Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Economy

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In this text I’m going To talk about the platform capitalism by Nick Srincek. Platform capitalism is The new global business model in an age of social media platforms, big data Analytics and tech-centered venture capital investment. The big platform Operators, Google, Amazon, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple are all now competing For school business, while education technology investment has boomed in recent Years, thanks to funding for startup companies.

The idea of the “platform” in platform capitalism is not terribly easy to define. In broad Terms, a platform refers to internet-based applications such as social media Sites that process information and communication, channel social traffic, and Enable the creation and sharing of user-generated

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Financial management

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1. FINANCIAL LEVERAGE: effect on risk and return:
The capital structure that produces the highest firm value is the one that maximizes shareholder wealth.E.G: Trans Am Corporation currently has no debt in its capital structure. The firm is considering issuing debt to buy back some of its equity. 

Assets equal equity for this all-equity firm, so return on assets (ROA) is equal to return on equity (ROE). ROA=EBIT/ASSETS.        


Earnings per share (EPS) depends on the earnings of each scenario as EPS=Earnings/#shares outstanding

Probability of solvency: ​Based on the estimate distribution of EBIT, you may estimate the probability of solvency for a given amount of debt defined as:

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Classified in Economy

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DISTRIBUTION:it makes the product stay in the right place and time To be bought by consumers including a process formed by the storage,physical distribution,billing and charging.Distribution channel:it’s a way to move goods From producer to consumer.There are 2 types of channel:Own/direct channel:is When the producer is the owner and is the one that sells.External/alien Channel:is  when the producer is not the One who sells and the intermediaries are the wholesalers or retailers.The Strategies of distribution are:exclusive d.:the sale is made through one intermediary in a  concrete Area.Selective d.:there is a limited number of intermediaries and its more Expensive.Intensive d.:the sale is made in different areas.Other D.:internet,home
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When a competitive market becomes controlled by a monopoly, the price ________ and the output ________.

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Marketing Management

1.Marketing Concept – is the philosophy that firms should analyze the needs f their Customers and then make decisions to satisfy those needs.

Market Orientation à Customer needs.

2.Porter’s 5 forces – theory based on the concept that there are five forces that Determine the competitive intensity and attractiveness of a market. P5F help to Identify where power lies in a business situation.

Competition (Supplier Power, Threat of new entry, Buyer power, Threat of substitute Product)

Examples: 1) Supplier power, such as "switching" costs, availability of alternative suppliers, degree of Labor solidarity, and the sensitivity of selling price to supply costs. 

2) Threat of new entry, such as Barriers to entry (i.E. patents,... Continue reading "When a competitive market becomes controlled by a monopoly, the price ________ and the output ________." »


Classified in Economy

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PROMOTION:it increases sales by making public the product in the Market and improves the image of the company.This is achieved by applying::Advertising:it Transmits a message through radio,TV,etc paid y a company.Its objectives are to Inform about the product and to capture the attention of the consumers to make Them buy the companies product.Sales/promotions/direct marketing:activities That increase the sales in a short period of time.Public relations:activities That create an image that has been pre-planned and belongs to the marketing Department and its overall performance.Merchandising:is the way to sell the product At the selling point where the consumer buys through posters for eg.Solidary Marketing:solidary actions that makes the company.
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Tax law is a branch of public law

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1- Intermediaries: buy products from manufacturers and resell them to the consumers.

Revenue- money a business makes from selling its goods. 
Profit- a financial gain, especially the difference between the amount earned and the amount spent in buying, operating, or producing something.
Top line- (Sales Revenue) prices go up     bottom line- Expenses and Profit 
Stakeholders- Groups of people who are different by the policies and decisions made by an organization.      Micro-decisions made by individuals and businesses.     Macro- national economy and global economy
GDP-Total dollar value of all good and services produced by all people
CPI-measures the changes in prices of a fixed basket of good purchased by a consumer.        Fiscal
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F&M Quiz 3

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Third Quiz

            The two firms -- Choco-Veg (CV) and Green Gold (GG) -- that currently produce chocolate-covered vegetables are each considering expanding their respective production capacities.  Each must decide whether (or not) to make a costly investment in new facilities.  The future annual profitability (in $ millions) of each company will depend on its own and the other’s actions, in the way that is depicted below (these figures are known by both, since they have been reported in The Chocoholic Weekly Review).  The CEO of each firm cares only about maximizing her own company’s profits.  Both have received MBAs from a highly ranked business school that is located in New York City.

1.  Suppose that the two firms... Continue reading "F&M Quiz 3" »


Classified in Economy

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PRODUCT:its an important element because is the object through which the company influences the market and is what the consumers want to buy. To satisfy their needs.The product includes:quality,design,packaging,brand,target audience.The companies try to create monopolies with their products in order to differenciate them from the other competitors.To comply with this objective the company uses a brand:name used to identify the product which includes the name and the logo.Every company applies different strategies to increase,eg:single/umbrella brand,multiple brands,second marks.Positioning strategies related to product that is based on the product attribute,eg:innovation;the benefict ffered and the comparation with competitors.Positioning strategies
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Classified in Economy

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Interbrand is The largest branding agency world-wide, with 33 offices in 27 countries.

> A division of The Omnicom Group, Interbrand specializes in brand strategy, brand analytics, Brand valuation, strategic design applied to different sectors, digital brand Management and naming.

> It was founded In 1974 by John Murphy as a naming consultancy Novamark in UK and expanded Rapidly into large cities in the US, Europe and Asia.

> In 1993 the Agency was acquired by Omnicom and grew rapidly by acquiring independent Branding agencies in different countries.

> Best global Brands index released annually by Interbrand is one of the most relevant Sources on brand health and economic value.

> Brandchannel.Com is one of the most popular blogs

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Initial inventory of finished product

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Direct. Material Inventory 
 UnitsPrice per unittotal
Initial inventories2,000.004.008,000.00
Net Purchases80,000.003.67293,900.00
Direct. Material used75,000.003.6817276,128.05
Final Inventories7,000.003.6825,771.95
Net Purchases
 UnitsPrice per unittotal
Discounts on Purchases  -6,100.00
Net Purchases80,000.003.6738293,900.00

Cost of good manufacured
 DM  276,128  
 Other Direct material  10,000  
 Direct Labor  135,000  
 MOHC  192,500  
 Cost of good manuf. Incurred  613,628  
 WIP initial  20,000  
 WIP end -30,000  
 Cost of G. Manufacutured  603,628  
 Units  300,000  
 Cost per unit  2.01  

 UnitsPrice per unittotal
Initial Inventory50,
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