The Lady Mary Challans (1905-1983). She studied nursing at the University of Oxford, a profession he held during the Second World War. After the war he settled in South Africa, where he began his literary career in 1956. His first novel, set in ancient Greece, brought him international fame, both for its style and care for the accuracy of historical data. He was especially interested in the fascinating personality of Alexander the Great, who was able to recreate with great skill in four novels, three of which (Fire in Paradise, The Persian Boy and Funeral Games) are a great trilogy on the history and legend Macedonian king and complete the fascinating approach to his personality that the author held in Alexander the Great.
The military genius, greatness and the true nature of the young king of Macedonia, which ended the hegemony of the Persian and Greek armies led from Egypt to the borders of India, is evident in this remarkable biography, portrait relentless magna realistic figure around which they have woven the history, legend and emotion through the centuries.
SALVAT STORY OF GREECE AND ROME
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
Original title: The Nature of Alexander
from 450 to approximately 310 BC
ALEJANDRO Imuerto in 450 BC 450-414 Iide C. PARTRIDGE (PARTRIDGE son of the former, it is believed he was killed by Archelaus when he was seven years old) Archelaus I414-399, killed by craters, their favoritoCRÁTEROmonarca for four days, ejecutadoORESTEShijo Archelaus I, 399-396; Ft II assassinated by his uncertain IIdescendencia tutorAEROPO, 396-392; is unknown civilesAMINTAS suertedesarrollo of wars IIdescendencia uncertain, 392-390; is unknown suertePAUSANIAShijo Aeroperlas II, 390-389; is unknown IIIdescendencia suerteAMINTAS uncertain, 389 - 369; muertoALEJANDRO IIprimogénito of Amyntas III, 369-368; murdered by Ptolemy, who loves his madreTOLOMEO368-367, killed by IIIPÉRDICAS Perdiccas III Amyntas IIIsegundo son, 367-359; died in battle or murdered by his son IItercer madreFILIPO Amyntas III , 359-336 - asesinadoALEJANDRO IIIMagno or the Great, son of Philip II, 336-323ALEJANDRO IVhijo the previous one, 323-310; killed by Casandroreyes conjuntosFILIPO ARRIDEOhijo of Philip II, 323-317; killed by Olimpia
It is beautiful to live with courage
and die leaving behind everlasting fame.
You know, the more magnificent the possibility
greater certainty and less passion.
The catafalque ... was seen superb described. In
virtue of their enormous fame attracted many spectators;
in each city they came, people left to their in-
followed the encounter and leave, never tiring of the pla-
cer to behold
Diodorus, Book XVII, 28
Alexander died in Babylon a hot day in June 323 BC The complaints were spread through the city, members of his bodyguard wandered in tears, the Persians head shaved in mourning, the temples put out their fires. His generals were launched at a dizzying and chaotic struggle for power. They fought around his coffin, in which perhaps he was still alive but in terminal coma, as the freshness and the natural color of his body, who had spent some time unattended-produced amazement. We finally had the embalmers, approached him with the utmost respect and, "after praying to make it fair and legitimate that mortals touch the body of a god," began their task.
Roxana's son was not born yet. If Alexander was appointed successor to his deathbed, no one admitted having heard it. There was no known heir whose prestige he could invest amid the splendor of his funeral, for decades, Greece and Asia would be plagued by intrigues and shaken by the passage of armies as generals broken off fragments of the empire. Over two years, as the elephants lumbered after the entourage of the military leaders who switched sides, gold and precious stones of incalculable value to the workshop were to stop at the Greek craftsmen perfected a hearse worthy of its recipient. Was accepted as if it were a law of nature, that the coffin should not be passed in memory, history and legend.
The casket was gold and containing the body was covered with precious spices. The pall covering a purple embroidered with gold, on which set out the panoply of Alexander. Above, a golden temple was built. Gold Ionic columns, entwined with acanthus supported a vaulted ceiling with gold flakes embedded with jewels and crowned by a glittering gold crown of olive under the sun blazed like lightning. At each corner stood a Victoria, also in noble metal, holding a trophy. The bottom border of gold was embossed with the heads of ibex, golden rings hanging garland supported a bright and colorful. In the end they were hanging tassels and bells ringing big bright and resonant.
Under the cornice had been painted a frieze. In the first panel, Alexander appeared in a shopping gala, "with a scepter in his hands really splendid," accompanied by bodyguards Macedonians and Persians. The second was a parade of elephants, Indian warriors, the third in the cavalry in battle array, and finally to the fleet. The spaces between the columns were covered with a golden mesh to keep out the sun and rain, the sarcophagus upholstery, but not obstructing the view of visitors. It had an entrance guarded by lions of gold.
The wheel axles ended in golden lion heads whose teeth holding spears. Something had invented to protect the cargo from the blows. The structure was hauled by sixty-four mules that, four shots were yoked to four yokes, each mule had a golden crown, a golden bell hung on each jaw and collar encrusted with gems.
Diodorus, who apparently got this description from an eyewitness, said he was proudest seen than described. Alexander had always buried their dead splendor. In his day, funerals were gifts of honor rather than a form of mourning.
"By virtue of its enormous fame attracted many spectators in every city he came, people went to him and followed him when he departed, never tiring of pleasure to behold." Week after week and month after month, laborious pace of the mules, preceded by the builders of roads and taking a break while they raided the road, twenty-five, sixteen, eight miles daily, stopping in cities where they offered sacrifices and proclaimed epitaphs, the resonant, bright and huge golden shrine slowly crossed 1600 miles of Asia, the shock absorbers, whose mechanism has failed to unravel any research, protect the body in death as in life had been so careless. To the north by the Euphrates, east to the Tigris, a high Opis critical place in the Camino Real to the west, north to border the Arabian desert. "In addition, to pay tribute to Alexander, Ptolemy came to him with an army and came to Syria."
Ptolemy's tribute was a kidnapping reverent. According to ancient custom, the kings were buried in Aegae Macedonia, the former fortified capital at the top of a hill. There was a prophecy that the dynasty would come to an end when the practice ceased to be respected. Ptolemy, a relative of the royal family must have known well that prophecy, but I had chosen wisely the cracked part of the empire: Egypt, where the Macedonian conquest was hailed as a liberation, where Alexander the desecrated shrines honored by the Persian king and received the divinity, where Ptolemy himself got rid of a bad governor, and gained great popularity. He stated that Alexander had wanted to return to Egypt: what other land, if not his father Amon?
