Affirms the excistence of essence

Classified in Philosophy and ethics

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*Integration of knowledge.

*Analysis and interpretation of concepts and theories.

*Rational critique.

*Transformation of reality.


Philosophers that defended monism believe in the unity of reality. Philosophers that defend plralism believe that the diversity of reality is essential, and the plurality cannot be reduced into an original unity.

Monism argues that there is a single reality which appears to be plural. Pluralism claims the opposite: reality is plural but it appears to be unitary. This clash of ideas forces us to distinguish between reality and appearences. Monism claims that reality is essentially static ( remains permanent as changes occur ). Pluralism, claims that reality is essentially dynamic ( the essence of reality is contionous transformaion ).


 Essence + existence = real.

Types of existence found in essence:Essentialism: Existences exist as separate realities. They are independent and individual. Conceptualism: Esssence is incorporated iinto individual.Nominalism “essence”: is just a name.

Two modes of existence:-Real existence: Quality of all entities in the real world, which exist independently from other real beings.-Ideal existence: quality of ideas in the mind whan an individual thinks them. It is possible to have one or both forms of existence.

*Essence is the posibility of being real, and existence is what makes that possibility a reality.

*Contingent being may or may not exist. Necessary being cannot be conceived not to exist.

*Beings are: - Existence is not of of the properties of the essence of contingent beings.

*Existence is one of the properties of the essence of necessary beings.


Affirms the existence of  a personal, supernatural and transcedental God. God is not just the cause of reality, he also govers it.


Affrims that God exiists and created the Universe, but maintains that human reason cannot comprehend anything beyond that general notion


Identifies God with nature. It claims that God is not transcendental nor a personal being.


Neither affirms or denies the existence of God. It simply claims that human understanding is unable to provide a satisfactory answer.


Denies the existence of God and all supernatural beings. There is nothing beyond natural reality.

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