Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Economy

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Classified in Economy

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DISTRIBUTION:it makes the product stay in the right place and time To be bought by consumers including a process formed by the storage,physical distribution,billing and charging.Distribution channel:it’s a way to move goods From producer to consumer.There are 2 types of channel:Own/direct channel:is When the producer is the owner and is the one that sells.External/alien Channel:is  when the producer is not the One who sells and the intermediaries are the wholesalers or retailers.The Strategies of distribution are:exclusive d.:the sale is made through one intermediary in a  concrete Area.Selective d.:there is a limited number of intermediaries and its more Expensive.Intensive d.:the sale is made in different areas.Other D.:internet,home
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Classified in Economy

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PROMOTION:it increases sales by making public the product in the Market and improves the image of the company.This is achieved by applying::Advertising:it Transmits a message through radio,TV,etc paid y a company.Its objectives are to Inform about the product and to capture the attention of the consumers to make Them buy the companies product.Sales/promotions/direct marketing:activities That increase the sales in a short period of time.Public relations:activities That create an image that has been pre-planned and belongs to the marketing Department and its overall performance.Merchandising:is the way to sell the product At the selling point where the consumer buys through posters for eg.Solidary Marketing:solidary actions that makes the company.
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Tax law is a branch of public law

Classified in Economy

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1- Intermediaries: buy products from manufacturers and resell them to the consumers.

Revenue- money a business makes from selling its goods. 
Profit- a financial gain, especially the difference between the amount earned and the amount spent in buying, operating, or producing something.
Top line- (Sales Revenue) prices go up     bottom line- Expenses and Profit 
Stakeholders- Groups of people who are different by the policies and decisions made by an organization.      Micro-decisions made by individuals and businesses.     Macro- national economy and global economy
GDP-Total dollar value of all good and services produced by all people
CPI-measures the changes in prices of a fixed basket of good purchased by a consumer.        Fiscal
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F&M Quiz 3

Classified in Economy

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Third Quiz

            The two firms -- Choco-Veg (CV) and Green Gold (GG) -- that currently produce chocolate-covered vegetables are each considering expanding their respective production capacities.  Each must decide whether (or not) to make a costly investment in new facilities.  The future annual profitability (in $ millions) of each company will depend on its own and the other’s actions, in the way that is depicted below (these figures are known by both, since they have been reported in The Chocoholic Weekly Review).  The CEO of each firm cares only about maximizing her own company’s profits.  Both have received MBAs from a highly ranked business school that is located in New York City.

1.  Suppose that the two firms... Continue reading "F&M Quiz 3" »


Classified in Economy

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PRODUCT:its an important element because is the object through which the company influences the market and is what the consumers want to buy. To satisfy their needs.The product includes:quality,design,packaging,brand,target audience.The companies try to create monopolies with their products in order to differenciate them from the other competitors.To comply with this objective the company uses a brand:name used to identify the product which includes the name and the logo.Every company applies different strategies to increase,eg:single/umbrella brand,multiple brands,second marks.Positioning strategies related to product that is based on the product attribute,eg:innovation;the benefict ffered and the comparation with competitors.Positioning strategies
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What is cascade model in software testing

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Starting point: definition of all requirements, general, preliminary project | Choice of some Subset of system’s functions | Detail project and implementation of the System’s part realizing chosen functions. | Testing of the done part of the System and delivery to the client. | Repetition of the process.

-Planning (Objective setting) | Specific objectives for that phase of the Project are defined | Constraints on the Process and the product are identified|Detailed management plan Is drawn up|Project risks are Identified | Alternative strategies may be planned

-Risk Analysis (assessment and reduction) | For each of identified Risks a detailed analysis is carried out | Reduction of risk | Phase can Include prototype building

- Construction

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Initial inventory of finished product

Classified in Economy

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Direct. Material Inventory 
 UnitsPrice per unittotal
Initial inventories2,000.004.008,000.00
Net Purchases80,000.003.67293,900.00
Direct. Material used75,000.003.6817276,128.05
Final Inventories7,000.003.6825,771.95
Net Purchases
 UnitsPrice per unittotal
Discounts on Purchases  -6,100.00
Net Purchases80,000.003.6738293,900.00

Cost of good manufacured
 DM  276,128  
 Other Direct material  10,000  
 Direct Labor  135,000  
 MOHC  192,500  
 Cost of good manuf. Incurred  613,628  
 WIP initial  20,000  
 WIP end -30,000  
 Cost of G. Manufacutured  603,628  
 Units  300,000  
 Cost per unit  2.01  

 UnitsPrice per unittotal
Initial Inventory50,
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Classified in Economy

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1_ What happened to "How to win friends and influence people" when it was published?

It was an overnight sensation, rapidly becoming a bestseller, fifteen million copies have been sold since its first publication.
2_ What happens if you pretend to be sincere?
If you only give the impression of being sincere, other people won't believe you and will think you are false.
3_ What is more important than knowledge?
If the most important is that you understand that the communication skills. There are a three most important pieces of advice: make people feel important, you did not should criticize other people and ask yourself why the other person would want to do what you are asking, and then use the answer to motive them.
4_ What do most self-help books
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Service Process Mid term

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Services

3.1. Service Terminology Service

a service is a software program that makes its functionality available via a technical interface, called a service contract.

Figure 3.1. The symbol used to represent an abstract service.

Service Contract

The symbol used to represent a service contract is displayed in Figure 3.2.

Service Capability

A service contract can be broken down into a set of service capabilities, each of which expresses a function offered by the service to other software programs.

Figure 3.4. A Purchase Order service contract with four service capabilities.

Service Consumer

A service consumer is software program when it accesses and invokes a service—or, when it sends a message to a service capability


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Finance and investment

Classified in Economy

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Bonds and shares:


coupon rate = % of Face Value paid out annually

coupon = interest paid

Par / face Value = the amount to be repaid at maturity

Yeild = Interest Amount (j) = Interest Rate(ir) =  (nominal interest rate)

Bond Value = (PV of coupon payments) + (PV of face value)

Expected Yeild to Maturity = YTMNo Default x (1 - prob. Default) + YTM Default x  prob. Default

Fischer effect:

nominal interest rate = real interest rate with the effect of inflation

rNominal = rreal + rinflation + (rreal x rinflation) ** use decimals


Constant growth model:

Ordinary Shares:

VE = P0= D1/(Re - g). Where the div. For a future year is given

VE =  D0 (1+g) / (Re - g). Where the dividend for a prev. Yr is given

Preference Shares:

Vp= Dp / R** preference

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