Ptolemy was probably right. Since I was twenty-two crossed the Hellespont eastwards, Alexander was willing to return to Macedonia. He proposed to focus its empire in Babylon was no longer a young Macedonian conqueror to become a great king awesome Persian was uprooted, like all ambitious young officers that followed. Ptolemy had already demonstrated his loyalty in previous years, when material was more I could lose than win. And if now the prestige to bury his friend was immense for Egypt and allowed him to found a dynasty, Ptolemy had every reason to believe that Alexander would be grateful. If her body had come to Macedonia, sooner or later would have been destroyed by the relentless Cassander. In Alexandria would be revered for centuries.
Accordingly, the committee was the subject of awe, which joined a satrap of Egypt and his army sailed south from Syria, went to the crumbling walls of Tyre and went through Judea. In one city after another the hosts of the escort mixed-Macedonians, Persians and Egyptians-pitch their tents around the tabernacle of the dead god, whose divine Ptolemy Pharaoh wannabe savior, would draw their own. Was concerned that was well displayed and their arrival was announced. It is precisely what Alexander would have wanted. He had loved his fame. Like Achilles, had turned days of his life in exchange for the celebrity. It had been hoped that the gods would fulfill their part of the deal and, as in the case of Achilles, was not a vain expectation.
Children who were not born or were in arms when Alexander had ridden well in life looked embarrassed the party of which sixty years later would still talking. They pointed out the painted frieze represented and asked what they thought as they said. During the procession must have come a thousand years of legend.
Once in Egypt, the sarcophagus-installed yet in the famous coffin, spent some years in Memphis, a magnet for travelers, while the tomb built in Alexandria. (When the tombs of the dynasty of the Ptolemies gathered around the tomb, he continued to call as well.)
Perdiccas, CEO of Alexander's death, Ptolemy was enraged and in due time made war. However, the proverbial fortune of Alexander, who led the people to show off their rings carved image, transmitted as a legacy of gratitude to his childhood friend. Of the great generals who fought Alexander's death his empire to seize only Ptolemy died peacefully in bed. Eighty-four years, enjoyed the respect of his people, respected history had ended his life and settled in the succession of his favorite son.
For nearly three centuries, during which Macedonia became a Roman province, the Ptolemies ruled Egypt and the priests of the deified Alexander served in the sanctuary. Finally, in 89 BC, when the dynasty had degenerated, the decaying and bloated Ptolemy IX, rejected by the army and needed money to pay the mercenaries, took the sarcophagus of gold and cast it to coin money. All Alexandria was outraged, no one was surprised when Ptolemy IX, less than a year later, was killed.
The embalmers were great teachers and the face of Alexander, three centuries, had coalesced into a distinctive beauty. Supporters of Alexander the devoutly housed in a sarcophagus decorated with stained glass. Fifty years after the asp of Cleopatra ended the dynasty of the Ptolemies.
The tomb remained standing. Caesar visited him, no doubt, Marco Antonio also went to see him with envy as a tribute to Augustus left an imperial banner. The legend grew.
Had started in life of Alexander, giving rise to the Hellespont on their way to the Himalayas. They grew like weeds throughout tropical and breadth of his empire fragmented and far beyond its limits, producing flowers exotic fantasy. According to myth, the thief Sciron, who jumped off cliffs Theseus Isthmian, was rejected by land and by sea, which threw him together. Possess as long as Alexander, intercontinental war was fought.
Egypt annexed it quickly. Alexander was thirteen when the last native pharaoh, Nectanebo, fled into exile during the Persian conquest, and now it was said that the latter had been adept at magic and that, on the instructions of the art, traveled to Macedonia to beget the avenger of the ills of his people. Upon learning of his fame, called him to Olympia to make him the horoscope. Nectanebo predicted that hero would have a son with the seed of Zeus-Ammon, it announced a monstrous serpent. The snake appeared and started to court. The next night was Nectanebo Amon mask with ram's horns, and fulfilled his prophecy. The stars were about to announce a momentous birth, when Olimpia began to feel labor pains, Nectanebo asked to resist until the stars reach the right combination.
Alexander had just spent a few months in Egypt. In Persia, the kingdom of adoption, his memory was fresh and lush. Ignoring chronology, the legend was credited as the father of Darius II, who had been a daughter of Philip of Macedonia after a win (totally fictional) about this king. Despite the beauty of women, Darius was only one night with her because she had bad breath. And that is why Alexander was born in Macedonia. Later, the daughter of Philip relieved skandix chewing bad breath (chervil) and called his son Sikandar. Since skandix is a Persian word, but Greek, the story shows that the company's cultural melting Alexander was not in vain.
Spent two millennia Persia gracing Dhulkarnein Sikandar history, the search of the World, the Two Horns. Centuries before it appeared in writing in the pleasure houses, bazaars, harems inns and fabulous feats were accumulated prior to his birth, Murch with which Alexander himself was perhaps seduced by his favorite Persian. Only he seemed to be credible these anecdotes.
Eventually assimilated by Islam, were widely disseminated adventures, full of additions, until it took eighty-five verses to describe the two opposing armies before the start of the battle. Acts attributed to him would have rejected indignantly, as they tended to provide you with the qualities that the poet was admirable, including religious intolerance. Appears at a gallop, destroying pagan temples and spreading the sacred fires of Zoroastrianism, he, the most blithely syncretistic religious in the name of Allah comes to Egypt to rescue the country from the zang, black and horrible invaders, blood drinkers brain eaters. To frighten, orders zang a head cook, and after a clever change of course, pretends to devour with delight. Triumphant, the grateful Egyptians leaving (yet there are small outcrops of the story) and It will defeat the Persian king, who dies in his arms and willing, to change to avenge his murder, the hand of his daughter Roshanak, which breaks out in his heart "a ringing noise like a camel Russian."It gets rid of Poros unaided India and accepted the surrender of the king of China, which gives Suitable Rider, a gallant warrior who turns out to be a lady of striking beauty, which passes a night of love spiced with a wealth of details. (Both long did the memory of his desire to see an Amazon.) Defeat monsters and wild Russian Arctic night march towards achieving eternal fountain of life, finding the Sumerian Gilgamesh immemorial. (This is probably the facet of the legend that would have surprised.)
