Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

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Geographical features of the region of Murcia

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6.Landforms geographical features which can be observed on the Earths surfac.Landforms are dynamic,caused by the opposition action of-internal process:these tend to built&lift them.-External process:led to shape them.They are differ.Types that are characteristic of each morphoclimatic zone:glacial,periglacial,desert,semi-desert&fluvial .6.1Glacial landforms:the climate causes snow to accumulate year after year.This is transformed into ice,which prevets vegetat. From growing. 6.2Periglacial landforms:allows the growth of sparse vegetat.Such as lichens. 6.3Deset landf:characterized by infrequent precipitation&intense evaporation.The conseq is little vegetat.&hardly any water in the ground during most of the year. 6.4Semi-desert
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Atpl system

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plate tectonics:
lithosphere- contains the crust and the upper mantle,

asthenosphere- is the next layer within the mantle, 

mesosphere- were material still flows but at a much slower , 

boundaries : divergent - two tectonics moves away from each other   
convergent- two tectonics push together  transform- two plate slide each other    

solar system : formed 4.6 billon years , 

terrestrial planet- mercury, venus,earth,mars 

Gas giant - jupiter, saturn,uranus,neptune, 

planet: celestial body, constellation:help people to recognize stars , stars : made of hydrogen and helium , galaxy: huge collection of gas 

Electromagnetic spectrum: less wevelength more energy , longer wevenlenght less energy ,types : radio, microwaves,infrared,visible light,
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Divergence in the upper air results, near the surface in: atpl

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Ozone (O3 ) is a made with three oxygen atoms; it is very unstable and has a short lifetime. At room Temperature and pressure has acrid odour and no colour, although at high concentration levels can turn Into blue. At high concentrations can be toxic and can cause death. It s not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. VOC + NOx + sunlight tropospheric O3Particulate Matter (PM) "Particulate matter," also known as particle pollution or PM, is a complex mixture of extremely small Particles and liquid droplets. Particle pollution is made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic... Continue reading "Divergence in the upper air results, near the surface in: atpl" »

Coh3 chemical name

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lehmann discontinuity:the boundary between the liquid outer core and the solid inner core of the Earth.HOTSPOT:volcanic regions thought to be fed by  underlying mantle hot compared with the  surrounding mantle.They may be on, near to, or far from tectonic plates boundaries.Crystalline matter:They consist of atoms arranged in an orderly repeated partner.Crystal:regular polyhedral structure, solid material whose constituents, such as atoms,or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure.Polymorphism is the term used to describe that various Crystal forms a single compound,this occurs when minerals with the same chemical composition hace different crystal structures.Isomorphism is the term used for similar crystal structures
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Income from the forest

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In this text I am going to talk about global warming.
Global warming is the observed increase in the temperature of the Earth's climate system and the effect of that increase.

Some of the causes of this phenomenon are: Greenhouse gases, this gas traps heat in the Earth's atmosphere, also when we burn fossil fuels, carbon dioxide is produced and as more and more carbon dioxide goes into the atmosphere, we begin to trap more heat and the Earth gets warmer. When the Earth gets warmer, there are changes in the weather, and sea levels rise, also glaciers melt and there are forest fires.

As a conclusion I think that the only ones that can solve this problem is us, by saving energy, usic public transport , recycling, controlling the felling of trees,
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Alexander mery history

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Spontaneous generation: life began from inanimate objects. Oparin’s theory: Alexander Ivanovich Oparin developed this abiogenic theory. 1.Components atmosphere (methane, ammonia, hydrogen and water vapour) reacted due to the energy of the storms, solar radiation and continuous volcanic eruptions creating simple organic molecules. 2.Earth cooled down, intense rain produced primitive seas, where organic molecules accumulated. 3.Organic molecules joined, creating bigger molecules; some of them were insulated from the water inside structures calles coacervates. 4. Some of the coacervates developed molecules in their interior that were able to self-replicating; these were the first organisims and the origin of all cells. Panspermia theory: life 
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By volume what percentage of the air in the lower troposphere consists of water vapour

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  • SALT WATER: oceans and seas cover 71%of the earth´s surface . Most of the water on the planet is salt water. Rivers and rain carry rocks and minerals to oceans and seas ; this makes thm saline. Not all seawater hast the same salinity. Water in landlocked seas and in warmer latitudes is usually saltier, because the heat causes more evaporation than in open and cold seas.
  • WATER IN MOVEMENT: Seawater is constantly moving because of the movement of curents, tides and waves. This movement erodes and shapes coastlines. Ocean currents are like big rivers moving within the oceans. The water in these currents does not mix with the rest of the sea because it has a different temperature or salinity. Currents can be warm or
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Air law

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Water Cycle : the natural sequence through Which water passes into the atmosphere as water vapor, precipitates to earth in Liquid or solid form, and ultimately returns to the atmosphere through evaporation.

Sequence Of the water cycle proces :

Evaporation : water molecules in liquid state escapes into the air as Water vapor. /

Condensation: molecules Of water vapor in the air become liquid water. / Precipitation: any from of water that falls from clouds and Reaches Eath’s surface. /

Collection: This is when water runs off slopes.

Info: hydrological cycle: pathway of Water from the atmosphere to Earth’s surface, bellow ground and back. / Biogeochemical cycle: movement of A chemical through the biological and geological, or living and nonliving,

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Mass and balance

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Volcanic regions thought to be fed by the
mantle, yhey may be on, near to, or far from
tectonic plates. Crystal; Regular polyhedral structre, 
solid material, which components are arranged in
 a highly ordered microscopic structure.
Mineral ore. Aggregate of minerals or mineral form which a valuable consttituent can be proffited mined or extracted. Marl:Mix of calcite and clay.Dolomite: Composed of the minerals calcite and dolomite
Non clastic -Carbonate: Limestone dolomite marl. Evaporate: Salt rock gypsum. Organic: Coal Oil Natural gas
IGneous: formed from magma, a mass of molten rock which ussually contains dissolved gases and suspended solid fragments. Intrusive Granite Syenite Gabbro. Extrusive rhyolite andesite basalt.
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First step in forming sedimentary rock

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KARST LANDFORM- A modelling that takes place in limestone masses due to the action of water with dissolved carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.  The CO2 reacts with the calcium carbontae in the limestone adn transforms it into calcium bicarbonate. This is a type of chemical weathering callled carbonatation. The inflitrationof water slowly alter and soddolves the limestone, making the cracks and fissures in the rock and creating lapies, dolines, poljes, galleries and caverns. In the cavities, the dissolves calcium bicarbonate can be transformed back into insoluble carbonate, creating stlactites and stalagmites. JOINTS-Are short, narrow cracks that appear in a rock mass without the cracked blocks moving at all. EROSION- The progressive wearing
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