THE RESTORATION OF ABSOLUTISM
Between 1814 and 1815, the powers that defeated Napoleon met at the
Congress of Vienna. The organiser,
Austrian Chancellor Metternich, wanted to stop the spread of liberal ideas and
restore absolutism in Europe.After reinstating monarchs on their thrones, the four great powers Britain, Prussia,Austria) reshaped (Russia, the European map to their advantage, but without
considering the peoples and their nationalist aspirations. France returned to its borders of 1792 and the Napoleonic Empire was divided up among the victors. The Congress of Vienna established the ideological principles of the Restoration, such as the legitimacy of the absolute
monarchs and the denial of national
sovereignty. It also called for a balance of power between the victors through periodic meetings and the right of
intervention.In 1815, the Holy Alliance Treaty was signed. This stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of iberal revolution.
THE REVOLUTIONARY WAVE OF 1830
The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal
principles or the nationalist aspirations of some
European peoples. After 1815, liberalism and
nationalism became the two main opposition forces,
prompting the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 that ended the restoration of absolutism.
The insurrections had significant popular support.
When they were successful, absolutism was replaced by liberal political systems governed by a constitution in which the bourgeoisie held power.
The movement began in France when Charles X, the absolute monarch who succeeded Louis XVIl a few
years after the fall of Napoleon, was overthrown in July 1830. Louis Philippe I became the new constitutional monarch. He was called the 'Citizen King .In 1831, a revolt also broke out in Poland, which was under the autocratic rule of the Russian Empire, but was harshly suppressed by the tsarist army