There is a constant element: the ultimate hero Sikandar in accordance with the terms of the time. "It ferrous iron men and the malleable gold." When the Dauphin Henry V sent a bat and ball to make fun of his youth, probably chose the wrong gift vaguely remembering the challenge will give Sikandar. Sikandria Case, "a city like a joyful spring." It's full of tricks, although he did not have approved in its entirety. Invent the mirror ... for strategic reasons and not without some involuntary psychological truth. Venera the tomb of Cyrus the Great, made in Persia was never forgotten. Their tactics are compared to a chess master, and the disposition of his troops, with enameled miniatures. The models are not tired of representing, searching transfigured in Persian, with chain mail, helmet and pointed scimitar, using the bow rider or catching a giant loop of a business, wearing the royal beard and mustache, mandatory where the hairless face characterized the eunuchs in his death mourned by the wise and Aflatun Aristo (Aristotle and Plato), the happy owner of the World, which is like a rose parade. No victor in history has left an image comparable to this in the lands he conquered. At this point it should be remembered that Richard the Lionheart lasted in the memory of the Arabs as the bogeyman that mothers with children threatened.
While popular memory and organized the first Persian tale of this extraordinary mosaic fragments in the West had a very different place, a complex and purposeful. In Macedonia the impressive Antipater regent who had been Philip, Alexander and Alexander IV dark and small, died as a huge stone that causes landslides. His son Cassander, the bitter enemy of Alexander and future murderer of his mother, his widow and his son, began the serious task of liquidating the reputation of Alexander.
The educational establishment in Athens was a tool well disposed, for he was embittered by the interior collapse of the city-state, which left them at the mercy of Macedonia, Alexander blamed the severe hegemony of its ruler, who had attempted hegemony relax when death surprised him, was hurt by the death of Demosthenes, whom Alexander spared despite all provocations, and by the ambiguous Callisthenes, whose provocations had been excessive. The educational establishment had driven to Aristotle for his ties to Macedonia. Before men were lower than as opinion makers, Cassander showed that Alexander's enemies were his friends, and Cassander was a powerful friend. With his encouragement, these opinion-makers, probably fed false information because they believed Cassander had visited the court of Babylon, set about creating his own legend of Alexander. It was an organic development like romances, but a powerful work of undermining that produced horrific orientalist caricatures of a despot, a libertine and incongruously in the middle of excess assets that would have exhausted Sardanapalus. Their inability to generate a horde of bastards in the middle of that lifestyle was attributed to alcoholism drink his semen back watery decreed Theophrastus, the Lyceum science teacher .... man who, like the rest of the Athenians, he had not seen hide nor hair of Alexander since he was eighteen.
During this period continued the complex wars among his successors, his former generals have polluted a little history by presenting false wills of Alexander, which support their claims. He was also a favorite topic of the rhetorical schools, which were busy writing letters in his name, in which he described the wonders of India, spoke of Aristotle or his mother told him how he was. Modern scholars have had to make an effort to remove these knots of the storyline, which have been tightly intertwined the most surprising.
Anyway, the romance develops at the same speed as propaganda. Under severe splint Antiochus, Judah thought longingly of the two-horned beast who had crossed their land without inflicting the least damage and soon the imagined kneeling before the Torah, honoring the one God. The Ethiopians, perhaps fearful of the original models zang, refined their own legend of Alexander, which, in addition to talking to the angel that sustains the world, kills a huge dragon swallow making a kind of pump which then explodes. "How is the great Alexander?" Asked the two-tailed mermaid the sailors of the Aegean, that if they wanted to save the ships, were replicated in a hurry: "He lives and reigns."
In Rome, Caesar fell thunderstruck at the Forum sought to save the republic, they said, and she became its victim. During the government of the Divine Augustus, no one had reason to commend Alexander. The cesarean were careful not to pay compliments to his rivals. According to Roman prejudices, Levantine Greeks were of little entity, Hellenized and smug, procurers, pimps and profiteers. On the other hand, for the scholarly world, Athens was the school that sent their sons to pass on the intellectual brilliance of the conquered, and there was writing the hand of the Lyceum.
Among Republicans, the bitter living in hiding, the interest in the personality of Alexander remained alive and active. If I had not lived, would have been necessary to invent him. His was an imperial effigy was burned safely.
Trogus belong to this period, the source of the now-defunct Justin inaccurate and hostile, and Diodorus. The preferred date by Quintus Curtius Rufus is immediately after the dreaded Caligula, one of which was to disguise entertainment Alejandro. The Macedonian deified and died three centuries earlier was a propaganda gift to the protocésar tyrannical. In such monsters that became presumed to claim divine honors to their citizens ... except, of course, to the present.
Here and there the torrent of abuse met with immovable rocks of reality, too entrenched to be dragged. By entering this difficult material, moralists Republicans said that Alexander had started well, but that all power corrupts absolutely and no more power over the barbarians servile and cringing. The adoption of his effeminate dress and customs spoke for itself.
Disagreement persisted on his face. In the meantime, the copyists Roman statues reproduced rapidly, as demand far exceeded what they could offer the original product of the looters. Not even all the originals were made from life. Even in the most vulgar statues around the eyes, something that shows who claim to represent.
Perhaps the face or perhaps the Greek patriotism influenced the young long before Plutarch's Parallel Lives began. Two of his early works were essays on the Fortune or Virtue of Alexander, by the second priority over the first, when writers had attributed to hostile Fortune most of the honors.Much later, this man loving, charming and longevity put Alexander in Parallel Lives by Julius Caesar. Unfortunately, as a biographer was poor, because he never gave up a good gossip and rarely distinguished the primary and secondary sources, so worried was about to build by example. However, "the books have their own destiny" and his account of Alexander's childhood and youth is the only one we have, the sources used by Plutarch gone.
