Textile and iron industries were the dominant ones.
18th century: there were large volumes of trade in hand-printed cotton fabric from India (indianas). The British government boosted the production of cotton fabric within Britain. The mechanisation process started with John Kay's flying shuttle (1733), which increased the speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics, and spinning machines (the spinning jenny, spinning mule and water frame), which significantly increased productivity.
In the 18th century, there was a huge rise in demand for iron to manufacture ships, munitions, machines and tools. They search for a fuel for the iron industry that was cheaper and more effective than the charcoal. Puddling and rolling (development of techniques) were invented by Henry Cort (1783) were important for the expansion of iron industry. Bessemer converter (1856) made possible manufacturing steel (flexible material, ideal for constructing machinery, tools, buildings and public works).
Coal and iron mining.
Widespread use of minerals.
The first mining sectors were those of coal and iron. Coal became a major energy source, the demand for coal increased due to its use in steam engines and iron and steel manufacturing. Coal mines started opening up all over Europe. Wales became one of the major mining regions because the high-quality coal mined there had high calorific value. Coal-producing regions attracted companies from the iron industry, because coal was more expensive to transport than iron.
The Industrial Revolution gave rise to a market economy (goods were produced for sale in urban markets rather than for personal consumption). This change led to the creation of a domestic market as a result of the rise in production and specialisation, new transport systems, population growth and greater purchasing power. Domestic trade increased gradually. This led to the expansion of local markets and the consolidation of a domestic market that supported industrial growth.