Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

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Seismic Velocity Rocks

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Seismic Velocity Rocks

The seismic waves produced by the detonation of an explosive charge or any other system is transmitted through the earth in the form of vibrations or waves that travel at different speeds, these speeds are influenced by: the lithology, depth, porosity of the material, compaction, lithification, fluid content, among others. These speeds depend on the elastic modulus and density. These parameters are important for velocity analysis in the interpretation of seismic data. Below is a table speed of propagation of seismic waves, these speeds refer to longitudinal waves.


V = [m / s]

Weathering layer


Modern alluvium











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Folds joints and faults

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1. Deformation of rocks
Geothermal energy ¨ Plate tectonics ¨ Stress ¨ Deformation
1.1. Types of stress
„« Stress is a force applied over an area. It can be classified into:
„h Confining stress (stress is equal from all directions)
„h Differential stress (stress is not equal from all directions)
o Compressional stress, produced by opposite, convergent forces
o Tensional stress, produced by opposite, divergent forces
o Shear stress, produced by opposite, parallel forces

„« As the stress is applied on a rock it begins to deform or to strain. A strain
is a change in shape and / or volume of a rock. Three successive stages of
deformation (strain) can be differentiated:
„h Elastic deformation: its reversible. It disappears as the stress disappears.... Continue reading "Folds joints and faults " »

Folds, faults and joints

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Deformation: Any changes in size, shape, orientation or position rock mass, is produced by stress which is the amount of force per unit area. Types of stress: Stress-Pressure-differential confinement (compressive, tensile, shear). Geological maps are described by their steering (angle between NM and a flat horizontal line) and dip (inclination angle of a plane).

Fold: rock volume in which are seen reference surfaces that have curvature sinusoid. Fold geometric elements, "Flank: are the two sides of a fold-hinge: line connecting points of maximum curvature-Plano axial surface that divides a fold symmetrically

Classification convacidad folds "Anticline: more modern strata surround the ancient strata folded up. "Syncline: the oldest layers surround... Continue reading "Folds, faults and joints" »

Rocks: properties and types

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Rocks: A rock is a mineral aggregate d Physical and chemical properties, arising naturally and represents a degree of cohesion. Because rocks are formed: igneous rocks (ignis = fire) are formed when molten rock, determined magma cools and solidifies. sedimentary rocks: by consolidation d rock fragments, the precipitation of mineral from a solution or the compaction of plant or animal remains. metamorphic rocks: results from the transposition of other rocks, usually under the surface, the chemical activity d tempresion and fluids. Magma: molten rock is a q is formed at great depth below the sup consisting of several minerals, q are predominantly silicates, oxides, sulfides. Characteristics of magma: Chemistry: the liquid porsion call cast is... Continue reading "Rocks: properties and types" »

What can be done to protect the environment and reduce global warming

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caulerpa-invasive plant agresive with fauna and flora
posidonia- mediterranean marine plant

population,technology, energy and consumption

serve air pollution, water pollution and exesive use, deforestation, endangered species, erosion and desertification

- sustainable development: balance between growth and conservation
     - protecting spaces with great ecological value
     - prevention of damage by evaluating the impact of human activities
     - recovery of degradated spaces
-reduction of consumption
-international environmental polices: signed by all countries

measure of how much area is needed to suport
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A diferent side to tourism

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Ecotourism is a type of sustainable tourism that emphasizes conserving nature and improving the lives of local people in rural and wilderness areas. When we visit beautiful places it's natural to want our holidays to have a positive impact on local people and their environments. Responsible travel is about more authentic holiday experiences that enable you to get a little bit more out of your travels, and give a little bit more back to destinations and local people. All holidays have positive and negative impacts locally. Responsible travel maximises the benefits, and minimises the negative effects of tourism.

Costa Rica is a very popular spot for eco-tourism.  It combines low cost and easy accessibility with a stable government and a friendly

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First Cells 3800 million years ago

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3.5 billion years old
 embedded in rocks in western Australia: stromatolites(fosilized bacteria)                
Prokaryotes dominated from 3.5 to 2 billion years ago.
 During this time, the first divergence occurred:Bacteria and archeae
5.  First photosynthetic organisms around 3.5 billion years but Oxygen began accumulating in the atmosphere about 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that are still present today → produced oxygen. Sequestered carbon dioxide in organic molecules.
These bacteria changed the Earths atmosphere.
6.  The oldest eukaryotic fossils are ~2 billion years old.
 Symbiotic community of prokaryotes living within larger prokaryotes.
The first eukaryotic cells-theory of endosymbiotic

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Why is /h/ called voiceless vowel phonetically, and /h/ consonant phonologically?

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The larynx is situated at the upper extreme of the trachea (wind pipe),sheltered by a group of bones and cartilages that can be seen prominent as the“Adams’s apple''and has 2 basic functions:a biological one, preventing food orother objects from entering into the trachea and another one related to speech production, controlling the passing of the air.
-The pharynx is the cavity comprised between the larynx and the area at the back of the tongue. Its main function is to modulate the acoustic properties of the sounds after passing through the larynx.It is also responsible for what is commonly called the “quality” of the voice (deep or high), and can be enlarged or shortened in order to modify this quality
Areas phonology: articulatory is

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  • Solar radiation: continous and unending energy source, acts like a motor. Without solar radiation, no air movement, water evaporation, storms and hurricans. Solar energy is beneficial human health, for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. Rays frequent, flora and fauna would also suffer harmful consequences.
  • Atmospheric temperature: heating of air temperature result of solar radiation. Sun's rays reach Earth as rays of light. They are transparent, cannot heat air. They are converted into heat when they touch Earth's surface. Earth's surface transmit heat to the surrounding air. People feel warm or cold depending air temperature. Temperature affects our welbeing.
  • Air
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the action of water. Water is the main external agent acting on land

rain: runs downward and erodes mountains. Rivers create ravines and valleys a the carry away rocks and earth.
the action of wind:winds erode rocks and transport small  particles, such as sand an dust
the acrion of vegetation
vegetation also contribudes to the formation of relieve. The roots of triespenetrate the ground andcan split rocks
atmospheric presure. Is the amount of heat in the air form of solar radiation. Solar radiation reaches the earth as rays of light.