Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

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Continental drift theory:(the movem of continents)(Wegener 1912) according to this theory the continents made of a lighter crust slid over a continuous thicker layer.Evidences:-Palaeolithic evidence:Identical fossils of land-based organisms such as reptiles were found in continents situated far apart,these organis. Could never have crossed the oceans that now separate them.-Geological evid.:Continents fit together along their coastlines&continental shelves,rocks of the same age and structure appear on each side of the line where they were joined.-Paleoclimatic evid:continents which were situated in the south pole pf Pangaea have glacial moraines from the same age.The ocean 4.1The ocean floor:the oceanographic survey ships conducted research
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Classified in Geology

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hydrosphere presence of water .Due to:composition of the atmosphere,distance from the sun100%water:97,5%of salt water and 2,5% of salt water:glaciers ground water permafrost surface water atmosphere /salt water origin sedimentary rocks 35g/l _fresh water 0,2 glacier types icesheets icebergs-valley glaciars cirque tounge /ground water permeable rock aquifer umpermeable rock/ surfece water lakes and lagoons wetland when ground water goes to the surface river flow of water torrents rivers without water  propirties of matter h20 molecule tasteless colourless odourless melting point temperature at wich water starts to change from solid to liquid o grados boiling point temperature at wich water starts to change from liquid to water vapour 100
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Major types of industries in spain

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3. The 2 sector in Spain. Mining and energy. 20% popu. 3.1 Mining prod: it has lost importance. -Metallic minerals:are hardly mined anymore.However rising prices encouraged some lead,nickel,gold mines to reopen. -Industrial: are used sea salt and quartz. -A range of different types of stone:used in construct. And decorative purposes. 3.2Energy prod: Hydraulic energy, wind, solar,biomass energy. Nuclear energy were coal is mined from. Petroleum prod. And natural gas are insignificant. 3.3Energy consumption: Non-renewable energy sources as crude oil and gas which have to be impiorted. Crude oil is brought from the Middle East and Nigeria. Natural gas is used to produce electricity or heat. Uranium is also important. 3.4 Energy self sufficiency:
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At which altitude is it necessary to breathe

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Elements of The climate

Temperature: Refers To the degree of specific heat of the air at a given time and place.

Precipitation: It Is any form of hydrometeoro coming from the atmospheric water in the form of Clouds to the terrestrial surface.

Atmospheric pressure: The weight exerted by a mass of air on the earth's surface.

Humidity: The Amount of water vapor contained in the air.

Winds: It is the Movement of the air in the atmosphere.

Evaporation: It Is the physical process that consists of the passage from a liquid state to a Gaseous state.

Cloudiness: the Amount of clouds in the atmosphere.

Climate Factors

Altitude: As the altitude increases above sea level the temperature decreases.

The latitude: According To these are determined great climatic strips,... Continue reading "At which altitude is it necessary to breathe" »

Wilson cycle wiki

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Wilson cycle: Wegener suggested that there have been 2 cyclical processes of rifting&reuniting of supercontinents during Earth's history.-Continental rifting:the rift has caused depressions,which has resulted in the formation of deep lakes at the bottom of the valley.-Extension of the ocean basin:1-A dome forms:the heat under the continent causes the crust to expand and lift up. 2-Continental rift stage:large fractures appear which make the lithosphere thinner&lead to the formation of a continental rift.3-Narrow sea stage:continents has completely split&separated.4-Maturing ocean stage:the divergence continues&the formation of oceanic lithosphere due to sea-floor spreading increases.-Closing of the ocean basin:the oceanic lithosphere
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the enviroment

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in the early 1970s, scientist discovered that a class of chlorine containing industrial chemicals called halocarbons were harmful to the ozone layer. the most commonly used halocarbons are chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). 
cfcs are stable, non-toxic flammable.
these qualities have made them very attractive for the industrial use. they have numerous industrial applications. unfortunately, they are also the major contributors to the depletion of the ozone layer, and consequently need to be eliminated. over the years greenpeace has maintained that it is possible to meet all the human needs that have been serviced by ozone depleting substances without using chemicals that harm the ozone layer or the global climate. 
in 1992, greenpeace published two
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Naturales y esas

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Eolic: unlimited, low installation costs, clean, high efficiency/ wind is intermittent and inconsistent, difficult to store, requires large areas, wind turbines are loud, interferes with radars, televisions, danger to birds/ transformed directly into electricity; Geothermal: clean, not dependent on weather conditions/ negative environmental impact, installation is difficult and costly/ transformed directly into electricity; Tidal: unlimited, clean, not dependant on weather conditions/ low efficiency, negative environmental impact, limited to certain coastal areas/ transformed directly into electricity. Heat is thermal energy which is transfer from one body or system to another. This transfer is caused by a difference in temperature. Heat flows
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Technology forces

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DEFORMATION:The Process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress is called deformation. In The example above, the spaghetti deformed in two different ways—by bending and BY BREAKING.

       compression is when The Type Of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed, such As When two tectonic plates collide.
        tension:is When stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object.
        folding:The Bending of rock layers because of stress in the Earth’s crust
Anticlines Or upwardarchingfolds,Synclines,Downward,Troughlike Folds,Monocline.
faulting:Some Rock layers break when stress is applied to them. The surface along which rocks Break and slide past each
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What natural phenomenon on Earth lowers the amount of CO2 in our atmosphere?

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Carbon Cycle:

CO2 is produced by combustion of biomass and Fossilized organic matter.

Animals such as reef-building corals and Mollusc have hard parts that are composed of CaCo3 and can become fossilized in Limestone.

Process that carbon does to get back to the atmosphere:




4.Volcanic eruption


6.Release from the Ocean

Reservoir/sinks for carbon: coal, soil, Gas/oil, limestone, and atmosphere.

Carbone dioxide is converted by autotrophs into Carbohydrates via photosynthesis and returned to the atmosphere as CO2 though Respiration (fluxes).

In aquatic ecosystems carbon – dissolved CO2 And hydrogen carbon ions.

CO2 diffuses from the atmosphere into the water Or autotrophs.

CO2 is produced by respiration.

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Classified in Geology

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Hello I´m Aner and I am going to do a review about Hydro energy power. This renewable energy comes from Hydropower (or water power) is the power using the energy of moving water (falling water or fast running water).

Hydroelectric energy can be defined as a form of hydropower where the motion of running water (kinetic energy) is converted into electricity. Hydroelectric energy is potential energy that is converted to kinetic energy through the forces of gravitation, which again comes from solar energy, driving the water cycle around, so, it is the result of heat energy from the sun and the gravitational forces from the earth.The water cycle is driven directly by solar energy. When the sun heats the water in the ocean, some of the water on the... Continue reading "template" »