1. Agricultural improvements
From the 11C the invasions stoppe in Europe and that more safe time made easier to extendfrom the Netherlands improvements in agricultural production, which was the basis of the medieval economy.
- Forests were cut and swamps were drained.
- Horseshoes and collar allowed horses as draft animals for plowing.
- The mouldboard plough or Norman was replacing Roman.
- In central Europe it spread three-year rotation system: ach village grouped farm plots into three areas, each devoted to wheat, oats and fallow, and making them rotat each year. Each farmer had to have a plot in each area and they should respect the rotation.
- Water force began to used to move the mills trough waterwheels.
All this made people eat better and the population increased.
2. The development of trade
The increasing population, agricultural surpluses and increae security influenced the development of trace sine 12C
There were 2 major tours:
- The Mediterranean connected the cities of the crown of Arafon or Italian with Muskim or Byzantine ports. European people exported weapons and fabrics, and they imported luxury products.
- The Baltic and the Atlantic was controlled by a league of merchants, the Hansa, and joined to Portuguese or Cantabrian ports with Flanders, England and the German ities. They traded with Catillian wool, French wines, English tin or amber, furs or wood from te Bltic countries. Merchants gathered at fairs. Over time, trade developed baking, payments on credit or bills of exchange (14C), to not carry too much money