Ozone (O3 ) is a made with three oxygen atoms; it is very unstable and has a short lifetime. At room Temperature and pressure has acrid odour and no colour, although at high concentration levels can turn Into blue. At high concentrations can be toxic and can cause death. It s not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. VOC + NOx + sunlight tropospheric O3Particulate Matter (PM) "Particulate matter," also known as particle pollution or PM, is a complex mixture of extremely small Particles and liquid droplets. Particle pollution is made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic... Continue reading "Divergence in the upper air results, near the surface in: atpl" »
- Latitude is the distance form any point on earth to the Equator.
- Latitude determines the level of insolation at any point. Insolation is the amount of solar energy received. As we move further from the Equator insolation is less intense.
- Latitude determines the main climate zones:
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- Is the heigth of a place relative to sea level.
- Temperature falls 0.6º for every 100 m
- Relief can also cause precipitation when it causes moist air to rise and condense.
-Harvesting: A corp or yield of one growing season.
earth's crust:hard outher surface of--rust:a reddish-brown material that...
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b)A Reinforced concrete (RC) sea wall has been in operation for 45 years and shows Visible signs of brown staining and spalling of the surface concrete around the Bottom two thirds of the height on the seaward side and similar damage on the Top section exposed on the roadside as indicated in Fig. Q1 c) below:
Fig. Q1 c) RC Sea wall
Comment on the level of exposure and describe the Most likely cause of the damage.
Answer 1 b) i):
The level of exposure in a coastal Environment can be severe and problems can arise due to a number of factors:
Erosion of the concrete surface due to wave action And abrasion due to sand being picked up and impacted against the sea wall.
Ingress of sea water under pressure with tidal Movement and
WATER IN THE OCEANS
- SALT WATER: oceans and seas cover 71%of the earth´s surface . Most of the water on the planet is salt water. Rivers and rain carry rocks and minerals to oceans and seas ; this makes thm saline. Not all seawater hast the same salinity. Water in landlocked seas and in warmer latitudes is usually saltier, because the heat causes more evaporation than in open and cold seas.
- WATER IN MOVEMENT: Seawater is constantly moving because of the movement of curents, tides and waves. This movement erodes and shapes coastlines. Ocean currents are like big rivers moving within the oceans. The water in these currents does not mix with the rest of the sea because it has a different temperature or salinity. Currents can be warm or