Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Physics

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Propagation of sound

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sound: pessure waves produced when an object vibratesat a frequency between 20 Hz and 20000 Hz and there is a material medium that sound can travel through.

loudness: how loud or soft a sound is; loudness is related to the amount of energy that reaches our ears per unit of time.
pitch: how high or low a sound is; pitch is related to the frequency of the vibration that produces the sound.
timbre: quiality of a sound that makes it different to other sounds of the same pitch and loudness; timbre is related to the shape of the sound wave.
echo: reflection of sound from a surface that is more than 17 m away from the emitter.
reverberation: reflection of sound on a surface that is less than 17 m away from the emitter.
vibration: mechanical oscillation;
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Latitude of the position

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  • This principle was in favor of the wave nature of matter
  • It stated that it is impossible to simultaneously evaluate the precise position and momentum of particle. There is always some probability in predicting the position and momentum of a particle. Mathematically, it can be written as:

                   (Δx)(Δp) ≥ h/(2π)

Considering the above equation, 2 cases are possible:

  • Case-1- If precise momentum(p) of an electron is known, then its wavelength by De Broglie’s hypothesis will be constant:

              λ = h/p

It means that the wavelength has a fixed value and the wave is extended infinitely throughout the wave. Hence, it is impossible to find the position of the wave.

Mathematically,... Continue reading "Latitude of the position" »

Curing concrete in "carbonated water"

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Shrinkage Reducing Admixture  “product or product residue may explosively Combust…” • Superplasticizer  Kills fish and ruins water – never pour down a Drain! • Colloidal Silver  “…known to cause birth defects…” • Silver Nitrate Solution  A poison, oxidizer, and corrosive!

Nitric acid + nitrobenzene = spontaneous explosion  We have separate storage for acids vs bases vs   Disposable safety gloves  One-time use  Remove and throw out when exiting lab • Neoprene gloves  For acids/bases  Wash outside fully before removing so next person Can use them safely • Lab coats  Protect skin from chemicals, broken glass, Abrasions  Protects your experiments from outside schmutz  According to Bruce
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Types of motor

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TYPES OF COMPOUNDS: Endocentric. There is a hyponymy relationship between the overall meaning of the compound and the meaning of the head. In other words, “compound” is a type of “head”. Gear box. Exocentric (metonymy): there’s no hyponymy relationship between the overall meaning of the compound and the meaning of the head. In other words, “compound” is not a type of “head” but… Scapegoat. Appositional: there’s a bidirectional hyponymy relationship between A and B. In other words, A is B and B is A. The referent of both A and B is exactly the same. Sofabed. Copulative/duandua: there’s no bidirectional hyponymy relationship. In other words, “compound” is not a type of A nor a type of B. Its meaning is not compositional.
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Edwardian literature

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MODERNISM (1920-1935) -Fragmentation as a reaction against classical patterns, conventions and tradition.It started before WWI, but it wasn't until afterwards that it developed. -Anti-historicist, rejects sequential time (non-cronological), absolute polarities and the division between past and present (simultaneity). -Elitist: a certain level of knowledge is required to understand this movement. -Cultural despair: society expected changes after WWI, but this didn’t happen and they are in chaos and despair, afraid of the unknown (repetitive and nightmarish circumstances). -Moral relativism: each person judges what is moral or not, there is not any absolute value. -It portrays the impact of technology: a mechanical movement will establish a... Continue reading "Edwardian literature" »

"average velocity vector" speed "average speed" pdf acceleration

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Biomechanics: Application of mechanical principles in the study of living organisms. Kinematics: appearance or description of motion, linear kinetics, angular kinematics. Kinetics: Forces that cause motion, linear kinetics, angular kinetics. Statics: mechanics of objects moving at constant velocity. Dynamics: mechanics of objects in accelerated motion(changing) Qualitative: non numeric description based on observ Quantative: numeric description based on data collected

Force: A push or pull applied, Effect that one body has on another, is a vector quantity wit magnitude and direction, and point of application. Produces motion Internal force:act within the object hold together when acted by external forces. External force: Act on an object as... Continue reading ""average velocity vector" speed "average speed" pdf acceleration" »

Why is indifference curve generally curve to the point of origin

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Example 2 Find parametric equations for a particle that starts at (0, 3, 0) and moves around a circle as shown
in Figure 17.1.
: Circle of radius 3 in the yz-plane, centered at origin
Solution Since the motion is in the yz-plane, we have x = 0 at all times t. Looking at the yz-plane from the
positive x-direction we see motion around a circle of radius 3 in the clockwise direction. Thus,
x = 0, y= 3cost, z = -3 sint.

Example 3 Describe in words the motion given parametrically by
x = cost, y = sint, z = t.
Solution The particles x- and y-coordinates give circular motion in the xy-plane, while the z-coordinate
increases steadily. Thus, the particle traces out a rising spiral, like a coiled spring. (See Figure 17.2.)
This curve is called a helix.

Figure 17.... Continue reading "Why is indifference curve generally curve to the point of origin" »

A body is placed in a certain airstream

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FORCE-influence that can deform a body or change its movement,or produce motion in a body at rest

STRENGTHof a material-ability to withstand external forces without breaking
STRESSES-physical demands that a body or object must withstand when one or more external forces are applied to it 
     types: COMPRESSION-caused by forces acting on a body that tend to flatten it or reduce its length or thickness
TENSION-on a body that tend to strech it
BENDING-on an element that make it curve or bend
TORSION-on a body that make it twist 
SHEAR-caused by two equal forces applied in opposite directions.Shear stress will tend to cut the material
ELECTRIC CIRCUIT-series of interconnected components that an electric current flows through to produce an effect
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True Airspeed ()

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Quoting: repeat another source word for word, using quotation marks.

Summarizing: to take ideas from a large passage of another source and condense them, using your own words.
Paraphrasing: use the ideas from another source but change the phrasing into your own words. 
in-text citation: Insert a short reference in brackets at the end of Each piece of borrowed information.
Reference ListPrepare a list describing the complete details of Your sources.
Funnel IntroductionBegins with a broad, general statement about the topic.Follows with narrower, more specific statements about the topic .Final sentence is thesis statement.

As Smith says, “I have always wanted to travel and now My dream has come true” (1998, p.6)  
As Smith (1998) says,
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Coh3 chemical name

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Many factors affect the rate of chemical reactions  For example, a solid reagent reacts much faster if it breaks down into small pieces. The larger parts take longer to react. The two factors influencing the chemical reactions are the temperature and the concentration of the reagent
In general, the higher the temperature, the faster the reaction Will be.
When temperature is increased, the molecules (or atoms) have
more energy, thus meaning that they collide into each other with
more force. 
The concentration of reagents
The concentration of a substance refers to the relationship between
the amount of substance and its volume. The higher the concentration
the more substance per unit volume