Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geography

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Primary sector activities

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Primary sector activities, is the direct taking of property of nature, so are also called extractive activities. Eg hunting, fishing, mining, agriculture

Industry: traditional food, textile, beverage, taco, footwear, wood

Intermediate industries: paper, chemical, petroleum, rubber, plastic

Mechanical industry: machinery, electronics, transportation, metals

Waste Industries: graphic art, publishing

Construction industry: building, housing, road infrastructure

Agricultural space: space characterized by the existence of a diffuse economy in which we can observe a close relationship between the density of human occupation and the way agriculture (plant and animal) and soil

Physical factors limiting the Venezuelan space

Hygrometer (humidity): refer

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Morphoclimatic systems

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6.Landforms geographical features which can be observed on the Earths surfac.Landforms are dynamic,caused by the opposition action of-internal process:these tend to built&lift them.-External process:led to shape them.They are differ.Types that are characteristic of each morphoclimatic zone:glacial,periglacial,desert,semi-desert&fluvial .6.1Glacial landforms:the climate causes snow to accumulate year after year.This is transformed into ice,which prevets vegetat. From growing. 6.2Periglacial landforms:allows the growth of sparse vegetat.Such as lichens. 6.3Deset landf:characterized by infrequent precipitation&intense evaporation.The conseq is little vegetat.&hardly any water in the ground during most of the year. 6.4Semi-desert
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Mesetiformes plateau

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-neighbors: Lebanon,syria,jordan,Golan Heights,West Bank;Gaza Strip are in Southwest Asia

-west Bank and gaza strip:the palestinian territory.They lie near coast of Mediterraniann where Asia and Africa meet .This region is a continental crossroad that also borders turkey where Asia and Europe.
-Four geographic zones makeup this region.West edge a narrow coastal plain grows along the Mediterranian city.East this plain is chain of hills and mountains.Further east is the The great African rift Valleys a chain of valleys that runs from Africa throught the Red Sea into Israel and its neighbors.Above this valleys to the east is a vast desert plateau.THe Syrian Desert.Following one of the Rift Valleys is the Jordan River,its waters flows from Syria
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sslic

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governament: Napoleon wanted national  unification,controlled by a strong governament. He created a army of oficialconsiting of administrators, functionaries and bureaucrats and placed them in every town and city. The entire nation(and the nations he conquered) was unified together under rationaladministration.
Religion: Napoleon guaranted religious freedom wich was one of the articles of the Declarador, Jews,Protestants and Catholics could all co-exist in the new France. But the church was brougth under State control and the clergy were controled and paid by state.The church could no longer collect the time
Law: 18 century France had too many laws, and the were often contradictory. The Code Napoleon changed that. Needed laws wich guaranteed
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Transport and travel

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Transport is the movement of people and/or goods from one point to another using aparticular vehicle or mode of transport and a transport network.Land transport can be of two kinds:Rail transport uses trains and it is used by 16.8% of the population of the European Union. It is mainly used for transport over medium and longdistances.Road transport, on the other hand, uses automobiles, such as cars and buses.83.2% of the population of the EU uses this type of transport, mainly over short and medium distances.Modern transport joins regions that were once considered remote, using railways such As the Trans-Siberian railway (9289 km) and the tren de las nubes (217 km). Mountain Ranges and straits are defeated by rail tunnels such as the Seikan
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The tertiary sector

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2.2 FISHINGIN EUROPE: gemeral char. Has a modern and technologically advanced fleet. main fish. Coun. Norway denmark russia and spain. Problems: excessyve capacity of the fleet and the danger of exhausting supplies. The common fishery policies: same as the cap but witth fish. U7. 1.TERTIARY SECTOR SPACE: 1.1 Tertiary sector activities: activities involved in delivering services. 1.2 Service classi. According to who delivers them: public, private. According to their function: transport,leisure,tourism. According to their degre: low-skilled, skilled, high skilled. 1.3Services in the world today. Develope countires: 60% to employment figures of GDP, increase in living standards. Underdeveloped countries: less gdp because of low skilled. 2TRANSPORT
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Bojader expedition

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-why in the 15 century were developed new routes and why were developed?

Because the  europeans trade with the east passing from the west of constantinople. (silk road) but turks in 15 century conquered constantinople and closed this path. So europeand had to find new routes so in 15 century a series od maritime expeditions opened new routes and extends the then know world were developed

Vasco de Gama: was an portuguese explower that reached indian shores opening the later way of spice islands in the end of 15c.

capitulations of santa fe : it was a document signed by catholic monarch and columbus in 1492. It contained the agreements that columbus will wet if he arrives to india.( he will be an admiral , viceray of the new territories and will... Continue reading "Bojader expedition" »

lryg

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• The economic transition to the capitalist system Initially brought: A fall in production A rise in inflation and unemployment A Drop in the standard of living Greater social inequality. • The situation has Improved since the beginning of the 21st, due to the export of oil and Gas.• This has helped Russia to: ¡ recover part of its international influence ¡ Have closer relations with China, India, the EU and Iran.
5.2. POST- ORDER COMMUNIST COUNTRIES 
• The states that seceded from the USSR are in different situations, according to: ¡ Geographic al factors ¡ Cultural factors ¡ Their history with Russia. Ukraine And Belarus Political tensions between the Russophiles and the prowestern Groups. Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan
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Siglas countries

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7. THE MUSLIM WORLD
7.1. RECENT ARMED CONFLICTS  The Gulf War (1990-1991)
• The Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. An international coalition led By the USA under UN mandate liberated Kuwait It imposed an embargo on Iraqi oil.  • ¡ The Invasion of Afghanistan (2001) Consequence of the attack on New York And Washington on 11 September 2001 organized by Al-Qaeda It was based in Afghanistan and supported by the Taliban government. A coalition of troops from The US and allied countries overthrew the Taliban regime A provisional Government was established in its place.   • The Invasion of Iraq (2003) There Was a fear that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction (threat to world peace) The USA, the UK and other allied countries,
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Tourism factors

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4.3The current problems facing indust. Sect: Rising unemployement, small or medium sized companies and insufficient invetment in r&d. Solutions: generation of an entrepenurial spirit among the popu, businnes associations, improvement of professional training and protection. 5The 3 sector. Transport and commerce. 5.1Commerce -Predominant domestic ommerce, small establishments. - It suffers from growing compet. From large scale, revitalise this type of commerce, innovate measures, trade associations. -Foreign commerces increases all over the world. -They regard to exports, food products. Imports energy production. 5.2Transport: -Land: road and rail. -Sea: transport heavy merchandise and passengers. -Air transport. 6.The 3 sector. Tourism
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