Towards the end of the life of Plutarch in the second century AD, a fellow soldier rescued Alexander for the story. It was Flavius Arrian, a Greek Bithynian romanized. Hadrian appointed him governor of Cappadocia, an honor rarely accorded to their race, was a brave and competent general who refused a dangerous barbarian invasion. Epictetus, which had been a pupil Arrian, he taught:
Did not know that all human evil, meanness and cowardice arise not from death but from fear of death? Therefore, you must strengthen yourself against it. It addresses all your speeches, lectures and exercises. Then you will discover that the only way men become free.
Maybe it was the freedom that attracted Alejandro Arian. However, the tangle of fantasies and lies committed upset the general virtuous. Fortunately, arrived in time to find intact the main sources in libraries that had not been burned. Analyzed the value of the sources that we have no chance, and chose Ptolemy by Aristobulus, the architect-engineer, and Nearchus, Admiral and childhood friend of Alexander.
This is what I claim, and no matter who I am, my name is not important, although not unknown men, no matter my country, my family, or the degree that I had among the countrymen. I'd rather say to me, this book of mine is my country, my family and my career, and it has been since childhood.
In life they enjoyed great fame and it's a shame you can not know how much we owe.
About 3oo AD on the fertile banks of Alexandria, a crossroads of trade and traditions, the wrecks of the fable, folk tales, rumors, and propaganda campaign fantasies moralizing, combined with some fragments of history, were collected by an author of some talent, though infinitely gullible, and thrown into the waters of time. Incredibly however, was attributed to Callisthenes, who died four years before Alexander, and became the first work of fiction that took the top spots in translation along and across the known civilized world. Far beyond the circle of listeners and readers firsthand, heard it repeated countless illiterate for a second, third, fourth, or hundredth voice through bazaars tellers, traveling artists, people who relieve the tedium of a long journey, teachers , court poets, minstrels and priests. First spread among the people he had met and conquered and, later, among those who had never seen and knew only by rumor, to reach the Far East, in whose existence I did not believe Alexander because he had been taught that the land mass ended in India.
Greek variants proliferated; versions appeared in Armenian, Bulgarian, Ethiopian and Syriac, and then went into Arabic. The most important thing was that shortly after its release, July Valerio put some in Latin, the universal language of the Western world counsel. At the dawn of the Middle Ages, and more than overcome this time, in the West Greek was more rare than gold. Latin was spoken everywhere. The image of Alexander came to the Middle Ages through theValerio Calisthenics and Roman sources and only these. And the early Middle Ages the image split in two.
For the Church was a gift, as it had been for Republicans. Here was the virtue corrupted by Fortuna, the lust of the flesh and eyes and the pride of life riding at full speed toward the dust and doom. In an era when the Crusaders took pride in approaching the Holy Sepulchre sunk to the giblets from their mounts in Jewish blood, was burned alive as heretics, that holiness was measured by a sackcloth covered with lice in ten years and that to escape condemnation excommunicated kings were stripped back to the whip or kneel in the middle of burning embers, King Alisauder severe and useful could be learned morals.
Any time of oppressive orthodoxy, coming from the clergy or the commissioners, engenders rebels. "The hell I will," cries the young Aucassin, defying disapproving Nicolete guardian.
To hell judges are fair and just fallen knights in tournaments or in major wars, the bailiffs and good men of honor. With them go. And there are courteous ladies who have two or three friends besides their masters. There go the gold and silver, sable and ermine there go the harpers, bards and kings of the earth. With them will go and why Nicolete I have with me, my earliest friend.
There were also Alexander. Its medieval romances were a matter of incalculable ramifications. Such is his fascination that despite the authors only had access to more hostile sources, residual data were sufficient to capture the imagination and enchant. The incident itself may be far removed from history, but the true gentleman greeted the soul mate. In Alexandreis and the Roman dAlexandre is the model of courage and courtesy, glorious with weapons, protector of the ladies, fair and generous with their enemies, liberal vassals. It is not Fortune but God who directs his destiny is not Nemesis, but the jealous betrayal caused her death.
They had not seen his portrait. Although they have adapted perfectly to your standards of beauty, give it a conventional face helmet with a conventional and is only distinguished by the elegance of his armor. Venture into the camp disguised as a herald of Darius, conquered the heart of Roxana, escaped across the frozen river and then comes the death of his enemy foully murdered. Run away in a chariot drawn by eagles and a bell jar is the monsters of the deep. When looking for the umpteenth time the Water of Life through dangerous forests, trees prophetic consultation of the Sun and the Moon with calm courage and hear them predict its end. Warned by the oracle of a close friend will kill him and urged him to purge those who are coming, declares that rather die at the hands of only traitor before harming an innocent. (Cassander would have been amazed to know that he was a dear and trusted comrade.) Is poisoned and the Seven Sages moralize on his grave.
Constantinople was sacked and moved west refugee scholars books were saved, the world learned of Italy rediscovered Greek literature and history. In the fifteenth century Basque scholar Lucena wrote to the Emperor Sigismund and explained that with regard to Alexander, Arrian was more credible than the Latin writers.
During the Renaissance, the romances were relegated to children and the ignorant. Alexander reappeared in history. But his image was influenced by legends and an era without archeology, digging endlessly around Italy to unearth Roman copies of Greek originals that had attracted the Romans, as they admired the virtuosity of that smooth style and late preferring sentimental Laocoon wiggles a classic and majestic Apollo.In this spirit, during a century or two painters Alexander provided for large canvasses issues: defeating Darius, protecting the royal ladies, marrying Roxana. His vehement profile is reduced to a bland perfection, his elbow correctly rounded outlines the gesture of a school of classical art, magnificent wax figure with a helmet Impossible ostrich feathers falling, Alexander becomes the apotheosis of male soprano, with tinsel armor in the Baroque era, the imperial puppet vacuum Alexander's Feast, of Dryden.
Meanwhile, serious scholars devoted to examining the sources and critical assessments began when the mid-nineteenth century, George Grote, the most impressive of all-, in addition to many valuable services to historical studies, committed the folly of reviving the ideological Alejandro. Grote never set foot in Greece, which at the time did not have accommodations for tourists and was plagued by bandits, for being a committed radical, made the fatal mistake of mixing fact with anachronistic moral conscience. As he had invested all his faith in the capital of Athenian democracy, decided to attribute his fall to evil rather than external internal breakdown. For him, Demosthenes was right, Philip and Alexander were wrong. For all purposes, the Alexander de Grote is again the Lyceum is a tyrant spontaneous renunciation of healthy Greek virtues the first taste of servility and oriental despotism.
