Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

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1.What force pulled a nebula inward to make Our solar system?  gravity

2.How much of the solar nebula was pulled Into the sun (percentage)?  99%

3.How were the planets made from the Leftover gas and dust? The gas & dust contracted Into planetesimals, which collided, merged and formed protoplanets. The Protoplanets accumulated more rocks until they became planets.

4.How did Earth get its layers?  Differentiation; the Most dense matter moved to the center, lighter masses were pushed up.

5.Which gases made up Earth’s earliest Atmosphere? What happened to them?  Hydrogen and helium; they floated off into space because the Earth’s gravity was not strong enough to hold them down.

6.What gases were next to fill the atmosphere? Where did they... Continue reading "chuleta" »

Que es biome

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Characteristics : animals ,plants ,soil and climate.Clasification :

-Tundra: temperaturas are worm in Winter also vegetation mosses and Other low lying plants survive and animal diversity is low. –Taiga: temperatura are cold in Winter But in summer are humid warm, also vegetation coniferous tres and animals Mammals have heavy fur coats to wintstand the winters.

-Tropica:l rain forest the temperature is warm and abundant rainfall And the vegetation lush thick forests. –Desert: The temperature is very dry also animals are nocturnal and vegetation cacti Store water or have deep root systems .

-Temperate grassland : is warm in summer during Winter fall snow also Vegetation are short or tall grasses and animals live ground to survive the dry And... Continue reading "Que es biome" »


Classified in Geology

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Continental drift theory:(the movem of continents)(Wegener 1912) according to this theory the continents made of a lighter crust slid over a continuous thicker layer.Evidences:-Palaeolithic evidence:Identical fossils of land-based organisms such as reptiles were found in continents situated far apart,these organis. Could never have crossed the oceans that now separate them.-Geological evid.:Continents fit together along their coastlines&continental shelves,rocks of the same age and structure appear on each side of the line where they were joined.-Paleoclimatic evid:continents which were situated in the south pole pf Pangaea have glacial moraines from the same age.The ocean 4.1The ocean floor:the oceanographic survey ships conducted research
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Mineral alignment in a metamorphic rock usually gives the rock a porphyritic texture.

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¡Escribe tu texto aquí!1- Pegmatite/pluton: tearlike feautures where magma cools slowly and form large crystals./are areas Around magma.(where most igneous rocks are formed.

2- Mineral with special property(taste): Halite(salt)

3- Hardest mineral: Diamond 

4- Streak describes the color of a powder mineral

5- Silicate contains silicon and oxygen 

6- surface mining by open-pits and sub-surface by drillong tunnels.

7-Quartz(nonmetallic) is used in glass

8- Sediments must undergo Cementation and Compaction to form sedimentarry rock.

9- Weather/weathering: climate(about the atmosphere)/rocks break down into sediments

10- Classification of igneous rocks according to composition: Mafic and Felsic

11- Intrusive Igneous Rock is a type of rock that forms large
... Continue reading "Mineral alignment in a metamorphic rock usually gives the rock a porphyritic texture." »


Classified in Geology

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hydrosphere presence of water .Due to:composition of the atmosphere,distance from the sun100%water:97,5%of salt water and 2,5% of salt water:glaciers ground water permafrost surface water atmosphere /salt water origin sedimentary rocks 35g/l _fresh water 0,2 glacier types icesheets icebergs-valley glaciars cirque tounge /ground water permeable rock aquifer umpermeable rock/ surfece water lakes and lagoons wetland when ground water goes to the surface river flow of water torrents rivers without water  propirties of matter h20 molecule tasteless colourless odourless melting point temperature at wich water starts to change from solid to liquid o grados boiling point temperature at wich water starts to change from liquid to water vapour 100
... Continue reading "Hydrosphere" »

Major types of industries in spain

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3. The 2 sector in Spain. Mining and energy. 20% popu. 3.1 Mining prod: it has lost importance. -Metallic minerals:are hardly mined anymore.However rising prices encouraged some lead,nickel,gold mines to reopen. -Industrial: are used sea salt and quartz. -A range of different types of stone:used in construct. And decorative purposes. 3.2Energy prod: Hydraulic energy, wind, solar,biomass energy. Nuclear energy were coal is mined from. Petroleum prod. And natural gas are insignificant. 3.3Energy consumption: Non-renewable energy sources as crude oil and gas which have to be impiorted. Crude oil is brought from the Middle East and Nigeria. Natural gas is used to produce electricity or heat. Uranium is also important. 3.4 Energy self sufficiency:
... Continue reading "Major types of industries in spain" »

At which altitude is it necessary to breathe

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Elements of The climate

Temperature: Refers To the degree of specific heat of the air at a given time and place.

Precipitation: It Is any form of hydrometeoro coming from the atmospheric water in the form of Clouds to the terrestrial surface.

Atmospheric pressure: The weight exerted by a mass of air on the earth's surface.

Humidity: The Amount of water vapor contained in the air.

Winds: It is the Movement of the air in the atmosphere.

Evaporation: It Is the physical process that consists of the passage from a liquid state to a Gaseous state.

Cloudiness: the Amount of clouds in the atmosphere.

Climate Factors

Altitude: As the altitude increases above sea level the temperature decreases.

The latitude: According To these are determined great climatic strips,... Continue reading "At which altitude is it necessary to breathe" »

Wilson cycle wiki

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Wilson cycle: Wegener suggested that there have been 2 cyclical processes of rifting&reuniting of supercontinents during Earth's history.-Continental rifting:the rift has caused depressions,which has resulted in the formation of deep lakes at the bottom of the valley.-Extension of the ocean basin:1-A dome forms:the heat under the continent causes the crust to expand and lift up. 2-Continental rift stage:large fractures appear which make the lithosphere thinner&lead to the formation of a continental rift.3-Narrow sea stage:continents has completely split&separated.4-Maturing ocean stage:the divergence continues&the formation of oceanic lithosphere due to sea-floor spreading increases.-Closing of the ocean basin:the oceanic lithosphere
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the enviroment

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in the early 1970s, scientist discovered that a class of chlorine containing industrial chemicals called halocarbons were harmful to the ozone layer. the most commonly used halocarbons are chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). 
cfcs are stable, non-toxic flammable.
these qualities have made them very attractive for the industrial use. they have numerous industrial applications. unfortunately, they are also the major contributors to the depletion of the ozone layer, and consequently need to be eliminated. over the years greenpeace has maintained that it is possible to meet all the human needs that have been serviced by ozone depleting substances without using chemicals that harm the ozone layer or the global climate. 
in 1992, greenpeace published two
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Naturales y esas

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Eolic: unlimited, low installation costs, clean, high efficiency/ wind is intermittent and inconsistent, difficult to store, requires large areas, wind turbines are loud, interferes with radars, televisions, danger to birds/ transformed directly into electricity; Geothermal: clean, not dependent on weather conditions/ negative environmental impact, installation is difficult and costly/ transformed directly into electricity; Tidal: unlimited, clean, not dependant on weather conditions/ low efficiency, negative environmental impact, limited to certain coastal areas/ transformed directly into electricity. Heat is thermal energy which is transfer from one body or system to another. This transfer is caused by a difference in temperature. Heat flows
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