Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

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Atpl system

Classified in Geology

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plate tectonics:
lithosphere- contains the crust and the upper mantle,

asthenosphere- is the next layer within the mantle, 

mesosphere- were material still flows but at a much slower , 

boundaries : divergent - two tectonics moves away from each other   
convergent- two tectonics push together  transform- two plate slide each other    

solar system : formed 4.6 billon years , 

terrestrial planet- mercury, venus,earth,mars 

Gas giant - jupiter, saturn,uranus,neptune, 

planet: celestial body, constellation:help people to recognize stars , stars : made of hydrogen and helium , galaxy: huge collection of gas 

Electromagnetic spectrum: less wevelength more energy , longer wevenlenght less energy ,types : radio, microwaves,infrared,visible light,
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Classified in Geology

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Sandblasting is a practice for excellence in Almeria,
This technique is based on the placement on the ground of an impermeable horizon that can be cane earth thirty 
centimeters thick, over a layer ofmanure two centimeters and finally a layer of sand between ten and twenty 
One of its qualities is that it prevents the rise of the water by capillarity breaking is where the roots of the 
plants are located, allows the use of water which is a great advantage and allows saving water.
The main element of sandblasting is sand.

Human performance

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Gases(Co2 emissions)
Traffic of vehicles and also planes
Heating of buildings

Ozone hole 
Melting poles
Extinction of species
Skin cancer
Acid rain

Solar panels
Wind power

*Rubish thrown to oceans,rivers and lakes, e.G. Detergents and specially plastics which last long time tondescompose
*Accidents of cargo ships and patrollers

Contamination of drinking water and of fishthat lead to human’s contamination as well after eating them, endangered species. 

Deforestation of rainforests
Fossil fuels
Coal mines
Nuclear waste and disasters
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Time of useful consciousness

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3.5 billion years old
 embedded in rocks in western Australia: stromatolites(fosilized bacteria)                
Prokaryotes dominated from 3.5 to 2 billion years ago.
 During this time, the first divergence occurred:Bacteria and archeae
5.  First photosynthetic organisms around 3.5 billion years but Oxygen began accumulating in the atmosphere about 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that are still present today → produced oxygen. Sequestered carbon dioxide in organic molecules.
These bacteria changed the Earths atmosphere.
6.  The oldest eukaryotic fossils are ~2 billion years old.
 Symbiotic community of prokaryotes living within larger prokaryotes.
The first eukaryotic cells-theory of endosymbiotic

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First step in forming sedimentary rock

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KARST LANDFORM- A modelling that takes place in limestone masses due to the action of water with dissolved carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.  The CO2 reacts with the calcium carbontae in the limestone adn transforms it into calcium bicarbonate. This is a type of chemical weathering callled carbonatation. The inflitrationof water slowly alter and soddolves the limestone, making the cracks and fissures in the rock and creating lapies, dolines, poljes, galleries and caverns. In the cavities, the dissolves calcium bicarbonate can be transformed back into insoluble carbonate, creating stlactites and stalagmites. JOINTS-Are short, narrow cracks that appear in a rock mass without the cracked blocks moving at all. EROSION- The progressive wearing
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ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT  the area of productive land and water acosystems required resources that the population consumes

BIOMASS biomass fuels come from things that once lived. Organic matter mainly for plants. Wood is a biomass fuels- renewable

URANIUM  is energy in the nucleus of atom. Its nuclear energy. Fission is the process of splitting the uranium atoms to form smaller atoms. Se almacena en nuclear power. It is dangerous because it is radioactive

CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING  climate change, increase temperature causing glaciers, chages the water cycle, the disappearence of ecosystem, the development of plages 

                                                 water pollution
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Fuel flow

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Raw materials: three types: raw materials of animal and plant origin, raw materials of mineral origin: non-metallic minerals: are those from which other materials are obtained, including sulfur, rock salt, gypsum and mica, rock are also considered non-metallic raw materials, rock are also considered non-metallic raw materials. Mines: mining refers to the process of extracting raw materials origin. Non-renewable energy sources: are natural resources that are processes to produce energy for domestic purposes and the operation of industries and transport. Two groups: depending on their economic importance, they are classified as tradicional or alternative and depending on whether or not the will run out, they can be renewable or non-renewable.

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Aircraft systems

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1. The parameters (power, efficiency, cold gas Efficiency, fuel parameters) advantages and disadvantages of gas-steam systems integrated With coal gasification

Gas-steam Systems integrated with coal gasification power efficiency is to 300MW, its fuel parameters are 55% of coal and 36% of petrochemical residues. And as a Result, it gives us 40% chemicals, 30% Fischer-Tropsch. Liquid products and 18% Electricity. (efficiency).

-Some advantages are:

Is one of cleanest technology based on hardcoal.

It can be used with CO2 (capture and storage).

Possibility to produce order chemicals and liquid fuels.

The high efficiency of 45% and more flexibility fuel.

Wide range of products.

Low volume of pollutants emitted.

A small amount of

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Given zeo fuel mass 4920 trip fuel

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Characteristics of a good source of fuel :-i) It should have A high energy output per unit mass or volume.

ii) It should be easily available.Iii) It should be easy to store and Transport.Iv) It should be economical.

Sources of energy :-

Conventional sources of energy :- are wood, flowing water& fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas).

Non conventional sources of energy :- are solar energy, Wind energy, biomass energy, ocean energy (tidal energy, wave energy, ocean Thermal energy), geothermal energy, nuclear energy etc. Some sources of energy Are renewable like sun, wind, flowing water, ocean, wood, biomass etc. Some Sources of energy are non renewable like coal, petroleum and natural gas.

Fossil fuels :- are fuels formed inside the earth

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A laminar boundary layer is a layer

Classified in Geology

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