Carlos V on his mother 's side, he inherited the Crown of aragon and castilla along with the territories in America, Italy and Africa I. On his father's side, he was member of the Habsburg dinasty. He inherited territories in Germany, the Low countries, Luxembourg and eastern France V. The Revolt of comuneros broke out in Castilian cities in 1520. The royal army defeated the comuneros at the battle of Villalar in 1521, and their leaders were executed. Carlos V's wars were very expensive. He was only able to pay them by raising taxes throughout his empire. Felipe II made Madrid his capital and built a monastery and royal residence at El Escorial. Under Felipe II, the monarchy created by the Catholic Monarchs became even more authoritarian. The defence of Catholicism: Felipe II fully supported the Counter-reformation and wanted to keep his territories free of Protestant influence. He used the Inquisition to censor books and arrest people suspected of spreading Protestanism. The concept of purity of blood reflected religious intolerance. The revolt of the Moriscos broke out in the Alpujarras region in 1568, after Felipe II had forbidden the use of Arabic and traditional clothing. Unrest in Aragon. Felipe II strengthened his monarchy at the expense of the rights of each kingdom. The conquest of Mexico was achieved by a small expedition led by Hernán Cortés who landed on the coast of Mexico in 1519. Aztec emperor Moctezuma. An expedition led by Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca empire in the Andes. Inca emperor Atahualpa. In the 16 century, there were two Viceroyalties. The Viceroys who governed these regions reported directly to the King. Beneath the Viceroys, Governors were in charge of provinces. City councils or cabildos, administered municipalities. Alcaldes mayores had authority at a local level, while corregidores were in charge in larger cities. An Audiencia had judicial authority over a large region. The council of the Indies was the highest authority on American administration and law. A trade authority was founded in Sevilla. This body regulated trade with America and imposed taxes on goods entering Spain. It also controlled emigration.