Notes, abstracts, papers, exams and problems of Psychology and Sociology

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Project work as a natural extention of conten base instruction

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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- Anchoring to previous knowledge

Anchoring to previous knowledge is important because learner’s prior knowledge is the starting point to build new learning.

Existing knowledge consists of, content, language, attitudes, opinions and experiences related to the topic under study.

The relational links are the glue that fixes learning in memory.

The CLIL teacher can intensify the learner’s connections in their brains by promotion the activation of the knowledge that the learners already possess.

- Host

The acronym HOT means: Higher-order thinking

Teachers who ask “higher-order” questions promote learning, these questions require students to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information, not simply recalling facts.

By HOTS students can:

Manipulate... Continue reading "Project work as a natural extention of conten base instruction" »

Theories of work motivation

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Perceptual Grouping: Tendency to group several stimuli together into a recognizable pattern-Continuity: only the obvious continuous  patterns or relationships  -Closure: Perceptual process will close the gaps that are unfilled from sensory inputs (May see whole where none exist or may not see what exists -Proximity: Nearness states that a group of stimuli that are close together will be perceived as whole pattern of parts belonging together . Exp Students coming out of lecture hall.  -Similarity: Greater similarity of stimuli, the greater the tendency to perceive them as a common group. Group of ppl coming out of office building = proximity & similarity -Contrast Effect: is the tendency to perceive stimuli that differ from expectations

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Signud Freud

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Freud´s psychoanalytic theory: Sigmund Freud, developed Psychoanalytic theory in the early 1990s. Conscious experience is a small part Of our psychological makeup and experience. He argued that much of our behavior Is motivated by the unconscious, a part of the personality that contains the Memories, knowledge, and instincts of which the individual is not aware. The Contents of the unconscious far surpassed in quantity the information in our Conscious awareness.  For him much of our Personality is determined by our unconscious. Some of the unconscious is made Up of the preconscious. But deeper in the unconscious are instinctual drives, Desires, and needs that are hidden from conscious awareness because of the Conflicts and pain they would
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What are the sensory receptors that detect painful stimuli

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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•Sensation is the immediate Response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and fingers) to Basic stimuli (light, color, sound, odor, and texture).
•Perception is the process by Which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted.

Sensory Marketing means That companies pay extra attention to how our sensations affect our product Experiences. Marketers recognize that our senses help us to decide which Products appeal to us.

Sensory  thresholds:•If youhaveeverblown a dogwhistle and watchedyourpoochrespond to a soundyoucannothear, youwon’t be surprised to learnthatthere are somestimulithatpeoplesimplycan’tperceive.

•Some of us pick up sensoryinformationthatotherswhosesensorychannelshavedisminisheddue to disabilityoragecannot.
... Continue reading "What are the sensory receptors that detect painful stimuli" »

Consumer

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Consumer behavior: the study of the processes involved when individuals Or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or Experiences to satisfy needs and desires.

•In itsearlystages of development, researchesreferred to thefield as buyerbehavior; thisreflectedanemphasisontheinteractionbetweenconsumers and producersat the time of purchase.
•Mostmarketersnowrecognizethatconsumerbehavioris in factanongoingprocess, notmerelywhathappens at themoment a consumerhandsovermoneyor a creditcard and in turnreceivessomegoodorservice.
•Consumir: a personwhoidentifies a needordesire, makes a purchase, and thendisposes of theproductduringthethreestages of theconsumptionprocess.
•In many cases, however, differentpeopleplay a
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Unconscious episodic memory

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Thompson reported that one nucleus in the Cerebellum, lateral interpositus nucleus (LIP), as basic for Learning. For instance, if blocking LIP activity with drugs, during learning (conditioning) no responses during training. Subsequent complementary studies, Concluded that LIP was necessary for learning, retention, and extinction of Responses. Types of Memory  §Short term memory: for recent events. Limited Capacity. If not rehearsal (e.G., mental repetition) fade away quickly (around 20s). §Long term memory: for older Events. úVast capacity. úCan last for many years.
úYou can use Cues for remembering. §Consolidation: the process By means short-term memories are crystalized into long-term memory. Working Memory (WM)
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Are roles and status the same

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

Written at on English with a size of 2.37 KB.

•Self-concept: the beliefs a Person holds about his/her own attributes, and how he/she evaluates these Qualities
•Ideal self: our conception of how we would like to be
•Actual self: our more realistic appraisal of the qualities we have
•Products can:
•Help Us reach ideal self
•Be Consistent with actual self
•Impression management means that we work to “manage” what others think of us. We Strategically choose clothing and other products that will show us off to Others in a good light
Multiple Selves:•We have as many selves as we Different social roles. A person may require a different set of products to Play each of her/his roles.
•Marketers pitch products needed To facilitate active role identities.
The Extended Self:•We describe
... Continue reading "Are roles and status the same" »

What are the sensory receptors that detect painful stimuli

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

Written at on English with a size of 3.73 KB.


•Sensation is the immediate Response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and fingers) to Basic stimuli (light, color, sound, odor, and texture).
•Perception is the process by Which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted.

Sensory marketing means That companies pay extra attention to how our sensations affect our product Experiences. Marketers recognize that our senses help us to decide which Products appeal to us.

Sensory  thresholds:•If youhaveeverblown a dogwhistle and watchedyourpoochrespond to a soundyoucannothear, youwon’t be surprised to learnthatthere are somestimulithatpeoplesimplycan’tperceive.

•Some of us pick up sensoryinformationthatotherswhosesensorychannelshavedisminisheddue to disabilityoragecannot.
... Continue reading "What are the sensory receptors that detect painful stimuli" »

Social Values

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Values and Modernization – Conceptual Framework Modernization theory builds on a long tradition stressing the Potential and extent of human progress. Generalized expectation that socio-economic modernization Effects value change. Enlightment: Science and reason set individuals free Marx: Technological change and capitalism makes Communism possible Smith: Technology is a source of wellbeing Postwar theorists: Some values favor economic progress While other ones not (e.G. Parsons) Nevertheless, classic modernization theory underspecifies (a) Mechanims and (b) types of values brought by modernization. Inglehart and central social theorists consider that economic Change is the main source of value change in modern societies. Values differ much... Continue reading "Social Values" »

Culture def

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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•Abraham Masloworiginallydevelopedhisinfluentialhierarchy of needstounderstand personal growth and howpeopleattain spiritual “peakexperiences”.
•Marketerslateradaptedhisworktounderstandconsumermotivations.

Wemustfirstsatisfybasicneedsbeforeweprogress up theladder. Forexample: a starvingmanisnotinterested in status symbol

•At the bottom of the pyramid is physiological needs. They are the basic needs that each person needs to survive. Food and water fall under this category. These Physiological needs are of absolutepriority.
•After the physiological needs Have been fulfilled, focus can be shifted to the needs for safety. This category is more complex than the physical needs of our bodies That we need to live. The need for safety looks
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