Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Geology

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Mass and balance

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 GLACIER:it is a mass of ice formed from snow falling andaccumulating over the years and moving very slowly
EROSION: it is a process of slow disintegration caused by wind, or other natural agents
CONTINENT: it is one of the main emerged landmasses of the globe 
INTERNAL FORCES:the gasses are compressed materials below the surface of the earth that put pressure on the crust and cause earthquakes and volcanoes 
EXTERNAL FORCES: forces , such as water or wind which can change the shape of the earth´s surface
TECTONIC PLATES: pertaining to the structure of the earth´s crust
SEDIMENT: mineral or sand deposited by the action of water, air, or ice
HYDROSPHERE:the water on or surrounding the surface of the globe
CONDENSATION: drops of liquid formed
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Below a low level inversion visibility is often

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The risk of implementing more buildings in the Environmental factor. First because they use many products in the process that Reduce the amount of oxygen in the air and pollute many areas. In addition, the Extraction of natural resources for the construction of the matrix increases The impact of global warming. The reason why it takes a lot of materials to Build, and these materials cause health problems in society. 

For example; Several families in Barranquilla suffer From respiratory diseases, because in this sector a new one has been built. Therefore, They are causing diseases to people. Another risk factor if the Buildings in Barranquilla increase insecurity would be. For the high level of Population that would be more difficult to control.
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Delay in recognizing "air pollution as a health risk

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Firstly, I think that we have to be aware of the importance of the environment and that we have to care of it. The environment is al around us, the space in which the life of living beings develop and the health of this directly influences in our lives.

Unfortunately most of the people don’t realise that we are harming the environment. Many times it seems that the human being, especially big industries, try to attack their own species and everything that inhabit the planet.

The most serious problems are the pollution of the air that we breathe, which also generates the greenhouse effect, the pollution of rivers and seas and the use up of natural resources.

For all this I think that we should become aware and help our environment and our planet... Continue reading "Delay in recognizing "air pollution as a health risk" »

uoe

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1) Constructive or divergent Two plates are moving apart from each other. New magma rises to the surface to Fill the gap and cools to form basalt. Lava forms volcanoes and rift valleys.

2) Destructive or convergentTwo plates are movingtowards each Other. Usually an oceanic plate sinks below the other and it is destroyed in The subduction zone. Sediments on The sea bed between the two plates are compressed and folded to form the World’s highest mountain ranges.The friction from the plate movement makes the Rocks melt and this produces volcanoes. Earthquakes are frequent since the Ground shakes from the forced movement of rock.

3) ConservativeTwo plates move Against each other. This may be in the same direction but at different Speeds. Stress... Continue reading "uoe" »

JC

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Road Stages

1. Pioneering: Removal of trees to allow for road installation
2. Clearing and grubbing: Removal of vegetation, rocks, stumps, and other Obstacle
3. Establishing the subgrade: smoothing the grade and cutting or filling the grade As necessary
4. Establishing final road grade: adjusting final grade and finishing road template
5. Installing drainage structures                   
6. Surfacing the road                           Road Shapes
7. Stream crossings                              - Insloped:  sloped in towards uphill side of terrain into a ditch
8. Maintenance                                    - Outsloped
9. Closure                                     
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Find ut 6 primary 3 rd cycle

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The wilson cycle: he suggested that thorughout the history of the earth there have been two cyclic processes of rifting and reuniting of supercontinents. A clear example of continental rifting is found in the rift valley in east africa. 1. A dome forms: the heat under the continent causes the crust to expand and lift up. 2. Continental rift stage: large fractures appear which make the litosphere thinner and lead to the formation of a continental rift. 3.Narrow sea stage: the continent has completely split and separated. 4. Maturing ocean stage: the divergence continues and the fomation of oceanic litosphere due to sea-floor spreading increases. 5.Shrinking ocean stage: the ocean begins to coles because of subduction on its boundaries. 6. Convergence
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Comparing the surface wind to the 3000ft wind:

Classified in Geology

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9. How tectonic plates can be and what each one consists of

Epirogenic, Orogenic. The former are large-scale changes, With little fracturing or folding of the plates. The latter cause lithospheric Deformation.


10. How earthquakes can be measured

Earthquakes can be measured according to different scales


11. What are the causes of an earthquake

Tectonic earthquakes: occur when tectonic plates collide, Slide or accommodate

Volcanic earthquakes: are associated with volcanic eruptions


12. What is the structure of a volcano

Sump, Secondary crater, Cone or volcanic building, chimney, Lava And solidified ash, Magma chamber


13. How is wind erosion

Wind erosion is seen in the arid zones where the wind raises And drags loose particles that hit other rocks and they... Continue reading "Comparing the surface wind to the 3000ft wind:" »

What intensity and type of aircraft icing is most likely to occur at FL100

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Chapter 8 –  Earthquakes

What is the elastic rebound theory?  Is it possible for energy building up in the lithosphere to be released in a sequence of earthquakes?

Rocks “spring back” – a phenomena called elastic rebound

Energy is released in a sequence of earthquakes (one earthquake can trigger slip on a nearby fault)

What is a seismic body wave, and what characterizes each of the two types of body waves (i.E. type of motion, velocity)?

1.Primary(P) waves(spring)=push&pull motion,greatest velocity, arrive first, travel solid, liquid, gases.2. Secondary(S) waves (rope)=up&down motion,slower velocity, arrive after P at seismogrph,travel only solid.

What is a seismic surface wave, and what characterizes each of the two types of surface... Continue reading "What intensity and type of aircraft icing is most likely to occur at FL100" »

Divot

Classified in Geology

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AREA warm: Equatorial: temperature-25 C / rain-2,000 mm / rivers - cabdalosos and regular / vegetation-lush varied forest / wildlife-wide animal Minimum Suite small some are in danger of extinction / / Tropical: temeperatures-elebades during all Lany / / rain-dry Umida / rivers-bariables / greenery, tropical forest / wildlife-barietat bird animal herbibors / desert: temperature-25 C / rain-scarce below 250 mm / rivers - iregulars / vegetation-short there are almost plants / wildlife-short there are moles few animals temperate zone: OCEANIC: temperature-soft / rain-coast 750 mm / river-flow abundant and regular / begetacio-woods Deciduous ivegetacio bush / wildlife-forest mammals, birds, rodents / MEDITERRANEAN: temperature-summer heat Ivern

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Spain

Classified in Geology

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ª T cell: in 1768 tested espallanzani ke microbes came from the air and could be removed by boiling. But it was not till 1861 that Pasteur carried out a series of elegant experiments tested ke ke organisms such as fungi and bacteria do not appear in the media rich in nutrients for themselves in non-living materials. Oparin until 1924 does not make any real progress when Oparin experimentally showed that atmospheric O2 prevented the synthesis of organic molecules are necessary constituents ke for the emergence of life. In the same year, Haldane suggested ke tb pre-biotic oceans of the Earth would have formed a [hot dilute soup] in which organic compounds, the elementary constituents of life may have been formed. This idea was called biopoesis,
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