Accentuation rules

Classified in English

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/æ/Unrounded, front, between half-open and open

It is Halfway between Spanish /a/ and /e/.

Quantity: usually a short sound

May be Lengthened when followed by /b, d, g, m, n, ŋ, ʤ/. Thus, compare bad [bæ:d] Vs bat [bæt] or bag [bæ:g] vs back [bæk].

Distribution: never Found at the end of a syllable with the exception of the word baa /bæ/ In AmE

Allophones:  may Be more open in England

Graphemes: The most Representative grapheme is (a), except when this grapheme is followed by "r"  act, add, happy, flat, man, black, glad, wrap, bad, have

Exceptions: (ai) – plait  & (i) in words of French origin: impasse /æmˈpɑːs/


In final Unaccented positions, as in "city", "Mary "lady, etc. , /ɪ/ Is increasingly replaced in the speech of the younger generations by a short Variety of/i:/” (Gimson 1981:105).

Many Native speakers produce a phoneme that is closer in quality to vowel no 1 than 2 in these instances. This led Wells (1990) to suggest the incorporation of a Further phoneme within the English vowel inventory in his Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, i.E. /i/, a common practice nowadays. When the vowel is in Unstressed syllables, it is represented as /i/. The typical cases where it Occurs are:

1. Word Or morpheme final <-y>, <i>, or <e>, e.G. hurry, jellyfish, sadly, handyman, antediluvian, antifreeze

2. Unstressed prevocalic <-i> and <-e>, e.G. cereal, serial, Venereal

3. He, she, we, and me in their normal unstressed pronunciation, I.E. Weak forms 4. Words ending in –day, e.G. The Days of the week, where the suffix may be produced as /deɪ/ or /i/, e.G. Sunday, yesterday

5. Others: coffee, committee, sundae, always (alternative form)

1)What Is rhythmic clipping. Example

Clipping is the reduction in the duration of a vowel sound.

Rhythmic clipping happens in stressed syllable followed by an Unstressed syllable (in the same word). For example /a:/ in the word hard is a long vowel, in the word harder it is shortened because of the Presence of a following syllable, i.E /hɑ·də/. Certain compound words do not Follow these rules e.G /ei/ in playtime does not experience any type of clipping.

Pre-fortis clipping

Pre-fortis Clipping happens in stressed syllables followed by fortis consonants. E.G: (bead>beat).

Diphthongs are sequences of two vocalic elements which form a glide (or transition, Movement) within one syllable (e.G. //)

They are movements from one vowel to another within a single syllable.

There should be a noticeable change of quality, as it is quite normal For long vowels to be slightly diphthongal due to the fact that it is difficult For the tongue to be held in one particular position for more than a brief Moment.

Diphthongs Are made up of two elements:

a) A first element, which shows the Starting point.

b) A second element, which indicates the direction in which the glide is made.

/eɪ/

/əʊ/

/aɪ/

/aʊ/

/ɔɪ/

/ɪǝ/

/eǝ/

/ʊǝ/

Definition: combinations of 3 vowels in a single Syllable. It’s a glide from one vowel to another and then to a third (rapidly & without interruption). There are 5, and are the result of adding /ə/ to The first 5 diphthongs:

1. /eɪə/(payer), 2. /əʊə/ (lower), 3. /aɪə/ (fire), 4. /aʊə/ (flour) and 5. /ɔɪə/ (lawyer).

B) Its recognition is difficult, they are fully pronounced only:

- When using a slow, formal style of pronunciation

- When the word containing the triphthong is given special emphasis

C) Standard British tendency: little vowel movement and a weakening or omission of the Middle element in the glide (/ɪ/ or /ʊ/). This compression –usually in Conversational style- is called levelling or smoothing. This makes difficult to Distinguish them from some diphthongs & long vowels, producing a new set of HomophonesNo. 1 /eɪə/ - /eə/ (payer = pear) No. 2. Sewer = Sir No. 5 Layer = Lore


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