à shift the graph a distance ¨c¨ units downward
à shift the graph a distance ¨c¨ units to the left
à shift the graph a distance ¨c¨ units to the right
b) The political revolution: Napoleon Appointed his brother Joseph Bonaparte (Joseph I, "Pepe Botella") the New king of Spain. He governed by the Bayonne Constitution which included Enlightened reforms: equality under the law, abolition of the privileges of the Clergy and nobility. The supporters of Joseph were called "afrancesados", but the majority rejected the French king. The towns And provinces elected representatives to lead the country; these local and Provincial councils formed the Central Council which represented the absent Ferdinand VII and governed the country Paralel to Joseph Bonaparte. The Central council took refuge in Cadiz And called the "Cortes Generales". On 19th March 1812 the Cortes of Cadiz approved the first Spanish... Continue reading "Religion in the constitution of cadiz 1812" »
AD 711: Moors invaded Spain from North Africa and conquered most of it.
AD 720: Moors crossed the Pyrenees Mountains nd pushed into France.
AD 732: At the Battle of Poitiers they were defeated an driven out of France.
13th century: Moors built Alhambra palace in Granada.
AD 1000: The Moors began to lose control of Spain.
AD 1250: The Moors only controled the area around Granada.
AD 1492: The Christian rulers Ferdinand and Isabella drove them out.
Al-Andalus was the most advanced part of Spain ; the sourthen zone.
The main towns of the southern zone were Cordoba, Granada, Seville, Toledo
During the 10th century Cordoba had a population of 500,000.Its streets wew paved and lit, it had 300 publick baths, 70 libraries and many bookshops. It had over 700... Continue reading "Islamic Spain" »
d) The Convention (1792-95):
Louis XVI was accused of treason and Executed. The European monarchs made up a coalition and declare war on France. Robespierre, leader of the Jacobins, imposed the Terror to execute the Counter-revolutionaries.
e) The Directory and Consulate (1795-1804):
The moderate middle class gained control of The country, stopped the executions and established the Directory which was a Conservative government composed by five members. The revolution went through a Difficult situation:
-France was at war with European Monarchies.
-The radicals tried to gain political Control and take the power.Continue reading "Revolucion Francesa" »