Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Psychology and Sociology

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Project work as a natural extention of conten base instruction

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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- Anchoring to previous knowledge

Anchoring to previous knowledge is important because learner’s prior knowledge is the starting point to build new learning.

Existing knowledge consists of, content, language, attitudes, opinions and experiences related to the topic under study.

The relational links are the glue that fixes learning in memory.

The CLIL teacher can intensify the learner’s connections in their brains by promotion the activation of the knowledge that the learners already possess.

- Host

The acronym HOT means: Higher-order thinking

Teachers who ask “higher-order” questions promote learning, these questions require students to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information, not simply recalling facts.

By HOTS students can:

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Theories of work motivation

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Perceptual Grouping: Tendency to group several stimuli together into a recognizable pattern-Continuity: only the obvious continuous  patterns or relationships  -Closure: Perceptual process will close the gaps that are unfilled from sensory inputs (May see whole where none exist or may not see what exists -Proximity: Nearness states that a group of stimuli that are close together will be perceived as whole pattern of parts belonging together . Exp Students coming out of lecture hall.  -Similarity: Greater similarity of stimuli, the greater the tendency to perceive them as a common group. Group of ppl coming out of office building = proximity & similarity -Contrast Effect: is the tendency to perceive stimuli that differ from expectations

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Project management file 2

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Big five personality dimensions (Vecchio, 2003)

1. Need for achievement  (importance of parental influences).2. Need for autonomy 3. Locus of Control: Internal (control of own destiny)/ external (others control my Destiny)4. Risk taking propensity.  5. Entreperneurial Self Efficacy  (ESE)

PHASE 1 start up

Pitfalls (pièges): 1.The owner works for free. 2.Less attention to Financial aspects. 3.Everybody feels responsible, no one is responsible. 4. Too Much excitement. Down to earth!

Skills: 1.Accounting skills . 2.Leadership skills. 3.Capability  to slow down

PHASE 2 steadying the ship

Pitfalls

1.Less attention for management of the company. 2.Conflicts among Managers and departments. 3.Working in the company instead of working at The company.

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Signud Freud

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Freud´s psychoanalytic theory: Sigmund Freud, developed Psychoanalytic theory in the early 1990s. Conscious experience is a small part Of our psychological makeup and experience. He argued that much of our behavior Is motivated by the unconscious, a part of the personality that contains the Memories, knowledge, and instincts of which the individual is not aware. The Contents of the unconscious far surpassed in quantity the information in our Conscious awareness.  For him much of our Personality is determined by our unconscious. Some of the unconscious is made Up of the preconscious. But deeper in the unconscious are instinctual drives, Desires, and needs that are hidden from conscious awareness because of the Conflicts and pain they would
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Explain herzberge two factors theory

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DEFINIG MOTIVATION:

The result of the interaction between the individual and the situation.
-Intensity: how hard a person tries.
-Persistance: how long a person can mantein the effort.
-Direction: effort that is channelled toward organizational goals.
EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION:
-MASLOW´S HIERARCHY THEORY OF NEEDS:
He hipotesithed that every human being has 5 hierarchy needs:
1. Physiological.
2. Safety.
3. Social.
4. Esteem.
5. Self-actualization.
1 y 2 LOWER-ORDER (satisfied internally)
3 y 4 HIGHER-ORDER (satisfied externally)
An individual can be motivated at the same time in different groups.
As each need is substantially satisfied, the next one beacomes dominant.
-MC GREGOR´S THEORY X AND THEORY Y:
A manager tends to mold her or his behavior toward
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What are the sensory receptors that detect painful stimuli

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•Sensation is the immediate Response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and fingers) to Basic stimuli (light, color, sound, odor, and texture).
•Perception is the process by Which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted.

Sensory Marketing means That companies pay extra attention to how our sensations affect our product Experiences. Marketers recognize that our senses help us to decide which Products appeal to us.

Sensory  thresholds:•If youhaveeverblown a dogwhistle and watchedyourpoochrespond to a soundyoucannothear, youwon’t be surprised to learnthatthere are somestimulithatpeoplesimplycan’tperceive.

•Some of us pick up sensoryinformationthatotherswhosesensorychannelshavedisminisheddue to disabilityoragecannot.
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Consumer

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Consumer behavior: the study of the processes involved when individuals Or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or Experiences to satisfy needs and desires.

•In itsearlystages of development, researchesreferred to thefield as buyerbehavior; thisreflectedanemphasisontheinteractionbetweenconsumers and producersat the time of purchase.
•Mostmarketersnowrecognizethatconsumerbehavioris in factanongoingprocess, notmerelywhathappens at themoment a consumerhandsovermoneyor a creditcard and in turnreceivessomegoodorservice.
•Consumir: a personwhoidentifies a needordesire, makes a purchase, and thendisposes of theproductduringthethreestages of theconsumptionprocess.
•In many cases, however, differentpeopleplay a
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Unconscious episodic memory

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Thompson reported that one nucleus in the Cerebellum, lateral interpositus nucleus (LIP), as basic for Learning. For instance, if blocking LIP activity with drugs, during learning (conditioning) no responses during training. Subsequent complementary studies, Concluded that LIP was necessary for learning, retention, and extinction of Responses. Types of Memory  §Short term memory: for recent events. Limited Capacity. If not rehearsal (e.G., mental repetition) fade away quickly (around 20s). §Long term memory: for older Events. úVast capacity. úCan last for many years.
úYou can use Cues for remembering. §Consolidation: the process By means short-term memories are crystalized into long-term memory. Working Memory (WM)
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Examen bio

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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The nervous system

Interpreting information received from the sensory organs

Working out appropriate responses to this Information

Sending instruction to the effectors

Coordinating the functions of the body’s organs

Carrying out intellectual and mental processes

Transmitting emotions and feelings

Different types of neurons

Sensory neurons: transmit nerve impulses from Receptors to the nervous system

Motor neurons: transmit nerve impulses from the Nervous system to effectors organs

Interneuron: connect sensory neurons to motor Neurons

When the acquirer is unaware of the process when one generally does not realize that he or she possesses any new knowledge while learning a language is a conscious process, much like what we experience in classroom.

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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COMPLEXITY THEORY IMPLICATIONS.Only An integrative dynamic framework can fully capture the complex nature Of SLA. A physical flow model that we still don’t know if will ever Exist!!Being SLA the unpredictable result of complex interactions Between individual and environment, all we know is:Lg learning is an INDIVIDUAL process and maybe a different system for each of us... Only through authentic lg use (input, output and interaction) will ss Reach the necessary natural conditions for pattern recognition and Full development. Static analysis of rules alone doesn’t help.TEMA 2:COGNITIVE ACCOUNTS OF SLA:*The Learner is like... Processing information as a compute, book, and Tree in a forest?? Something bigger? A forest.*Knowledge is like...
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