Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

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Seismic Velocity Rocks

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Seismic Velocity Rocks

The seismic waves produced by the detonation of an explosive charge or any other system is transmitted through the earth in the form of vibrations or waves that travel at different speeds, these speeds are influenced by: the lithology, depth, porosity of the material, compaction, lithification, fluid content, among others. These speeds depend on the elastic modulus and density. These parameters are important for velocity analysis in the interpretation of seismic data. Below is a table speed of propagation of seismic waves, these speeds refer to longitudinal waves.

Material

V = [m / s]

Weathering layer

300-900

Modern alluvium

350-1500

Clays

1000-2000

Marls

18000-3200

Sandstone

1400-4500

Conglomerates

2500-5000

Calizas

... Continue reading "Seismic Velocity Rocks" »

Folds joints and faults

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1. Deformation of rocks
Geothermal energy ¨ Plate tectonics ¨ Stress ¨ Deformation
1.1. Types of stress
„« Stress is a force applied over an area. It can be classified into:
„h Confining stress (stress is equal from all directions)
„h Differential stress (stress is not equal from all directions)
o Compressional stress, produced by opposite, convergent forces
o Tensional stress, produced by opposite, divergent forces
o Shear stress, produced by opposite, parallel forces

„« As the stress is applied on a rock it begins to deform or to strain. A strain
is a change in shape and / or volume of a rock. Three successive stages of
deformation (strain) can be differentiated:
„h Elastic deformation: its reversible. It disappears as the stress disappears.... Continue reading "Folds joints and faults " »

Rocks: properties and types

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Rocks: A rock is a mineral aggregate d Physical and chemical properties, arising naturally and represents a degree of cohesion. Because rocks are formed: igneous rocks (ignis = fire) are formed when molten rock, determined magma cools and solidifies. sedimentary rocks: by consolidation d rock fragments, the precipitation of mineral from a solution or the compaction of plant or animal remains. metamorphic rocks: results from the transposition of other rocks, usually under the surface, the chemical activity d tempresion and fluids. Magma: molten rock is a q is formed at great depth below the sup consisting of several minerals, q are predominantly silicates, oxides, sulfides. Characteristics of magma: Chemistry: the liquid porsion call cast is... Continue reading "Rocks: properties and types" »

What can be done to protect the environment and reduce global warming

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POSIDONIA AND CAULERPA

caulerpa-invasive plant agresive with fauna and flora
posidonia- mediterranean marine plant

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE HUMAN IMPACT
population,technology, energy and consumption

MAIN THREATS TO ENVIRONMENT
serve air pollution, water pollution and exesive use, deforestation, endangered species, erosion and desertification

PREVENT ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
- sustainable development: balance between growth and conservation
     - protecting spaces with great ecological value
     - prevention of damage by evaluating the impact of human activities
     - recovery of degradated spaces
-reduction of consumption
-international environmental polices: signed by all countries

ECOLOGYCAL FOOTPRINT
measure of how much area is needed to suport
... Continue reading "What can be done to protect the environment and reduce global warming" »

Population density in developed countries

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Population  is the total number or inhabi

in a territory.It studied in a number of scientific 
fields,demographic,geographic,sociology y economics 
 Population density,links the total number of inha in a territory , or absolute population,to the area it occupies in square kilometres
The main areas of dense population are south and southeast Asia, sestero and central europe, and the east coast of the united states.
The main areas of sparse population, the Poles and frigid zones;mountain regions.
Distribución factors 
Physical:terrain,climate,water,and soil types 
People prefer to settle in areas with flat terrain and a temperate climate near to the sea, with fresh water,fertile soil and mineral and energy sources 
Human factors: históric , political,
... Continue reading "Population density in developed countries" »

A diferent side to tourism

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Ecotourism is a type of sustainable tourism that emphasizes conserving nature and improving the lives of local people in rural and wilderness areas. When we visit beautiful places it's natural to want our holidays to have a positive impact on local people and their environments. Responsible travel is about more authentic holiday experiences that enable you to get a little bit more out of your travels, and give a little bit more back to destinations and local people. All holidays have positive and negative impacts locally. Responsible travel maximises the benefits, and minimises the negative effects of tourism.

Costa Rica is a very popular spot for eco-tourism.  It combines low cost and easy accessibility with a stable government and a friendly

... Continue reading "A diferent side to tourism" »

Humidity

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FACTORS OF WEATHER

  1. SOLAR RADIATION AND TEMPERATURE
  • Solar radiation: continous and unending energy source, acts like a motor. Without solar radiation, no air movement, water evaporation, storms and hurricans. Solar energy is beneficial human health, for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. Rays frequent, flora and fauna would also suffer harmful consequences.
  • Atmospheric temperature: heating of air temperature result of solar radiation. Sun's rays reach Earth as rays of light. They are transparent, cannot heat air. They are converted into heat when they touch Earth's surface. Earth's surface transmit heat to the surrounding air. People feel warm or cold depending air temperature. Temperature affects our welbeing.
  1. AIR HUMIDITY AND PRECIPITATION
  • Air
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Sociales

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the action of water. Water is the main external agent acting on land

water
rain: runs downward and erodes mountains. Rivers create ravines and valleys a the carry away rocks and earth.
the action of wind:winds erode rocks and transport small  particles, such as sand an dust
the acrion of vegetation
vegetation also contribudes to the formation of relieve. The roots of triespenetrate the ground andcan split rocks
atmospheric presure. Is the amount of heat in the air form of solar radiation. Solar radiation reaches the earth as rays of light.

All minerals are crystals, but not all crystals are minerals.

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lehmann discontinuity:the boundary between the liquid outer core and the solid inner core of the Earth.HOTSPOT:volcanic regions thought to be fed by  underlying mantle hot compared with the  surrounding mantle.They may be on, near to, or far from tectonic plates boundaries.Crystalline matter:They consist of atoms arranged in an orderly repeated partner.Crystal:regular polyhedral structure, solid material whose constituents, such as atoms,or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure.Polymorphism is the term used to describe that various Crystal forms a single compound,this occurs when minerals with the same chemical composition hace different crystal structures.Isomorphism is the term used for similar crystal structures
... Continue reading "All minerals are crystals, but not all crystals are minerals." »

Water quality p171

Classified in Geology

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-more freshwater underground than in lakes & rivers
-97% of Earth's water is saltwater
-2% of all water is freshwater in polar ice caps
-less than 1% of freshwater is useable
-watershed- land area that funnels water downhill
-river basin- a group of watersheds running together
-estuary- are where freshwater and saltwater meet
-aquifer- underground water supply
-upwelling- cold water, more nutrients, more oxygen
-satellite & infrared show where upwellings are
-more oxygen in cold water than in warm water
-water quality- how clean the water is
-turbidity- cloudiness of water
- ? Turbidity = ? Oxygen
-deep ocean- cold, dark, high pressure