Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

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Air law

Classified in Geology

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Water Cycle : the natural sequence through Which water passes into the atmosphere as water vapor, precipitates to earth in Liquid or solid form, and ultimately returns to the atmosphere through evaporation.

Sequence Of the water cycle proces :

Evaporation : water molecules in liquid state escapes into the air as Water vapor. /

Condensation: molecules Of water vapor in the air become liquid water. / Precipitation: any from of water that falls from clouds and Reaches Eath’s surface. /

Collection: This is when water runs off slopes.

Info: hydrological cycle: pathway of Water from the atmosphere to Earth’s surface, bellow ground and back. / Biogeochemical cycle: movement of A chemical through the biological and geological, or living and nonliving,

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Mass and balance

Classified in Geology

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CALCITE:CaCO3. HOTSPOT: 

Volcanic regions thought to be fed by the
mantle, yhey may be on, near to, or far from
tectonic plates. Crystal; Regular polyhedral structre, 
solid material, which components are arranged in
 a highly ordered microscopic structure.
Mineral ore. Aggregate of minerals or mineral form which a valuable consttituent can be proffited mined or extracted. Marl:Mix of calcite and clay.Dolomite: Composed of the minerals calcite and dolomite
Non clastic -Carbonate: Limestone dolomite marl. Evaporate: Salt rock gypsum. Organic: Coal Oil Natural gas
IGneous: formed from magma, a mass of molten rock which ussually contains dissolved gases and suspended solid fragments. Intrusive Granite Syenite Gabbro. Extrusive rhyolite andesite basalt.
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In which of the following areas do surface high pressure systems usually predominate over the north atlantic region between 30°n and 65°n and the adjoining land areas during the northern summer?

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Climate refers to the typical weather that a place experiences over many years. Different parts of the world can be described as havinga dry, wet, hot or cold climates.

There has been many schemes to clasify climates. The classification most use nowadays was developed between 1884-1940 by the German climatologyst  Wladimir Peter Koppen (1846-1940)
Koppen divided climates into six principal types designated by the letteres A-F, with highland climates forming a seventh. Within these categories other letteres provide further information.

Subtropical Canary islands. Winter 14ºC, Summer 22º degrees celsius
Mediterranean,Total rainfall in this region is lower than in the rest of Spain, it's concentrated in the late autumn-winter period. Rainfalls
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chuleta

Classified in Geology

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1.What force pulled a nebula inward to make Our solar system?  gravity

2.How much of the solar nebula was pulled Into the sun (percentage)?  99%

3.How were the planets made from the Leftover gas and dust? The gas & dust contracted Into planetesimals, which collided, merged and formed protoplanets. The Protoplanets accumulated more rocks until they became planets.

4.How did Earth get its layers?  Differentiation; the Most dense matter moved to the center, lighter masses were pushed up.

5.Which gases made up Earth’s earliest Atmosphere? What happened to them?  Hydrogen and helium; they floated off into space because the Earth’s gravity was not strong enough to hold them down.

6.What gases were next to fill the atmosphere? Where did they... Continue reading "chuleta" »

Que es biome

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Characteristics : animals ,plants ,soil and climate.Clasification :

-Tundra: temperaturas are worm in Winter also vegetation mosses and Other low lying plants survive and animal diversity is low. –Taiga: temperatura are cold in Winter But in summer are humid warm, also vegetation coniferous tres and animals Mammals have heavy fur coats to wintstand the winters.

-Tropica:l rain forest the temperature is warm and abundant rainfall And the vegetation lush thick forests. –Desert: The temperature is very dry also animals are nocturnal and vegetation cacti Store water or have deep root systems .

-Temperate grassland : is warm in summer during Winter fall snow also Vegetation are short or tall grasses and animals live ground to survive the dry And... Continue reading "Que es biome" »

Oceanographic chacao channel

Classified in Geology

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Continental drift theory:(the movem of continents)(Wegener 1912) according to this theory the continents made of a lighter crust slid over a continuous thicker layer.Evidences:-Palaeolithic evidence:Identical fossils of land-based organisms such as reptiles were found in continents situated far apart,these organis. Could never have crossed the oceans that now separate them.-Geological evid.:Continents fit together along their coastlines&continental shelves,rocks of the same age and structure appear on each side of the line where they were joined.-Paleoclimatic evid:continents which were situated in the south pole pf Pangaea have glacial moraines from the same age.The ocean 4.1The ocean floor:the oceanographic survey ships conducted research
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Divergence in the upper air results, near the surface in: atpl

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SURFACE RUNOFF: It is form because the terrain become saturated and the water begins to flow along the surface. This type of surface water is called runoff because it isn't flowing in a valley or riverbed, it simply moves as a layer of water over the terrain. It has a great erosive power. As this water moves to lower regions, it can pull lots of material with it and erode rock.

WHAT DETERMINES IT: Climate: infuences how much rain will fall, how quickly it will fall, and how much much of it will evaporate. Type of erosion: For example, in a place with sandy soil, erosion happensmore easily than in places with solid rock such as granite The gradient of the terrain: This influences how quickly the waterwill flow, the seteeper the gradient, the
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Mineral alignment in a metamorphic rock usually gives the rock a porphyritic texture.

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¡Escribe tu texto aquí!1- Pegmatite/pluton: tearlike feautures where magma cools slowly and form large crystals./are areas Around magma.(where most igneous rocks are formed.


2- Mineral with special property(taste): Halite(salt)

3- Hardest mineral: Diamond 

4- Streak describes the color of a powder mineral

5- Silicate contains silicon and oxygen 

6- surface mining by open-pits and sub-surface by drillong tunnels.

7-Quartz(nonmetallic) is used in glass

8- Sediments must undergo Cementation and Compaction to form sedimentarry rock.

9- Weather/weathering: climate(about the atmosphere)/rocks break down into sediments

10- Classification of igneous rocks according to composition: Mafic and Felsic

11- Intrusive Igneous Rock is a type of rock that forms large
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Hydrosphere

Classified in Geology

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hydrosphere presence of water .Due to:composition of the atmosphere,distance from the sun100%water:97,5%of salt water and 2,5% of salt water:glaciers ground water permafrost surface water atmosphere /salt water origin sedimentary rocks 35g/l _fresh water 0,2 glacier types icesheets icebergs-valley glaciars cirque tounge /ground water permeable rock aquifer umpermeable rock/ surfece water lakes and lagoons wetland when ground water goes to the surface river flow of water torrents rivers without water  propirties of matter h20 molecule tasteless colourless odourless melting point temperature at wich water starts to change from solid to liquid o grados boiling point temperature at wich water starts to change from liquid to water vapour 100
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At which altitude is it necessary to breathe

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Elements of The climate

Temperature: Refers To the degree of specific heat of the air at a given time and place.

Precipitation: It Is any form of hydrometeoro coming from the atmospheric water in the form of Clouds to the terrestrial surface.

Atmospheric pressure: The weight exerted by a mass of air on the earth's surface.

Humidity: The Amount of water vapor contained in the air.

Winds: It is the Movement of the air in the atmosphere.

Evaporation: It Is the physical process that consists of the passage from a liquid state to a Gaseous state.

Cloudiness: the Amount of clouds in the atmosphere.

Climate Factors

Altitude: As the altitude increases above sea level the temperature decreases.

The latitude: According To these are determined great climatic strips,... Continue reading "At which altitude is it necessary to breathe" »