Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geography

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Primary sector activities

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Primary sector activities, is the direct taking of property of nature, so are also called extractive activities. Eg hunting, fishing, mining, agriculture

Industry: traditional food, textile, beverage, taco, footwear, wood

Intermediate industries: paper, chemical, petroleum, rubber, plastic

Mechanical industry: machinery, electronics, transportation, metals

Waste Industries: graphic art, publishing

Construction industry: building, housing, road infrastructure

Agricultural space: space characterized by the existence of a diffuse economy in which we can observe a close relationship between the density of human occupation and the way agriculture (plant and animal) and soil

Physical factors limiting the Venezuelan space

Hygrometer (humidity): refer

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Law 19983 on

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MARXISM: a revolution to destroy capitalism and give power to the workers to estabilish a proletarian dictatorship with the goal of becoming a comunist society.

ANARCHISM: this ideology have the same goals of marxism but in a more radical way. It oppossed any form of authority including the state which should be replaced by voluntary associations of people.

UPPER: arisocracy and high bourgeoisie. This group lost predominance and the bourgeoisie became the most powerful group in society.

MIDDLE: low bourgeoisie, doctors, teachers. They were a diverse class.                                                                                                          ... Continue reading "Law 19983 on" »

sslic

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governament: Napoleon wanted national  unification,controlled by a strong governament. He created a army of oficialconsiting of administrators, functionaries and bureaucrats and placed them in every town and city. The entire nation(and the nations he conquered) was unified together under rationaladministration.
Religion: Napoleon guaranted religious freedom wich was one of the articles of the Declarador, Jews,Protestants and Catholics could all co-exist in the new France. But the church was brougth under State control and the clergy were controled and paid by state.The church could no longer collect the time
Law: 18 century France had too many laws, and the were often contradictory. The Code Napoleon changed that. Needed laws wich guaranteed
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TRANSPORT

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Transport is the movement of people and/or goods from one point to another using aparticular vehicle or mode of transport and a transport network.Land transport can be of two kinds:Rail transport uses trains and it is used by 16.8% of the population of the European Union. It is mainly used for transport over medium and longdistances.Road transport, on the other hand, uses automobiles, such as cars and buses.83.2% of the population of the EU uses this type of transport, mainly over short and medium distances.Modern transport joins regions that were once considered remote, using railways such As the Trans-Siberian railway (9289 km) and the tren de las nubes (217 km). Mountain Ranges and straits are defeated by rail tunnels such as the Seikan
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The main stages of cold war.

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THE DECLINE OF THE SPANISH EMPIRE:S.XVII
MAIN REASONS:
1.SPANISH MONARCHY COULDN’T MAINTAIN ITS DOMINANCE OVER OTHER POWERS LIKE: FRANCE HOLLAND AND ENGLAND.
2. MILITARY DEFEATS-LOSS OF TERRITORIES IN EUROPE.
3.KINGS WHO NEGLECTED GOVERNMENT
-PHILIP III(1598-1621) EXPULSIÓN OF MORISCOS,COURT’S TEMPORARY TRANSFER TO VALLADOLID AND VALIDO:DUKE OF LERMA
-PHILIP IV(1621-1665) CARRIED OUT REFORMS TO MAKE ROYAL , STRONGER WITHOUT SUCCESS AUTHORITIAN
VALIDO:COUNT-DUKE OF OLIVARES.
4.BANKRUPTCY.
-PRECIOUS METALS FOR AMERICA USED TO: FINANCE WAR IN EUROPE AND IMPORT PRODUCTS FROM ABROAD.
-MONARCHY:BORROWED MONEY FROM FOREIGN BANKERS,RAISED TAXES
-HIGH INFLATION
5.UNPRODUCTIVE SOCIETY
-PRIVILEGED OWNED THE LAND AND HAD LANDOWNER MENTALITY.->NOT ENTREPRENEURIAL
-
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Agriculture in Cantabria

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plantation agriculture: plots are tipically large, open states crossed by interior roads. Settlements alternates between concentrated and dispersed 

 CF companies, usually foreign, imose one type of monoculture, with crops intended for export(coffe bannanas cocoa pineapples etc) LF not very important       Extensive agriculture: plots are primarily large geometric estates forming uniform agrarian landscapes with open fields, settlement is mainly dispersed,CF  crops-cereals, industrial crops and fruit-are cultivared using dry and irrigaton farming, LF extensive ocuppies vast areas of pasteureland and livestock farms are common       Mechanised mediterranean agriculture: large estates exist alongside small, irregular plots, the land
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soci

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4.3The current problems facing indust. Sect: Rising unemployement, small or medium sized companies and insufficient invetment in r&d. Solutions: generation of an entrepenurial spirit among the popu, businnes associations, improvement of professional training and protection. 5The 3 sector. Transport and commerce. 5.1Commerce -Predominant domestic ommerce, small establishments. - It suffers from growing compet. From large scale, revitalise this type of commerce, innovate measures, trade associations. -Foreign commerces increases all over the world. -They regard to exports, food products. Imports energy production. 5.2Transport: -Land: road and rail. -Sea: transport heavy merchandise and passengers. -Air transport. 6.The 3 sector. Tourism
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Agriculture, farming, livestock, cattle, poultry, grazing. Pigry, animals, chicken farm

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Wheat: It is the most widely cultivated cereal in the world and characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. 
Rice: It is the second most consumed cereal and the first in Asia.

Corn: 116307 hectares, aragon main producer.
Others: Oats and Barley. The value of production of olive oil in Spain represents 4.6% of the production of the agricultural industry. Spain is at the top of the world Production and it constitutes a 75% of the production in the EU and 45% of the global Production. The surface dedicated for this in Spain is over 2 million hectares. In the last ten years the Production has increased a 23%. Spain has almost 1.2 million hectares of vineyards, which makes it the country with the most Extension of vines in the World.Spanish wine
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Definition of globalisation

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 The bringing together of economies and societies around the world, shows how people and countries around the world interact and interconnect, by trading and cultural exchange.

Improvements in transportation - larger cargo ships mean that the cost of transporting goods between countries has decreased (cheap transport)- in china 1% for transport.

Freedom of trade - organisations like the World Trade Organisation (WTO) promote free trade between countries.

Improvements of communications - the internet and mobile technology has allowed greater communication between people in different countries. Many adverts which encourage people to buy more things.

Cheap labour- It´s production lines are in developing countries where labour is cheap and... Continue reading "Definition of globalisation" »

Delay in recognizing "air pollution as a health risk

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Analyze the land and water management issues impacting The Parramatta River Catchment.


The Parramatta River catchment is one of the most highly urbanized catchments in Australia. But there are many different issues that impact the health of the catchment. These issues are from land to water that both affects Parramatta River, due to The consequences of human activity such as development industry, land and water pollution, storm water runoff, flooding, boating and simple things we do every Day such as driving the car or walking the dog. All have an impact on the Health of the waterways.

To Prevent this, there is an Environmental Improvement Program that has four main Streams:  Storm water Management, Floodplain Management, Healthy Waterways,

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