If in a 100m thick layer the temperature at the bottom

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  • Explain the evidence confirming the Big Bang theory.

- The Universal Expansion itself.

- The atomic composition of the Universe which, as we shall see, is consistent with this theory.

- The microwave background radiation. It’s detected a relic radiation in all directions that represents the “glow” or “switch on” of the initial explosion that comes to us today as microwave due to the expansion of the Universe.

- The light from distant galaxies is shifted towards red: they’re going away (Doppler effect). The universe was originated from a single point.


  • Write the schedule of the big bang events.

Before the Big Bang, according to scientists, the vastness of the observable universe, including all its matter and radiation, was compressed into a hot, dense mass. This point experienced a violent expansion, origin of time, space and all groupings of matter. This almost incomprehensible estate has been speculated that existed just a fraction of the first second of time.

Massive blast allowed all known matter and energy of the universe, including space and time, to arise from some type of unknown energy.

The theory holds that, in an instant (one trillionth of a second) after the Big Bang, the universe expanded at an incomprehensible speed from its origin (inflation phase). 


As the universe expands over time, the size (volume) increases, but temperature decreases and its density too. Thus, as time passed the material were getting cooler and began to form diverse types of atoms, and these eventually condensed into stars and galaxies of our present universe.


  • Define galaxy and nebulae. Establish the relationship between stars and nebulae.

A galaxy is a group of stars, celestial bodies and cosmic matter that is concentrated in a particular region of space as a result of gravitational attraction forming a unity in the universe. Instead a nebulae is a cloud of gas and dust. The relation between them is that a star is converted into nebulae when it dies and explodes, and sometimes, stars are formed in nebulae regions which are areas which have a high density


  • Why is life possible in the Earth?

1.-Distance from the sun:
Our planet is neither far nor near the sun. That makes the average temperature of the planet 15º C, that makes us find water in a liquid state. Water is essential for life. It is so important that its lack causes death.

2.-Perfect side and atmosphere composition:

If the earth were smaller, its mass could not attract gravity to its protective atmosphere and would also be so thick and dense that it would not let sunlight pass. The atmosphere allows visible light to pass through, which is essential for the vital processes for plants (photosynthesis). The ozone layer traps high-energy radiation due and plays an important protective role. The atmosphere is rich in oxygen, which facilitates the vital process of cellular respiration (common to all living animals and plants). Finally the atmosphere contain greenhouse effect gases, which absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases the radiation reflected back to space

 So the greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth’s surface this process maintains the Earth’s temperature at around 33 degrees Celsius warmer than it would otherwise be, allowing life on Earth to exist.


  • Write the names of the planets of the solar system. Order them in relation to their position respect to the Sun.

Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

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