Commitment leads to contracompromiso, and the defense went too far. Sir William Tam, who remained active until the mid-twentieth century, was more knowledgeable and more tolerant than Grote. In solidarity with Alejandro also applied-pro-his own moral code and often defended him when in fact their actions could be considered as mitigating needed and where they certainly would not have surprised any of his followers, while that fair consideration of the qualities of friends or enemies expands to become the idealistic belief in the unity of all mankind.
The most recent scholarly attempt to restore balance. However, these assessments, held in circles which agree to abide by the tests have been cast as a murky filtration to levels that only seek confirmation of entrenched dogma. The resistance to the leveling has made Alexander the chief devil of the egalitarians, while well-meaning pacifists, but little read, have projected onto him their horror at the atrocities modern (perpetrated over two millennia of Christianity) that the fourth century BC pagan hardly have attributed to savages.
Alexander's image has come, filtered and refracted through all these layers of fable, history, tradition and emotion, something that could never be separated, both alive and dead.
The existence of Alexander was established in 358 BC, during the celebration of the Mysteries of Samothrace, where his parents met.
Philip II of Macedonia, which at the time had twenty-four, was a legitimate king but not completely hereditary. His older brother Perdiccas III, died when his son was still a child. In these circumstances, the assembly of Macedonian fighters traditionally had the right to choose the king from among the members of the royal house, made of decisive importance for the country's history. Times were fratricidal struggles and foreign invasions. Regent imposing a combative and Philip had proved their worth. Soon after, as the situation became more dangerous, was asked to assume the throne.
The portrait shows a square face survives and powerful, intelligent, ruthless and brutal probably, but not the evil that chills to see some caesars. It has humor, seems able to fascinate and amatory success by which Philip found fame.
When I was sixteen there was a decisive event in his career. Under the complicated wars of succession, Perdiccas signed a treaty with Thebes as collateral had to provide a real hostage. As yet no children, was forced to send his little brother. At that time, Thebes lived full but fleeting blaze of glory after the overthrow of tyranny spartan. Although intellectually provincial military prestige had no parallel in Greece. The cult of the heroic homosexual love had reached its zenith when he founded the Falange Sacred Pelopidas, the elite corps formed by pairs of friends who had made the traditional oath to stand or fall together. Treated more as guests than as prisoners, Philip learned martial arts from the best teachers. You may be here added to her love of life for women a taste for young people, who would become the cause of his death.
It is impossible to avoid the temptation to wonder if the friendly cooperation of their hosts do not allowed to cross the border undercover Athens. He was a young nobody and would not have been difficult. While in power did not agree to recognize that they had sneaked into the city in such humiliating conditions, but throughout his life showed a deep regard for history and culture of Athens, however great was their contempt for their leaders. Raised in a palace of Pella, constructed in century BC by Athenian architect v and decorated by painters of the best time, Philip was able to appreciate its splendor materials, which still enjoyed a perfectly incorrupt.
His legacy was a mountain kingdom of great scenic beauty and tall men and warlike, whose capital was Pella, an island of classicism in the middle of an archaic society. When acceding to the throne (as Alexander later recalled his men), all the people possessed were the sheep with their skins are covered for lack of fabrics, but until the skins were difficult to take because there were constant border incursions by the villages. As in Homer's time, the lords followed the king to war, unless at that time supported a rival suitor, each company bearing his followers tough, disciplined and armed with whatever they found. The vague law of succession had triggered a series of civil wars and a long history of assassinations. Perdiccas had acceded to the throne by killing his mother's lover, who had usurped; rumor that she had procured the death of her husband and son. Of this, Philip inherited five pretenders to the throne, some in a state of hostilities declared, and two foreign invasions. It is not possible to understand the story of Alexander's life without remembering the history of their ancestors, who probably must have known from childhood. Philip immediately killed the most dangerous suitor, who also was his brother. Expelled or undermined others in moderation, judging by the habits of the family. As his hands were free, prepared to defend its borders. And at some point in those early campaigns was to Samothrace.
Though the archaeologists, the mysteries are still a big unknown and it is unclear what benefits expected from Philip. The main gift was the protection of known shipwrecks, one of the few hazards that rarely met. His "great gods" were pre-Hellenic deities whose offerings were thrown into a deep crevasse and were somehow related to the dwarves, perhaps by the popular memory of an extinct race. The island is steep and cut-to-peak and the sanctuary is located near the shore, the rituals, including dances like the Corybantes and loud, were held at night.
The legend, of course, makes Philip fall in love with Olympia during the celebrations, but it could be true. These activities excited to Olympia and had to add spectacular beauty. The visit made the initiates spend one or two days on the island, which gave Philip the opportunity to see the light of day, find out who he was and probably know. Unfortunately, it was a girl who could own only through marriage.
Olympia was an orphan of a former king of Epirus, a region of modern Albania. This kingdom was more primitive than Macedonia and the hegemony of the monarchs was even less stable, but had significant potential, and Philip, if you ever had hesitated no longer had doubts.
Does not survive a single portrait of Olympia that is not stylish to cancel. Its beauty can be reflected in that of his son, who did not seem to Philip. Most northern Greeks were blond, red or brown. Otherwise, the only visual flash of it we are back to shortly before his death, when he was about sixty. It consists of the simple fact that two hundred soldiers of Cassander, who had agreed to kill her and assaulted her house to commit the crime, looked at her face to face and left.
The family claimed descent from Achilles Olympia. The son, Neoptolemus had fathered the royal family with Hector's widow Andromache, 'her booty after the sack of Troy. Ignorant of that lineage would be momentous for the history, Philip married the princess, pregnant and returned to his war unavoidable.
