Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Biology

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Classified in Biology

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1. Bioelements O biogenic elements.

Are the chemical elements that are part of living matter. We found about 70 chemical elements forming part of living matter, these are in various proportions and not all are present in all living things. In accordance with its wealth divide:

  • Bioelements Primary: These are found in greater proportion, are present in all biomolecules. Represents around 95% by weight of living matter. They are the C, O, H, N and to a lesser extent P and S.
    These items have been selected among all those who constitute the Earth's crust to form living matter, although except oxygen are the most abundant, possessing features among which are the following:

1-have incomplete outer electron... Continue reading "Bioelements" »

Advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 2.92 KB.

GMO - Genetically modified organisms

Benefits and Risks
Key benefits of biotechnology are:
Superior performance. By GMO crop yield increases, giving more food for fewer resources, reducing crop losses as well as environmental factors

• Reduced pesticide Whenever a GMO is modified to resist a particular pest is helping to reduce pesticide use associated with it that often cause widespread environmental damage and health. [

• Improved nutrition can be reached by introducing vitamins and protein on food and reduce the allergens and natural toxins. You can also try to grow in extreme conditions as auxiliaries to the countries that have less food available.

Improves the development of new materiales.La application of biotechnology... Continue reading "Advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology" »


Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 9.49 KB.

Supine or dorsal
In the anatomical position, the patient remains with his hands on either side of the body, arms extended, adducted thumbs and hands of pronation.
The head is held erect and the feet pointing forward. The knees and fingers in slight flexion
The patient is lying on your back with legs extended, attached to the upper and lower body together.
· Examination of the chest, abdomen, upper and lower limbs.
· Postoperative.
And Accommodation in bed
· Position change.
· Palpation of the breasts.
· Elders.
· Lung disease.
Sick of long-term ·
Prone position or ventral

Also called prone. In this position the patient lies on his abdomen and chest, his head... Continue reading "Positions" »

Example of classification of animals: kingdom, family, class, order and scientific names

Classified in Biology

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Animal Kingdom
Phylum Chordata
Vertebrate Subphylum
Mammal Class
Carnivore Order
Family canids
genus and species) Canis familiaris.

Animal Kingdom
Phylum Chordata
Vertebrate Subphylum
Mammal Class
Carnivore Order
Cat Family
Scientific name (genus and species) Felis catus
Kingdom: Animal
Family: Phasianidae
Class: Bird
Genus: Gallus
Order: Galliformes
Species: domesticus

Kingdom Plantae
Traqueofita Division
Angiosperm Class
Subclass Monocotyledoneae
Cereals Order
Family Poaceae (Gramineae)
Scientific name (genus and species) Zea mays


Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Phaseoleae
... Continue reading "Example of classification of animals: kingdom, family, class, order and scientific names" »

Cultivation of bacteria

Classified in Biology

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Culture medium: removed liquid, semisolid, solid, allowing the growth of bacteria and fungi.
Essential conditions of culture medium: nutrient content appropriate absolute sterility, pH 6.8-7.4, to be distributed in suitable containers.
The culture media are used to:
- Studying bacteria.
- Maintain pure cultures.
- Collect bacterial strains.
- Analyze the toxins produced x bacteria.
- For industrial purposes.
Complex growth media: peptone, hydrolysed extracts, Agar-Agar, additives, pH indicator., Redox indicator, selective substances.
Classification of culture media
According to chemical composition
.- Natural media (potato, carrots)
.- Synthetic media (nutrient agar)
According to Fitness
.- Liquid medium (nutrient broth)
.- Semisolid
... Continue reading "Cultivation of bacteria" »

Interaction between ecosystems

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 1.69 KB.

Ecology is the science which endeavours to explain these interactions in nature. CONTROL MECHANISMS IN ECOSYSTEMS To keep itself alive any ecosystem or organism is obliged to ensure its success in the constant fight against the universal tendency towards disorder which would bring about its destruction. Intra-specific groupings many animal and vegetable species keep their organisms close either because they come from the same progenitors or because they join together as a result of their activities. Inter-specific groupings everything is very intricate in nature not only do organisms the same species group together they also establish relationship with other different species. Nature is changing and dynamic the way in which human beings perceive... Continue reading "Interaction between ecosystems" »

Formation of urine

Classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 18.67 KB.

pituitary: is the main endocrine gland and is involved in regulating the balance hydrosaline among other functions. Hypothalamus: is a structure of the nervous system that controls the functioning of the pituitary. Formation of hypertonic and hypotonic urine: Glomerular filtration changes in its composition as it progresses through the various passages that form the renal tubule in them are removed from the blood of harmful substances, but reabsorvibles into the peritubular capillaries, varying amounts of water and solutes, which contributes to the formation of urine more dilute (hypotonic) or more concentrated (hypertonic). hypotonic urine formation: the formation of dilute urine is produced by an increased reabsorption of solutes, ade +

... Continue reading "Formation of urine" »

Systems pf the bosy

Posted by Soto88 and classified in Biology

Written at on English with a size of 3.48 KB.


Right atrium:

Deoxygenated blood inters the right atrium through the inferior and superior vena cavas. The right side of the heart then pumps this deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary veins around the lungs. There, fresh oxygen enters the blood stream, and the blood moves to the left side of the heart, where it is then pumped to the rest of the body

Right ventricle:

As deoxygenated blood flows into the right atrium, it passes through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle, which pumps the blood up through the pulmonary valve and through the pulmonary artery and to the lungs.

Tricuspid valve:Impids blood to go backawards, separates the right atrium and the right ventricle.

1 b.Heart attack:

2.aDifferences between excretion... Continue reading "Systems pf the bosy" »


Classified in Biology

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  • Centre Of Resistance: It is the point on the tooth when a single force is passed through it, would bring about its translation along the line of action of the force

Factors affecting Centre of Resistance:

    1. Number of roots
    2. Degree of Alveolar Bone loss
    3. Degree of Root Resorptio

ANCHORAGE:    It is the Resistance to Unwanted Tooth Movement

Absolute Anchorage: Appliances gaining anchorage from extraoral  structures

Ex:Titanium screws implanted into the alveolar bone through the gingiva

  • Intraoral Anchorage: Anchorage value of a tooth is proportional to the surface area of the root
  • Different Types of OTM: CONTROLLED TIPPING  -----UNCONTROLLED TIPPING----BODILY MOVEMENT---rotation ---root up righting ---- intrusion --- extrusion
  • Forces Delivered by Appliances:
... Continue reading "Orthodontics" »


Classified in Biology

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Application of MTA: Pulp capping

Furcation repair

Strip perforation repair

Root resorption repair

Immature teeth

Root end filling material

Main elements of pulp regeneration:

 Elements for pulpal regenerations: -therapy for exposed dental pulps by using stem and biofuctional  scaffold in which infection is inhibited or eliminated and pulp generation is facilitated

Advantages of using niti recporication: Mimics manual movement

Reduces various risks associated with continuously rotating a file through canal curvatures

Types of posts: Carbon fibre epoxy resin posts

2) Zirconia posts

3) Glass fibre reinforced posts

4) Ultra high strength polyethylene fibre reinforced posts

Advantages and disadvantages of niti rotarty:


Gradually evenly tapered radicular... Continue reading "Operative" »