Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Biology

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Bioelements

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 32.19 KB.

1. Bioelements O biogenic elements.

Are the chemical elements that are part of living matter. We found about 70 chemical elements forming part of living matter, these are in various proportions and not all are present in all living things. In accordance with its wealth divide:
Bioelements-primary.
Bioelements-side.

  • Bioelements Primary: These are found in greater proportion, are present in all biomolecules. Represents around 95% by weight of living matter. They are the C, O, H, N and to a lesser extent P and S.
    These items have been selected among all those who constitute the Earth's crust to form living matter, although except oxygen are the most abundant, possessing features among which are the following:

1-have incomplete outer electron... Continue reading "Bioelements" »

Advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 2.92 KB.


GMO - Genetically modified organisms


Benefits and Risks
Advantages
Key benefits of biotechnology are:
·
Superior performance. By GMO crop yield increases, giving more food for fewer resources, reducing crop losses as well as environmental factors

• Reduced pesticide Whenever a GMO is modified to resist a particular pest is helping to reduce pesticide use associated with it that often cause widespread environmental damage and health. [

• Improved nutrition can be reached by introducing vitamins and protein on food and reduce the allergens and natural toxins. You can also try to grow in extreme conditions as auxiliaries to the countries that have less food available.

Improves the development of new materiales.La application of biotechnology... Continue reading "Advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology" »

Positions

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 9.49 KB.

POSITIONS OF PLACEMENT OF PATIENTS
Supine or dorsal
In the anatomical position, the patient remains with his hands on either side of the body, arms extended, adducted thumbs and hands of pronation.
The head is held erect and the feet pointing forward. The knees and fingers in slight flexion
The patient is lying on your back with legs extended, attached to the upper and lower body together.
Uses:
· Examination of the chest, abdomen, upper and lower limbs.
· Postoperative.
And Accommodation in bed
· Position change.
· Palpation of the breasts.
Contraindications:
· Elders.
· Lung disease.
Sick of long-term ·
Prone position or ventral


Also called prone. In this position the patient lies on his abdomen and chest, his head... Continue reading "Positions" »

Example of classification of animals: kingdom, family, class, order and scientific names

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 2.52 KB.

DOG
Animal Kingdom
Phylum Chordata
Vertebrate Subphylum
Mammal Class
Carnivore Order
Family canids
genus and species) Canis familiaris.

GATO
Animal Kingdom
Phylum Chordata
Vertebrate Subphylum
Mammal Class
Carnivore Order
Cat Family
Scientific name (genus and species) Felis catus
CHICKEN
Kingdom: Animal
Family: Phasianidae
Class: Bird
Genus: Gallus
Order: Galliformes
Species: domesticus

Corn
Kingdom Plantae
Traqueofita Division
Angiosperm Class
Subclass Monocotyledoneae
Cereals Order
Family Poaceae (Gramineae)
Scientific name (genus and species) Zea mays

Bean

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Phaseoleae
Subtribe:
... Continue reading "Example of classification of animals: kingdom, family, class, order and scientific names" »

Zoologist

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 12.89 KB.

To sort the diversity of life using a rating system. Kingdom, phylum. sub class, super, order, sub groups, sub, genus, species, sub. Hierarchical binomial nomenclature, the greater the taxa categories. To reconstruct the phylogeny of a group uses a character that varies among members (ancestral character.) Is also used to compare outgroup (outgroup ) This is phylogenetically close, but not part of the study group. For any phylogenetic reconstruction we need to consider the characters that we use in our analysis and determine which is the primitive condition that presents the common ancestor of several. In this sense, we use the apomorphies that
refer to a derived or specialized character. In contrast, plesiomorphic, is a primitive character.

... Continue reading "Zoologist" »

The cell, the respiratory system, the organelles, gases, diffusion, active transport ...

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 26.93 KB.

The cell is the basic unit of which they are made all living things. It is the smallest unit capable of performing all the functions that characterize a living being.

Depending on whether a body is formed by one or more cells can be:

Unicellular organisms. They consist of a single cell that performs all the functions necessary for survival. Sometimes, several single-celled organisms living together colonies. (like amoeba)

Multicellular organisms. Consist of multiple cells that lose the ability to survive alone. Each cell performs a specific task, and all work together to survive the body (such as plants and animals). Our body is composed of a large number of cells. People are multicellular beings.

The cells in our body can have different shape... Continue reading "The cell, the respiratory system, the organelles, gases, diffusion, active transport ..." »

Dd

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 1.22 KB.

FIRST CONDITIONAL If/unless + present simple, will+infinitive. Possible accio futura
SECOND CONDITIONAL If + past simple, would + infinitive imaginarias o improbables futures o presents accions
THIRD CONDITIONAL If+had past participle, wold have+ past participle. Accions dubtoses en el passat en el pasat.(hagues+hauria)
wish:wish+past sinple=present situation that the speaker is unhappy about.he wishes his friends were here now
wish+past perfect= se arrepiente de una accion pasada.i wish he had called me.
wish+could/would+base form=desire to something to happen in the future.i wish i could go to university

Biodiversity and classification of living things

Classified in Biology

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Biodiversity. 19
1. What is biodiversity?
It is the totality of species and ecosystems of a region, including the entire genes.
2. Morphological What are adaptations?
There are anatomical structures that guarantee the individual a more harmonious relationship with their environment.
3. Physiological adaptations What are and what are its types?
Are changes in the individual organ function, enabling them to better suit the environment, their types are body temperature and fruit ripening.
4. What is Convergent Evolution?
It is when different groups of animals or plants develop similar structures in response to similar environmental pressures.
5. What is adaptive convergence?
They are different groups of organisms that develop a similar... Continue reading "Biodiversity and classification of living things" »

Cola

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 3.78 KB.

7-As nadadeiras dos peixes podem apresentar funções variadas de acordo com adaptações ocorridas ao longo dos tempos. Podem ser usadas para, exceto: Respirar

8- Na reprodução dos vertebrados inferiores, predominam os processos de: Fecundação externa

9-No Aparelho excretor dos peixes, os rins são do tipo: Mesonéfrico

1- Entre os peixes e os primeiros anfíbios foram necessários 40 milhões de anos de lenta e constante evolução.

Todas as alternativas contêm adaptações surgidas durante essa evolução, exceto : Manutenção da pele úmida, Termo regulação.

4- Os únicos animais que apresentam, ao longo da vida, respiração branquial, cutânea e pulmonar são os: Pererecas

7- um animal, vivendo no ambiente terrestre e utilizando a pele... Continue reading "Cola" »

coordination and response

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 2.8 KB.

reflex arc path: doesnt involve thinking. Automatic response
stimulus:change in environment
receptor: skin/light receptors in retina
sensory n: sense organs -> cns(palitos-axon-cell body-dendrite)
relay n: solo un cell body
motor n: cell body - axon (con myelin sheath, transmission of impulse + effective)
effector: muscles/glands
response: action in response to the stimulus

synapse:
pre synaptic neurone
axon --> nerve impulse - vesicles containing NT -> synaptic cleff-> NT receptors --> nerve impulse a la dendrite de la post synaptic neuron
heroin (morphin) binds to the receptor so they cant receive NT as they are occupied by heroin and thus no pain is felt -> euphoria -> abstinence

nerve impulse= wave of depolarization
0- threshold
... Continue reading "coordination and response" »