Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

Sort by
Subject
Level

Seismic Velocity Rocks

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 9.85 KB.

Seismic Velocity Rocks

The seismic waves produced by the detonation of an explosive charge or any other system is transmitted through the earth in the form of vibrations or waves that travel at different speeds, these speeds are influenced by: the lithology, depth, porosity of the material, compaction, lithification, fluid content, among others. These speeds depend on the elastic modulus and density. These parameters are important for velocity analysis in the interpretation of seismic data. Below is a table speed of propagation of seismic waves, these speeds refer to longitudinal waves.

Material

V = [m / s]

Weathering layer

300-900

Modern alluvium

350-1500

Clays

1000-2000

Marls

18000-3200

Sandstone

1400-4500

Conglomerates

2500-5000

Calizas

... Continue reading "Seismic Velocity Rocks" »

Folds joints and faults

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 4.71 KB.


1. Deformation of rocks
Geothermal energy ¨ Plate tectonics ¨ Stress ¨ Deformation
1.1. Types of stress
„« Stress is a force applied over an area. It can be classified into:
„h Confining stress (stress is equal from all directions)
„h Differential stress (stress is not equal from all directions)
o Compressional stress, produced by opposite, convergent forces
o Tensional stress, produced by opposite, divergent forces
o Shear stress, produced by opposite, parallel forces

„« As the stress is applied on a rock it begins to deform or to strain. A strain
is a change in shape and / or volume of a rock. Three successive stages of
deformation (strain) can be differentiated:
„h Elastic deformation: its reversible. It disappears as the stress disappears.... Continue reading "Folds joints and faults " »

Rocks: properties and types

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 9.89 KB.

Rocks: A rock is a mineral aggregate d Physical and chemical properties, arising naturally and represents a degree of cohesion. Because rocks are formed: igneous rocks (ignis = fire) are formed when molten rock, determined magma cools and solidifies. sedimentary rocks: by consolidation d rock fragments, the precipitation of mineral from a solution or the compaction of plant or animal remains. metamorphic rocks: results from the transposition of other rocks, usually under the surface, the chemical activity d tempresion and fluids. Magma: molten rock is a q is formed at great depth below the sup consisting of several minerals, q are predominantly silicates, oxides, sulfides. Characteristics of magma: Chemistry: the liquid porsion call cast is... Continue reading "Rocks: properties and types" »

What can be done to protect the environment and reduce global warming

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 6.01 KB.

POSIDONIA AND CAULERPA

caulerpa-invasive plant agresive with fauna and flora
posidonia- mediterranean marine plant

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE HUMAN IMPACT
population,technology, energy and consumption

MAIN THREATS TO ENVIRONMENT
serve air pollution, water pollution and exesive use, deforestation, endangered species, erosion and desertification

PREVENT ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
- sustainable development: balance between growth and conservation
     - protecting spaces with great ecological value
     - prevention of damage by evaluating the impact of human activities
     - recovery of degradated spaces
-reduction of consumption
-international environmental polices: signed by all countries

ECOLOGYCAL FOOTPRINT
measure of how much area is needed to suport
... Continue reading "What can be done to protect the environment and reduce global warming" »

Sociales

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 1.05 KB.

the action of water. Water is the main external agent acting on land

water
rain: runs downward and erodes mountains. Rivers create ravines and valleys a the carry away rocks and earth.
the action of wind:winds erode rocks and transport small  particles, such as sand an dust
the acrion of vegetation
vegetation also contribudes to the formation of relieve. The roots of triespenetrate the ground andcan split rocks
atmospheric presure. Is the amount of heat in the air form of solar radiation. Solar radiation reaches the earth as rays of light.

All minerals are crystals, but not all crystals are minerals.

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 1.71 KB.

lehmann discontinuity:the boundary between the liquid outer core and the solid inner core of the Earth.HOTSPOT:volcanic regions thought to be fed by  underlying mantle hot compared with the  surrounding mantle.They may be on, near to, or far from tectonic plates boundaries.Crystalline matter:They consist of atoms arranged in an orderly repeated partner.Crystal:regular polyhedral structure, solid material whose constituents, such as atoms,or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure.Polymorphism is the term used to describe that various Crystal forms a single compound,this occurs when minerals with the same chemical composition hace different crystal structures.Isomorphism is the term used for similar crystal structures
... Continue reading "All minerals are crystals, but not all crystals are minerals." »

What can be done to protect the environment and reduce global warming

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 19.38 KB.

  1. Earth is not quite as spherical as

a.the equatorial radius is a little larger than the polar radius.

2. Cryosphere includes:

oAll forms of frozen water

3. Biosphere includes all of the following except:

oAtmosphere`

4. Perihelion occurs in the Northern hemisphere  (in january)

oWinter

·The seasons are caused by

oThe tilt of the earth's axis

·On December 22nd the noon sun is directly overhead at

o23.5 S

·the midnight sun or 24 hour daylight occurs on june 22nd

onorth of the arctic circle

·the location of the earth's orbit where it is furthest from the sun is called

oaphelion

·In mid june parts of Alaska receive more insolation at the top the the atmosphere than parts of florida this is explained by:

oThe daylight hours are much longer in Alaska

·In northern

... Continue reading "What can be done to protect the environment and reduce global warming" »

geo

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 3.33 KB.

Kashmir earthquake

It's on the border of India and Pakistan it's part of Himalayas. People live by farming on fertile soild and tourism. This area is a collision zone, Indian plate is squashing into Eurasian Plate. The tension got too much, one mass of rock slid upwards and set off the earthquake. 
Building collapse, fall of walls, window to shatter, furnitures fall, roads crack, bridges to tapple. Cause deaths and injuries. Homes were destroyed. 
Fire causes by broken gas pipes. Diseases caused by dead bodies and sewerage piped bursting and bad water supply from the contaminated water supplies. Cuase Respiratory inflections, people died from cold, beacause they only have tent to stay. People lost their jobs and shops were damaged, mostly in
... Continue reading "geo" »

+"external processes"+"geological"

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 1.94 KB.

Evolution of relief

 There have been continuous and enormous changes in the relief, the position of the continents and oceans, and the climate and vegetation.
There are very slow processes called gradual (erosion of a mountain or the movement of continents) and other processes are sudden + violent as (volcanic eruptions or earthquakes)
Solar energy
external agents that shape the relief are driven by solar energy that arrives at the Earth's surface. This energy creates differences in temperature in air masses, causing winds.
Gravity
It contributes to the formation of convection currents in the Earth's interior. On the surface, gravity causes water and ice accumulated on the continents to move towards the sea.

Earthquake prediction is based on measuring
... Continue reading "+"external processes"+"geological"" »

Enviromantal studies chapter 1

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 9.53 KB.

Sustainability: the capacity of the earths natural systems and human cultural
systems to survive, flourish, and adapt into the very long-term future

Environmental science: interdisciplinary science connecting information and ideas from

**Natural sciences: ecology, biology, geology, chemistry…

**Social sciences: geography, politics, economics

**Humanities: ethics, philosophy

There are 3 major goals of environmental science which are:
-To learn how nature works
-To understand how we interact with the environment
-To find ways to deal with environmental problems

The three principles of sustainability:

1-Reliance on solar energy

The sun provides warmth and fuels photosynthesis

2-Biodiversity

Astounding variety and adaptability of natural systems and species

3-

... Continue reading "Enviromantal studies chapter 1" »