Prophetic dreams of Philip and Olympias belong to the realm of legend itself. He dreamed that he would close the uterus with the image of a lion, and she who, burned by lightning, the fire was spreading from his body to the ends of the earth, which was suddenly enveloped in darkness. It is a fact that Alexander was born under the sign of Leo, in August 356 BC
Campaign in Thrace, Philip received two messages this news and more, the general Parmenion had inflicted a total defeat of the Illyrians in the west, and his racehorse had won in the Olympics. The right to participate in the Olympics was a very dear inheritance Macedonian kings. The games were open only to Greeks, and Macedonians were not recognized in the South as offshoots of the original stock from which, in fact, were a part. They were considered semi-barbarians (the term "barbarian" was reserved for the Persians) and the royal house had hardly been able to participate through a distant ancestor Argive. For Philip, who had always dreamed of being accepted by the Greek world, the news must have been the most important of the three. It was inevitable that later Alexander's childhood and early described as cool, no doubt, it was a slow-developing child. Without quoting Plutarch cites a long list of teachers that Philip was coming for him. But more important is what he learned from his parents.
When Alexander was a teenager, his parents were not only distance, but they were enemies. The other child had a daughter named Cleopatra, was born not long after Alexander, we can assume that, thereafter, ceased having sex. Olympia is impossible to know if ever corresponded to the sentiments of Philip, like all women of her time was "given in marriage". His pride was used to consider the infidelities of Philip as absolute insult, if not tormented jealousy. It's easy to assume that the violent rupture of their relations had to occur in early childhood of Alexander, years that produced more pain and left deep footprints. It is the age at which the child, if you receive a normal love, identifies with the mother. For Alexander, this was insured under constant absence of his father, who started the campaign, combined with the possessive love of his mother.
Olympia was a woman of great ability and intelligence, whose trial was completely clouded by his emotions, was visionary and orgiastic, but not in a sexual way, had a kind of pride that would not have stooped to commit adultery vulgar. For many women the Dionysian frenzy trip represented a kind of liberating drugs, although only used and the remainder came to autosuggestion and shared emotion. Olympia added a powerful imagination. Anger and disgust for Philip, who had aspirations Hellenic Olympia kept domesticated snakes around Thracian cult primitive. You may suffer self-induced hallucinations. In all probability, Alexander was still very young when she made it clear that Philip was not his father.
In those days everyday life enjoyed little privacy, even in the case of the greats. So it was significant that, despite the accusations that led Olimpia, never mentioned to anyone as his lover. Because she hated her husband, wanted to have his son fully. Subsequent events show that, whatever the mystery surrounding Alexander believed that his birth, he considered supernatural.
In a society of free expression, Alexander did not take long to find out what was the alternative, although the son of Philip must have seemed even worse. The agonies suffered remain hidden a secret and may even withdraw them from his memory. That did not become a psychopath like Nero is one of the miracles of history. In the intervals of calm that life taught you, like all children of high birth, his lineage. It went back to Zeus by both branches mother's side came from the heroic race of Achilles and the Trojan royal blood. Anyway, she was taught to honor both sides of that great war and not treat with contempt or with any hatred. Apart from the damage that may have him Olympia, the world must be thankful at least that.
As the heir of Macedonia, he was raised from the cradle to unconditionally accept that he was born clutching a sword, just as the farmer's son born attached to the plow. Any other future would have been unthinkable, both for Philip to Olympia. All I could do was to prove his worth.
Philip had already won the battle for the very national survival. He dedicated himself to ensuring its borders by attacking. The turning point was the capture of Mount Pangaeus-with its rich veins of gold and silver, which was held by the tribes of western unstructured Thrace. He freed himself from dependence on tribal taxes. Thereafter he paid full-time soldiers and turn them into professionals.
It was a military revolution. The work of the Spartan helots had provided a force of citizens in lifelong learning, but the Spartan mentality was inflexible and the dinosaur was on the verge of death. There were many regular mercenaries: they could be exiled to other cities because of the endless variations of democracy to oligarchy, in which each change of government was accompanied by the violent settling of old accounts; young children whose talents barely enough to armor or criminal fugitives. Enlisted a mercenary general in good standing (which was important) and followed him wherever he hired. No Greek city-state was willing to pay taxes to have standing army, which mistrusted as an instrument of potential coups. Philip did not need the casual labor, discipline, regular force could add native loyalties and racial pride. In fact, the Lord still sent to members of their tribes and would need all the strength of the personality of Alexander to establish merit-based promotions. Now Philip was permanent commander forged a weapon impressive.
Its center was the solid phalanx of infantry (phalanx means finger), a deep column giant armed with a spear of his own design, the famous saris. Graduated length, those of the fourth row were at least five yards and allowed four rows simultaneously attack the enemy spearhead, which made them virtually immune to all weapons except throwing. It was the restraining force. Hammers beating wings were formed by the flanking cavalry. Alexander became virtuoso of this instrument, but Philip was their creator.
Had skirmishers, archers and slingers. Dionysius of Syracuse had introduced innovations in siege weapons, which Philip did not go unnoticed. His military strategy was matched by his political acumen, which allowed him to intervene for their own benefit and at the request of either side (the ancient tragedy of Greece divided) in neighboring wars. His influence in Thessaly and Thrace his constant progress toward the vital grain route to Athens alarmed Hellespont.
We can only speculate on the consequences would have been to Alexander who died in childbirth Olympia, what would have happened if I had your genes but not their influence. Father and son could have joined the pride mutual affection. As it happened, the outstanding figure was the enemy and oppressor, the coarse libertine that some god-thank goodness-it engendered prevented, and, above all, the rival he had to overcome any cost. Alexander's career demonstrates the effect that natural genius brought the deep insecurity felt in those early years and tormentors. The decision to compensate inspired his greatest achievements, and every time I caught him by surprise, betrayed him and led him to commit the greatest sins.
The fact that sanity is maintained due to his capacity for friendship, solace to the one returned from very small. Psychologically, his face must have been her good fortune, people were attracted to this handsome boy with no claim to flatter him and his instincts as a child to perceive it. Developed a quasi-religious faith in friendship, cultivated and even played in public life for her. The true loves of his life, including sex, were friends. Although presented the classic family pattern of homosexuality, was probably the mere availability of more male friends than female that guided his emotional life. Loved himself, as indeed happened often indulged his constant need for security and as warmly returned the affection he rarely missed. When the love betrayed him, was shaken to the roots. It was much that was put into play and was not willing to forgive.
