Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Economy

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In this text I’m going To talk about the platform capitalism by Nick Srincek. Platform capitalism is The new global business model in an age of social media platforms, big data Analytics and tech-centered venture capital investment. The big platform Operators, Google, Amazon, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple are all now competing For school business, while education technology investment has boomed in recent Years, thanks to funding for startup companies.

The idea of the “platform” in platform capitalism is not terribly easy to define. In broad Terms, a platform refers to internet-based applications such as social media Sites that process information and communication, channel social traffic, and Enable the creation and sharing of user-generated

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Financial management

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1. FINANCIAL LEVERAGE: effect on risk and return:
The capital structure that produces the highest firm value is the one that maximizes shareholder wealth.E.G: Trans Am Corporation currently has no debt in its capital structure. The firm is considering issuing debt to buy back some of its equity. 

Assets equal equity for this all-equity firm, so return on assets (ROA) is equal to return on equity (ROE). ROA=EBIT/ASSETS.        


Earnings per share (EPS) depends on the earnings of each scenario as EPS=Earnings/#shares outstanding

Probability of solvency: ​Based on the estimate distribution of EBIT, you may estimate the probability of solvency for a given amount of debt defined as:

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Classified in Economy

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DISTRIBUTION:it makes the product stay in the right place and time To be bought by consumers including a process formed by the storage,physical distribution,billing and charging.Distribution channel:it’s a way to move goods From producer to consumer.There are 2 types of channel:Own/direct channel:is When the producer is the owner and is the one that sells.External/alien Channel:is  when the producer is not the One who sells and the intermediaries are the wholesalers or retailers.The Strategies of distribution are:exclusive d.:the sale is made through one intermediary in a  concrete Area.Selective d.:there is a limited number of intermediaries and its more Expensive.Intensive d.:the sale is made in different areas.Other D.:internet,home
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PROMOTION:it increases sales by making public the product in the Market and improves the image of the company.This is achieved by applying::Advertising:it Transmits a message through radio,TV,etc paid y a company.Its objectives are to Inform about the product and to capture the attention of the consumers to make Them buy the companies product.Sales/promotions/direct marketing:activities That increase the sales in a short period of time.Public relations:activities That create an image that has been pre-planned and belongs to the marketing Department and its overall performance.Merchandising:is the way to sell the product At the selling point where the consumer buys through posters for eg.Solidary Marketing:solidary actions that makes the company.
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Tax law is a branch of public law

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1- Intermediaries: buy products from manufacturers and resell them to the consumers.

Revenue- money a business makes from selling its goods. 
Profit- a financial gain, especially the difference between the amount earned and the amount spent in buying, operating, or producing something.
Top line- (Sales Revenue) prices go up     bottom line- Expenses and Profit 
Stakeholders- Groups of people who are different by the policies and decisions made by an organization.      Micro-decisions made by individuals and businesses.     Macro- national economy and global economy
GDP-Total dollar value of all good and services produced by all people
CPI-measures the changes in prices of a fixed basket of good purchased by a consumer.        Fiscal
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F&M Quiz 3

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Third Quiz

            The two firms -- Choco-Veg (CV) and Green Gold (GG) -- that currently produce chocolate-covered vegetables are each considering expanding their respective production capacities.  Each must decide whether (or not) to make a costly investment in new facilities.  The future annual profitability (in $ millions) of each company will depend on its own and the other’s actions, in the way that is depicted below (these figures are known by both, since they have been reported in The Chocoholic Weekly Review).  The CEO of each firm cares only about maximizing her own company’s profits.  Both have received MBAs from a highly ranked business school that is located in New York City.

1.  Suppose that the two firms... Continue reading "F&M Quiz 3" »


Classified in Economy

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PRODUCT:its an important element because is the object through which the company influences the market and is what the consumers want to buy. To satisfy their needs.The product includes:quality,design,packaging,brand,target audience.The companies try to create monopolies with their products in order to differenciate them from the other competitors.To comply with this objective the company uses a brand:name used to identify the product which includes the name and the logo.Every company applies different strategies to increase,eg:single/umbrella brand,multiple brands,second marks.Positioning strategies related to product that is based on the product attribute,eg:innovation;the benefict ffered and the comparation with competitors.Positioning strategies
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Initial inventory of finished product

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Direct. Material Inventory 
 UnitsPrice per unittotal
Initial inventories2,000.004.008,000.00
Net Purchases80,000.003.67293,900.00
Direct. Material used75,000.003.6817276,128.05
Final Inventories7,000.003.6825,771.95
Net Purchases
 UnitsPrice per unittotal
Discounts on Purchases  -6,100.00
Net Purchases80,000.003.6738293,900.00

Cost of good manufacured
 DM  276,128  
 Other Direct material  10,000  
 Direct Labor  135,000  
 MOHC  192,500  
 Cost of good manuf. Incurred  613,628  
 WIP initial  20,000  
 WIP end -30,000  
 Cost of G. Manufacutured  603,628  
 Units  300,000  
 Cost per unit  2.01  

 UnitsPrice per unittotal
Initial Inventory50,
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Classified in Economy

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1_ What happened to "How to win friends and influence people" when it was published?

It was an overnight sensation, rapidly becoming a bestseller, fifteen million copies have been sold since its first publication.
2_ What happens if you pretend to be sincere?
If you only give the impression of being sincere, other people won't believe you and will think you are false.
3_ What is more important than knowledge?
If the most important is that you understand that the communication skills. There are a three most important pieces of advice: make people feel important, you did not should criticize other people and ask yourself why the other person would want to do what you are asking, and then use the answer to motive them.
4_ What do most self-help books
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Classified in Economy

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2. The market risk premium, R− R.

Method 1: using historical data.
Method 2: using the Dividend Discount Model (DDM). Market data and analyst forecasts can be used to implement the DDM approach on a market-wide basis.

3. The company beta,

Problems of beta:

1)  Betas may vary over time
2)  The sample size may be inadequate
3)  Betas are influenced by changing financial leverage and business risk


i)  Problems 1 and 2 can be moderated by more sophisticated statistical techniques
ii)  Problem 3 can be lessened by adjusting for changes in business and financial risk
iii)  Look at average beta estimates of several comparable firms in the industry

Stability of beta
Most analysts argue that betas are generally stable for firms remaining

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