteria and other micro-organisms. Insulin:regulates the level os sugar in the blood, used to treat diabetes. Simtomas con sus causas:fainting, dizziness:anaemia; headache:sinus infection; fever:infection; cough:ailments
... Continue reading "Uses of cheatle forceps" »

Energy in ecosystems

Classified in Biology

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The ecosystems ENERGY: Energy is defined as the ability to do work, its unit of measure in the international system of measure is the Joule.
Energy takes many forms in nature as such as heat, motion, chemical bonds, among others. There is a very important law in thermodynamics, the science of energy and its transformations, and is as follows: "Energy is neither created nor destroyed can only be changed or transferred. To further illustrate this concept look: a person takes energy from the food (chemical energy), uses it to generate heat (heat energy) and body tissues (chemical energy). Here is how these seemingly physical concepts can be applied to ecosystems.
Where does the energy we receive on earth?
Sunlight is the energy source that

... Continue reading "Energy in ecosystems" »