When I was seven years old considered the end of childhood-his father found him a tutor. Leonidas was a certain uncle of Olympia, and thus avoided the diplomatic disputes Philip palace. It seems that father and mother were in agreement on the manner in which the child had to be prepared for your destination. After reaching manhood, Alexander gave his own explanation:
Ada, which was honored with the title of mother and queen of Caria who named ... by tenderness of heart would send many dishes and snacks daily and offered final bakers and cooks remarkable tact. He replied that he did not need that his preceptor, Leonidas, had provided better cooks: a night out for breakfast and wanted a light breakfast and he wanted food. He said: "He himself used to come and register drawers and linen closets to make sure that my mother did not hide luxuries or extras."
A poor diet, and exercise clothing harsh light that dictated their age and nature (besides the need to warm up) were perhaps the main reasons for the failure of Alexander to reach the average height of the Macedonians, whatever it was, the great saris, a weapon commonly used, suggests that reached an impressive height. A man being really low, we would read that identified him from a distance for this feature instead of by the other means that are always mentioned: his armor, his actions, etc., the Athenian propagandists would not have stopped mentioning. Anyway, the fact that its height was medium and probably less than that of his father in a society that placed great value to the height must have been pretty bad. It is possible that, later, to study medicine and physiology, cause and effect. Leonidas did not show affection when he left office and the only gift sent from Asia was ironic: a bag of incense. As a child, to offer incense at a shrine in abundance, as it always did, Larry said dryly that was frugal with the precious things to become master of the land they grew up. Alejandro Leonidas did not bring.
But it was, and once risked his life for him, Lysimachus, a parasite of the court that counted for nothing and liked to call his teacher. Of course, it was a joke, because it was work of servants, but Lysimachus took the humble tasks of the nanny who is not expected to educate. Gratitude of Alejandro personal devotions always lasted a lifetime and, for better or worse, what he got in return is beyond calculation. Lysimachus entertained the children calling himself Phoenix, as the tutor of Achilles. Alejandro played throughout his life that role in the game. Until the end of his days was the Iliad under his pillow along with the dagger of self-defense that was common in the bedroom of the Macedonian kings.
It is strange that a man whose attraction would be more generous impulses. Achilles was relentless with the conquered, he claimed the right of the captor on the real women, defiled the corpse of the noble enemy and remained sulking in his tent while his friends fell on the battlefield, attitude which Alexander would rather die. We must remember that Achilles was an ancestor of which perhaps knew many anecdotes, not only in Homer, and stained with fantasies in the novels of the Bronte sisters, the Duke of Wellington Duke is not historical and may the Achilles Alexander was not ours. His interest in the Amazon suggests, for example, who knew the story of the epic cycle about the duel between the hero and romantic Penthesilea. But now the whole cycle is lost. Anyway, I knew what Homer says, that Achilles' mother was a goddess who was robbed and despised by a monarch, whom he defeated, he had a comrade whom he loved as his life and he was furious.
Plutarch states that Alexander felt since childhood yearning to excel and philotimia, love of honor. Despite his childhood trauma, we know nothing of tantrums. If your weakness to win what had become a sore loser, the childhood friends would not have supported in disgrace and exile. Anyway, the deep anger of Achilles had to touch any of your sensitive spots.
The same year Philip access to the throne in Persia was ending another reign. At weak-running and Artaxerxes II was succeeded by his son Artaxerxes Oco. Ruler tight but wild, immediately set about reducing the powerful satraps and outlaw private armies.The rebellion failed and Philip protected two fugitives who spent several years in his court, one of which is the important aristocrat Artabazus, which we will hear much more. It was one of those old surprising that today just seem to survive in the Russian Caucasus. Elderly and aged when he rebelled when he was pardoned and ordered to return, she survived, become an active nonagenarian-on to campaign with Darius and Alexander, whose warm welcome when many years later they met again points to fond memories of childhood . Accordingly, Alexander knew he had the Persians from memory, not the monsters of the propaganda, but as human beings and friends often had to play with the guys from the large family of Artabazus. Although the Macedonian era, in a broad sense, a Doric dialect, the court spoke Greek, Persian like many travelers, or of good breeding. So it may be true the famous anecdote of Plutarch, by which time they reached the Persian emissaries carrying the call to the exiles, the little Alexander is to receive because Philip was absent.
The conquered with his cheerful sympathy and asking questions that were not childish and frivolous, because dealing with the length of the road and how was the trip inland, asked by the monarch himself, by his behavior in the battlefield and for the courage and the strength of the Persians.
Pella His father had become a military base and the palace headquarters of the General Staff, probably the child moved between soldiers since he learned to walk. The sublime confidence with which it assumed the military command mediated adolescence suggests that he had known for a lot with the privileged intimacy of the darling of the regiment.
Surely it was a guest of the family met a young man who, as he was eleven years old, must have seemed like a grown man: Ptolemy, the future historian. He was a relative on his mother's, was via regular or, as tradition has it, a teenage adventure of Philip before he left for Thebes, in which case the boys were brothers. Later generations of Ptolemies did not reject this claim. As he was born in Pella, Ptolemy I Alexander must have known all my life.
Arrian's story begins with his accession, probably because he did Ptolemy, which is a shame because his knowledge of previous years would have been invaluable. Of course, Ptolemy is the main authority for itself, although they respect the ancient authors. Suppressed the exploits of his rivals, a trend that applies to the memories of all the retired generals, and took full advantage of their own, but was honored for not invent anything, and wrote toward the end of a long life, the tumult and shouting and the party had virtually ceased captains and kings. Arian recommended not only because they fought alongside Alexander, "but because, as he had been king, the lies would have been more unjustifiable than any other."
The modern suspicion to the puerile snobbishness Arrian, evoked by those words sound, is also quite naive. Clearly, not attributed to a superior sense of kings honor, but it highlights the obvious fact that they are vulnerable to public ridicule. Ptolemy was more than ten years older than Alexander, who, in turn, towards the end of life had many men in the army at least ten years younger. In a city like Alexandria, the recitals of history, method of publication of the ancient world lucid attracted many veterans who were in the middle of life and living on their memories. The founder of a dynasty can not afford for such public ridicule.
