Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Medicine & Health

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Enfermedades del sistema circulatorio

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Arteriosclerosis: is a serious illness caused by the accumulation of fats in the arteries which causes them to narrow and restricts the blood flow.

Thrombosis: is due to the forming of blood clots in a bloos vessel. The blood clot circulates until it reaches a narrow blood vessel where it gets stuck. In this way, the blood is prevented from reaching the area where the obstruction is. This illness can have serious consequences, especially if the obstruction occurs in the brain or the heart.

Heart attacks: kill a part of the heart due to the total obstruction of the arteries. Caused an intense pain in the chest which goes down the left arm and which does not disappear with rest.

Angina: coronary art. partly blocked. Heart muscle will get less oxygen.

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Enfermedades de los sistemas respiratorio y digestivo

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CAVITIES:consist of the progressive destruction of teeth due to attacks from the bacteria which live in the mouth. the only way to prevent cavities is to ensure your dental hygiene is appropiate and to go to the dentist. 

ULCERS: is a small wound which appears on the wall of the estomach or the duodenum. An ulcer is generally cansidered to be related to stress.

GASTRITIS: is the inflamation of the walls of the stomach and it causes a burning sensation and makes digestion difficult. It is a very common illness and it can be effectively treated with drugs.

GASTROENTERITIS: is caused by an infection provoked by a virus or bacteria or by food poisoning. It causes discomfort, fever, vomiting and diarrhoea. It can be cured by a few days rest.


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ATC Code or Classification System Anatomical, Therapeutic, Chemical

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ATC code or Classification System Anatomical, Therapeutic Chemical (ATC: acronym of Anatomical, Therapeutic, Chemical Classification System) is an index of drug substances and drugs, organized according to therapeutic groups. This system was established by the World Health Organization , and has been adopted in Europa . The code contains the organ or system on which it acts, the pharmacological effects, therapeutic indications and the drug's chemical structure

It is structured into five levels:

  • 1 .- Level (anatomy) organ or system in which the drug acts. There are 14 groups in total

Chest and abdominal muscles

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Chest muscles: the pectoralis major, can act as an accessory in respiration. Sawing greater, located between the scapula and the chest wall. Origin in the lateral surface of the first eight ribs; insertion, regardless of the scapula spine. Action: rotation of the scapula and inspiratori. External intercostal muscles, each of these 11 pairs occupy the intercostal space, the ribs superior to inferior, from the Tuber of the rib to the cost-chondral junction; intercostal muscles inmates are in a position perpendicular to the deepest and external intercostal, previously and subsequently to reach al'estern angle of the ribs, the intercostal muscles are similar to internal and intimate are the deepest portion. are respiratory muscles; media intercostal... Continue reading "Chest and abdominal muscles" »

Ostomy and enemas

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Intervention quiruqica an organ which communicate with the outside through a hole not natural.ESTOMAS NUTRITION: An alternative route of nutrition when for some reason prevented from doing so naturally due to cancer of the mouth, esophagus, or ingestion of caustic. This feeding is done through sondas.esofagostomia, faringostomia, gastrostomy, jejunostomy.
STOMATA DISPOSAL: Externalization of the intestine to abdominal wall travez sutured to the skin in order to create an artificial outlet for the evacuation of areas are heces.Dependiendo denominan.ILIOSTOMIA.ilon semiliquidas.COLOSTOMIAASCENDENTE feces: feces semiliqi. erritantes for piel.COLOSTOMIA TRANSVERSE: Lee semiliq.poco errirantes for piel.COLOSTOMIA Descending: Lee skin-solid... Continue reading "Ostomy and enemas" »


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Acute febrile infectious disease caused by unicellular parasite characterized by high fever accompanied by chills, sweats and headache, occurring in cyclical patterns, depending on the parasite species infecting. An initial symptomatic phase, characterized by malaise, headache, fatigue and myalgia, usually precedes the classic malaria fever. The paroxysmal attack begins with chills lasting from 15 minutes to one hour, followed by a phase with fever with body temperature reaching 41 degrees or more. After a period of two to six hours, there defervecência fever and the patient has severe weakness and profuse sweating. After the initial phase, the foot assumes an intermittent character, dependent on the duration of the erythrocytic cycle of... Continue reading "Malaria" »


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Hepatitis: inflammation of the liver, this might point to no specific cause. A person with hepatitis may: suffered one or more disorders, including viral or bacterial infection of the liver. Present hepatic injury caused by a toxin. Present hepatic injury caused by the interruption of normal liver blood flow. Suffered an immune disorder that affects the liver act. Having suffered abdominal trauma in the area of the liver. The hepatitis A in children, the most common form of hepatitis is hepatitis A. This type of hepatitis is caused by the virus of hepatitis A (HAV), found in the feces of infected people. The infected feces may be present in small amounts in foods and objects. The virus of hepatitis A is spread: when someone eats something

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Have been numerous public and private systems that cover all or part of doctors' fees, medicines, hospitals and administrative expenses. Health systems are key to fighting poverty and promoting development.
Insulin is secreted from the pancreas. Insulin is the main hormones that regulate metabolism of carbohydrates. Insulin acts primarily by allowing the body's tissues absorb, store and use glucose. Insulin was the first protein where the amino acid sequence determined. Until recently, all the insulin that is produced to treat diabetes was extracted from human pancreas of animals, particularly horses and pigs. It is now possible to produce genetically engineered insulin. A failure of this hormone lead to diabetes.... Continue reading "Antibiotics" »

T.4 Diseases

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Health and health factors: A state of maximum operating capacity of ment physical, mental and social. Risk factors or CIRCUMSTANCES is any detectable characteristic of a person or group of persons relacionalda with the likelihood of developing or producing disease. There are 2 kinds of facotres risk: those who can change and those who can not.
Disease and classification: The disease is a disorder that causes physical or mental disturbances in normal body funcioamiento both physical or psychological. Can be classified as infectious diseases that are caused by pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, fungus, viruses etc) and non-infectious pathogens are mostly non-communicable diseases.
The infectivity, virulence and transmission routes of pathogens:... Continue reading "T.4 Diseases" »

Nervous system

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The medulla oblongata adjacent to the spinal cord and the bridge of variola
Describe characteristics of a length 15 to 25 mm prox. long
The role is responsible for regulating the heart muscles and respiratory muscles are responsible for chewing, the vomiting and coughing.
Pons or bridge of variola
It is a bridge between the midbrain and medulla
Fiber communication can be 2 fibers
Afferent: one enters the brain
Efferent: go to the brain
Pathways are
Function is a center stand us, is also in the physiological process of respiration (gas exchange)
Spinal cord
It is a portion of the nervous system specialized in conducting impulses from the periphery to the central organs and from them to the periphery
Anatomically described as a nerve... Continue reading "Nervous system" »