Carrier mediated active transport
Carrier mediated active transport requires both energy (ATP) and the assistance of a transport protein, called pump.
Each pump only transports particular substances, so cells Can control what is absorbed and what is expelled. Pumps work in a specific Direction –the substance can only enter the
pump on one side and can only exit on the other side. Energy Is used to “pump” molecules across cell membranes against their concentration Gradients.
Vesicular active transport
Vesicular active transport is an energy-requiring Mechanism whereby... Continue reading "First cells and how they obtained energy" »
-Second, living organisms are made up of similar substances: inorganic (water and minerals) and organic (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids). The biomolecules carry out many functions in the organism: to store energy, to form structures, to be part of chemical reactions, and to store the genetic information.
-And third, living things are composed of cells, one or more than one; and there are two types, prokaryotic and eukaryotic.
Levels of organization of living organisms:
subatomic particles - atoms - molecules - biomolecules - organelles - cell - colonies - tissues -organs - systems - organism.
3 cat bacteria- coccus, bacillus and spirillum
3 cat natural selection- directional, disruptive and stabilizing
one advantage of common names and animals- there can be a common name for a certain type of plant or animal or their could be a certain type of plant or animal from a common name
advantage of scientific names of plants and animals- since latin is a dead language, those names will never change.
Carl Linnaeus-Published Species Plantarum in 1753, which is the starting point for naming of plants Published Systema Naturae, 10th edition, in 1758, starting point for naming of animals.
Founder effect- the reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors. It evolves faster.
Linnaeus... Continue reading "Principles of Flight" »
Biotic and Abiotic factors:
Ecosystem: all the living and nonliving parts of an environment.
Biotic factors: the living parts of an ecosystem.
Abiotic factors: the nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
Living things need non-living things to survive. Without food, water, and air, living things die. Sunlight (because provides energy that plants, and certain bacteria absorb to make their own food) shelter, and soil are also important for living things
Trees are biotic elements which need water that is an abiotic element. Without water the tree wouldn’t make oxygen, but without trees the water wouldn’t complete the water cycle.
Changes in abiotic factors can result in extreme problems for some organisms. For example, if a plant is adapted to low temperatures... Continue reading "Trophic breathing" »
Facial characteristics can be organised into three levels of facial features:
Level 1 details consist of gross facial characteristics that are easily observable. These include general geometry of the face and global skin colour. Such features can be used to quickly discriminate between a short round face and a long thin face, between predominantly male or female characteristics, and between faces from different races.Level 2 details consist of localised face information such as the structure of face components (e.G. Eyes), the relationship between facial components and the precise shape of the face. These features are essential for accurate recognition and require a higher resolution face image. The characteristics of local regions of the face... Continue reading "level" »
A biomolecule that catalyzes chemical reactions
The characteristic of an enzyme that it acts on one and only one substance
The characteristic of an enzyme that it acts on several structurally related substances
The characteristic of an enzyme that it is able to distinguish between stereoisomers
The substance that undergoes a chemical change catalyzed by an enzyme
Inborn Error of Metabolism
A disease in which a genetic change causes a deficiency of a particular protein, often an enzyme
A nonprotein molecule or ion required by an enzyme for catalytic activity
An organic molecule required by an enzyme for catalytic activity
1) Tertiary crowding theories - lack of tooth wear, 3rd molar pression, late mandibular growth
Darwin and the theory of natural selection
The principal merit of Darwin's theory, in addition to the many evidence that he provided to it, is the discovery of the mechanism that governs the entire evolutionary process of species: the natural selection.
1) Firstly, when environmental resources become scarce, an inevitable competition occurs and, consequently, begin the struggle for survival in which most individuals die.
2) Secondly, it is also obvious that individuals of the same species have different features or characteristics that appear randomly and make individuals different each other.
3) Third, these characteristics make some individuals more advantaged than others. Those whose characteristics are favourable to the demands of the environment... Continue reading "Fixism theory" »
Have regular shape
Have cell wall, chloroplasts (most of the cells, but not all), a big vacuole
A. Cell Wall:
Made of cellulose
Only in plant cells
Helps to support and protect the cell
Fully permeable (even very large molecules are able to go through the cellulose cell wall)
It is a space in a cell surrounded by a membrane and contain a solution of sugars and other substances called “cell sap”
Full vacuoles press outwards on the rest of the cell and help to keep it in shape
(animal cells contain much smaller vacuoles)
Never found in animal cells
Present in Most of the plant cells