From 1649 to 1660 England was a republic. This was a revolutionary period. England had four separate constitutions between 1649 and 1659.4.1 Oliver CromwellFrom the middle ranks of English society to Lord Protector of the new Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. Leading role in bringing Charles I to trial and to execution. Responsible for the most brutal military conquest ever undertaken by the English over their neighbours.Defended a degree of religious freedom.4.2 FALL OF THE REPUBLIC Cromwell was succeeded as a protector by his son, Richard Cromwell. Richard abdicated 8 months later.Charles I’s eldest son had been crowned as Charles II of Scotland. Charles invaded England with a Scottish army. After Richard Cromwell’s resignation, the republic slowly fell apart. ACTS OF UNION: Great Britain : England had absorbed Wales and Comwall by 1543 and the English parliament rejected the political incorporation with Scotland in 1607 and 1670. Irish petitions for incorporating were likewise rejected. The Acts of Union were finally in 1707. The acts of Union were a Parliamentary Acts approved in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England to put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union. The Acts joined Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland into a single one, United Kingdom called "Great Britain". In fact, England and Scotland had shared a monarch since 1602, when king James VI of Scotland inherited the English throne from Queen Elizabeth I.Consequences:- This state did not inspire any emotional enthusiasm in tis people.-Scottish government had financial problems-1800: creation of United Kingdom.