Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

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All minerals are crystals, but not all crystals are minerals.

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lehmann discontinuity:the boundary between the liquid outer core and the solid inner core of the Earth.HOTSPOT:volcanic regions thought to be fed by  underlying mantle hot compared with the  surrounding mantle.They may be on, near to, or far from tectonic plates boundaries.Crystalline matter:They consist of atoms arranged in an orderly repeated partner.Crystal:regular polyhedral structure, solid material whose constituents, such as atoms,or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure.Polymorphism is the term used to describe that various Crystal forms a single compound,this occurs when minerals with the same chemical composition hace different crystal structures.Isomorphism is the term used for similar crystal structures
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At which altitude is it necessary to breathe

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  • Latitude is the distance form any point on earth to the Equator.
  • Latitude determines the level of insolation at any point. Insolation is the amount of solar energy received. As we move further from the Equator insolation is less intense.
  • Latitude determines the main climate zones:
    • Tropical zones: from tropic of cancer to trpic of capricorn. There are high temperatures and abundant precipitation.
    • Temperate zones. Temperatures vary depending on the season and prcipitation is more abundant in areas near the sea.
    • Polar zones. Very low temperatures and low precipitation.
  • Is the heigth of a place relative to sea level.
  • Temperature falls 0.6º for every 100 m
  • Relief can also cause precipitation when it causes moist air to rise and condense.
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-Harvesting: A corp or yield of one growing season.

-Crops: The cultivated produce of the ground, while growing or when gattered.
-Pursuit: An effort to secure or attain, quest.
-Buttressed: Any external prop or support built to steady a structure by opposing its outward thrusts.
-Ridges: A long, narrow elevation of land.
-Patch: A piece of cloth or other material used to mend or strengthen a torn or weak point.
-Sloping- To move to an inclination.
- Hood: Any of various implements of similar forms, as for mixing plaster.
-Mounds: a natural elevation of earth.
Parsley: An herb, native to the Mediterranean, having either curled leaf clusters.
-Tarragon- An old world plant, having aromatic purposes using for seasoning.
-Battered: To beat persistently or
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Non metal mineral materials

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earth's crust:hard outher surface of--rust:a reddish-brown material that...

wedges:objects with a triangular...--temper:an addictive that increases the
crush: press or break into small..--flux:an addictive that reduces the melting
breakwaters:walls built from the...
metamorphic:rock transformed by...
igneous:rock formed from magma...
exothermic:producing heat

stone blocks:quarrying, processing:cutting, shaping,polishing.Aggregates:
cleaning,crushing,sorting.Aggregates that come from rivers are called river
rock.Crushed rock has irregular edges that provide more friction. Natural stone: limestone,marble,granite,slate,tuff.Stone binders:in construction plaster lime and cement are used as binders to hold other materials together. Plaster,lime,cement,
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Curing concrete in "carbonated water"

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b)A Reinforced concrete (RC) sea wall has been in operation for 45 years and shows Visible signs of brown staining and spalling of the surface concrete around the Bottom two thirds of the height on the seaward side and similar damage on the Top section exposed on the roadside as indicated in Fig. Q1 c) below:

Fig. Q1 c) RC Sea wall

  1. Comment on the level of exposure and describe the Most likely cause of the damage.

    Answer 1 b) i):

    The level of exposure in a coastal Environment can be severe and problems can arise due to a number of factors:

  • Erosion of the concrete surface due to wave action And abrasion due to sand being picked up and impacted against the sea wall.

  • Ingress of sea water under pressure with tidal Movement and

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  • SALT WATER: oceans and seas cover 71%of the earth´s surface . Most of the water on the planet is salt water. Rivers and rain carry rocks and minerals to oceans and seas ; this makes thm saline. Not all seawater hast the same salinity. Water in landlocked seas and in warmer latitudes is usually saltier, because the heat causes more evaporation than in open and cold seas.
  • WATER IN MOVEMENT: Seawater is constantly moving because of the movement of curents, tides and waves. This movement erodes and shapes coastlines. Ocean currents are like big rivers moving within the oceans. The water in these currents does not mix with the rest of the sea because it has a different temperature or salinity. Currents can be warm or

Astronomy 2

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Origin of the Terrestrial Atmospheres :Venus, Earth, & Mars received their atmospheres through outgassing.Chemical reactions caused CO2 on Earth to dissolve in oceans and go into carbonate rocks (like limestone.)Mars lost much of its atmosphere through impacts*Formation of the Maria :The Moon once had a molten interior,Several large impacts made huge crater basins,This “runny” lava filled in the basins*Mercury:dead planet with no atmosphere,has no maria, but small lava plains,has fewer craters than the Moon,craters are shallower than Moon,due to higher gravity on Mercury,evidence for tectonic processes,evidence for ice at the N pole*Mars:mountains & canyons,volcanoes,thin atmosphere,no plate tectonics volcanoes are higher,evidence
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Properties of rock

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Volcanic regions thought to be fed by the
mantle, yhey may be on, near to, or far from
tectonic plates. Crystal; Regular polyhedral structre, 
solid material, which components are arranged in
 a highly ordered microscopic structure.
Mineral ore. Aggregate of minerals or mineral form which a valuable consttituent can be proffited mined or extracted. Marl:Mix of calcite and clay.Dolomite: Composed of the minerals calcite and dolomite
Non clastic -Carbonate: Limestone dolomite marl. Evaporate: Salt rock gypsum. Organic: Coal Oil Natural gas
IGneous: formed from magma, a mass of molten rock which ussually contains dissolved gases and suspended solid fragments. Intrusive Granite Syenite Gabbro. Extrusive rhyolite andesite basalt.
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1.What force pulled a nebula inward to make Our solar system?  gravity

2.How much of the solar nebula was pulled Into the sun (percentage)?  99%

3.How were the planets made from the Leftover gas and dust? The gas & dust contracted Into planetesimals, which collided, merged and formed protoplanets. The Protoplanets accumulated more rocks until they became planets.

4.How did Earth get its layers?  Differentiation; the Most dense matter moved to the center, lighter masses were pushed up.

5.Which gases made up Earth’s earliest Atmosphere? What happened to them?  Hydrogen and helium; they floated off into space because the Earth’s gravity was not strong enough to hold them down.

6.What gases were next to fill the atmosphere? Where did they... Continue reading "chuleta" »

Que es biome

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Characteristics : animals ,plants ,soil and climate.Clasification :

-Tundra: temperaturas are worm in Winter also vegetation mosses and Other low lying plants survive and animal diversity is low. –Taiga: temperatura are cold in Winter But in summer are humid warm, also vegetation coniferous tres and animals Mammals have heavy fur coats to wintstand the winters.

-Tropica:l rain forest the temperature is warm and abundant rainfall And the vegetation lush thick forests. –Desert: The temperature is very dry also animals are nocturnal and vegetation cacti Store water or have deep root systems .

-Temperate grassland : is warm in summer during Winter fall snow also Vegetation are short or tall grasses and animals live ground to survive the dry And... Continue reading "Que es biome" »