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The Unification of Italy and GermanyThe Risorgimiento. Setting the stageIn 1849 Italy was defeat against Austria and in the 50s an intense development of Italian states took place, including difference between the North and the South, perspectives for northern bourgeoisie, bur the borders and customs remained the same. Giuseppe Mazzini started the national movement, which consisted on a young Italy and a vision of a federal republic.In the international context Austria was isolated after the Crimean War and France wanted to revise the Congress of Vienna ad weaken Austria and Italy.In 1858 Felix Orsini assassinated Napoleon III.Russia wanted to revise the Treaty of Paris though an alliance with France and having Austria involved in Italy.The Risorgimiento, part 1:In 1858 Plombières-­‐Les-­‐Bains made an alliance between Napoleon and Cavour which included Savoy and Nice for France and for Italy a federation led honorifically by the Pope and in practice by Victor Emmanuel II:Piedmont (Lombardy and Venice), Toscana, Parma, Modena and Papal states, The Pope in Rome, Two Sicilies: status quo.In 1859 the war between Austria vs France and Sardinia took place.Austria was defeated at Magenta and Solferino and with the Withdrawal of Napoleon (French Catholics, Prussia and Russia) and the agreement of Villafranca.In 1860, they were plebiscites’ in Middle Italy (to Piedmont) and in Savoy and nice (to France). In the same year Garibaldi made the expedition of the mille. Also the plebiscite in two Sicilies to Piedmont took place.In 1861 Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed the king of Italy, the capital at that time of the unified Italy was Rome, but Rome belonged to the Papal States. Cavour:Piedmontese statesman and Prime Minister (1852-­‐1861). Modernised Piedmont politically and economically. Use diplomacy to unite the northern Italian states.Garibaldi:The 'hero of two worlds'. Garibaldi was a central figure in the Italian Risorgimento, since he personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the formation of a unified Italy.Victor Emmanuel II./The Risorgimento, part 2:In Venice the Austro-­‐Prussian war took place and in the Papal states there was the Roman Question due to the French-­‐Prussian war in 1870, Napoleon had to withdrawn his troops from Rome and in the plebiscite they decided they wanted to belong to Italy, so Pius IX declared himself a prisoner.In 1871 the action of unifying Italy was finished and the King Victor Emmanuel addressed to the Parliame.

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