Aircraft systems

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Mosaid Evolution
Mosaic Evolution: Modular evolution comes from palaeontology that evolutionary change takes place in some body parts or systems without simultaneous changes in other parts.

Origins of Bipedalism

Bipedalism: Locomotion where organisms move by two limbs or legs. Walking Running or hopping.


Neandertals: lived over 120,000 they were uncivilized, unintelligent, uncouth person. They are an extinct species in the genus Homo. They were the earliest fossils.


Microevolution = Evolutionary change within a species or small group of organisms, especially over a short period.
The four evolutionary processes: 
■ natural selection, mutation, gene flow, genetic drift


Mutatation:  Natural variations in human genes that cause phenotypic changes.
 Gene flow
Gene Flow = Refers to exchange of genes between two or more populations 

Genetic drift

● Increases genetic variation between groups due to unrepresentative proportions of alleles
● Represents random changes in gene frequencies from one generation to another due to

Phenotypic plasticity

● Phenotypic plasticity The ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments


Sedentism, or settling in one location, became increasingly common for farmers.

Broad-spectrum foraging

Broad-spectrum foraging is one theory that views domestication as directly related to climate change.

Consequences of domestication and sedentism

Domestication and sedentism had drawbacks, but societies became too dependent to return to foraging.
- Land was no longer freely available.
- Populations grew.
- Diseases were more readily spread.
- Surplus production of food became possible.
- Social stratification and social complexity increased.

Surplus production

Surplus production involved producing more food than bare minimum needed
Classes are
- Ranked groups within hierarchically stratified complex societies
- Defined primarily in terms of wealth, occupation, or other economic criteria
Prime movers
● Prime movers, or single factors, have been developed to explain the rise of complex societies.
● These are sometimes seen as applying to the rise of all complex societies across the globe.
● Prime movers include
- Domestication that supposedly gave people free time to invent complex social rules
- Irrigation needs in dry areas that required a complex bureaucracy to develop and manage complex canal systems
- Population pressure from growing populations that led to the rise of leaders to manage the populations
- Social conflict within societies

Culture vs Cultures

Culture is one person's own experiences with the place they live and grow up in while cultures is other people's culture and how you perceive their culture through your own cultural lens
Socialization: infants are born without any culture and this refers to the process of acquiring culture.
■ Enculturation: Is the process of being socialized to a particular culture. You were enculturated to your specific culture by the people who raised you.
Cultural relativism and ethnocentrism
■ Cultural relativism: the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on the person's own culture.
■ Ethnocentrism: Evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture.
Participant Observation
Participant observation is the method anthropologists use to gather information by:
■ Living as closely as possible to the people whose culture they are studying.
■ Participating in their lives as much as possible.
■ Can involve a stark contrast to the relatively comfortable life of the anthropologist.
Effects of Fieldwork
Ethnographers often experience anxiety and culture shock in the early stages of fieldwork.
 Culture shock: the feeling, akin to panic, that develops in people living in an unfamiliar society when they cannot understand what is happening around them. 

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