Then twenty years ago that Alexander was out of reach of flattery, irritated by the fact that the sources 'favorable' are men who knew him in life, critics have sought in Ptolemy ulterior motives, obviously ignoring the fact that their defense is the opposite of what they intended to prove. It is said that Ptolemy was interested in making propaganda for his own dynasty. However, written for a live audience, before posterity. First, why drag to Egypt the body of a corrupt tyrant on which thousands of influential people knew the truth? Why not fill the history and stories that discredit in which, by contrast, Ptolemy stand out? Alexander's detractors have always assumed that Ptolemy Alexander favors to enjoy the reflection of his glory, which certainly means swimming and eat.
We can not ignore the latter reason, it is quite human. However, the loyalty of Ptolemy precedes all interest and must admit that once cost him dearly. Later, though he never was promoted to reach the eminence of craters of Hephaestion, the able and ambitious soldier, as proved, remained unswervingly loyal. Is it excessive to assume that Alexander had something that gave rise to those feelings and had lasted more than his own life and that Ptolemy wrote in the midst of men who share? Ptolemy wanted to remember the best and they wanted to hear. Finally, after all, is the simplest explanation.
In the year 348 BC, when Alexander was eight years after an eventful siege, Philip captured Olynthus Thracian city colonized by the Greeks and ally of Athens. There were his two siblings refugee survivors who openly rebelled, so they killed them. "Such tragedies were not uncommon in the Macedonian royal family," says Grote with irrefutable truth.
The tragedies responded mainly to the polygamy of the monarchs. With a little luck, the eldest son of Queen consort could hope to prevail, however, the Macedonian rulers combined business with pleasure and performing certain types of marriage with the daughters of nobles or powerful new allies to ensure kinship obligations valuable. And the sons of these alliances were, and had been for generations, usurpers in power. Some had changed the succession. Philip approached the problem in the traditional way: It did not occur to avoid the cause.
Being a sexually active man and a great diplomat, made full use of his royal prerogative, it was proverbial that every war took a new wife. Taken together, had at least half a dozen secondary wives, several of whom bore him children, including a boy. All sources agree on the bitter resentment of Olympia. Jealous woman, queen affront or both, the truth is that a tiger was attentive to any threat breastfeeding that may arise against Alexander. The bastard Arrhidaeus, was retarded. Although it seems unlikely that Olympia would cause the situation through drugs, people considered her capable of it and indeed it was. There is no doubt about the imprint printed in Alexander.
As a child played the lyre and sang. We have first-hand evidence from someone who heard it. As an adult was a constant and generous protector of musicians, although there is a line that refers to playing an instrument or singing. The reason is clear in an anecdote in Aelian. Alejandro's voice was sharp enough and was later widely imitated, as all his mannerisms. The Greeks preferred the sweet tone serious. One day his father heard him and told him he should be ashamed to sing so well. Someone appropriated therefore was no audience. Slander of effeminacy should be deliberate and received as such. It probably was not the only time his parents unloaded on him their mutual hatred.
The natural boundary between childhood and adolescence is the famous episode of the taming of Bucephalus. It is a trite story: the mighty steed that was offered to Philip for a high price mount was not left useless and rejected by, the child insisted that he wasted a magnificent horse, the father challenged him to overcome a their elders; bet that it would buy the horse if Alexander could tame it and, otherwise, the young would have to pay, the horse felt confident about Alejandro touched him. The popular idea is still hovering around a gathering of young and spirited and interesting truth is that Bucephalus was twelve. It was therefore clear that the horse was trained, no doubt to the war. What this meant in ancient Greece is vividly described by Xenophon in his treatise on horsemanship. Not yet know the stirrups or saddle, the rider rode bareback or on a blanket. Thus, the spear could not be used for an impact load, as in medieval warfare, but to push (Alexander himself preferred the sword). Still, he needed a horse rider to continue riding well disciplined, but the grip of the knees, the only control exercised through the bit and surviving examples are horrible. In addition to strength in battle, they expected the snails class horse parade. At this point Xenophon, who loved horses, do some warnings telling. "Some teach the corvette beat with a stick under the hock of the horse or having someone run around with a stick and give it in the hindquarters." Disapprove also simultaneously lift the horse's head, and spurred him to whip. It is possible that he tried to prepare the animal for a brave and spirited royal client had given too many hits. Arrian note that, while he lived, Bucephalus was not to be mounted by any other person other than Alexander. Quintus Curtius Rufus adds that, Alexander's horse was able to lower the body to help you assemble.
It is the only incident in the life of Alexander Plutarch recounts in such detail that looks like a real memory. Perhaps in the nights, the conqueror of the world stayed up late drinking wine assaulted him "a kind of martial bravado" and recounted that anecdote favorite, a writer of memoirs was learned by heart. However, his interest is not only historical but human. During the Battle of Gaugamela, Alexander, who was twenty years took care of his horse twenty-four, he was famous enough to be stated. The prime Bucephalus years corresponded with juvenile Alexander's wars, before they ascended the throne, no doubt already celebrated the exploits of one or the other.
Philip bought the horse as they had agreed and was proud of the achievement of your child. Unfortunately for the improvement of their relations, at the same time the king took the ugliest of the scandals that led to their lifestyle. Judging by the account of Diodorus, it seems that homosexual love life was in line with the model only Theban in the sense that their favorites were socially presentable. Philip lacked the constancy of the Holy Falange. There was a certain Pausanias rejected by a new fad. Deeply resentful, in a drunken whore Pausanias branded as eager of money to his young rival. Had he been right, have changed the course of history. I was wrong. With mighty Macedonian pride, the young man took his own life to reject the insult. After leaving a message explaining his action, in the next war with the Illyrian frontier was advanced to the monarch and was to meet a certain death at the hands of the enemy.
A nobleman named Attalus, Philip and friend or relative perhaps of the dead tribal leader, organized a grim farce as a just punishment. Pausanias drunk at home, threw him into the courtyard of the stables and proposed to his slaves who violate it.
Unable to kill Attalus in the middle of his servants, Pausanias went to the king and demanded revenge. Predictably, the king Attalus refused because it could not be legally executed without public trial, although Philip had desired, as Pausanias was a near-real oréstide family, Philip was offered some compensation in land or graduation. Pausanias agreed and thought the dispute was settled. It is likely that Alexander, who was twelve or thirteen, and hear the sordid story. Undoubtedly suffered what was logical for someone his age, his nature and situation. However, these facts would locate on the throne.
Shortly after Philip extended his influence decisively southward. At the invitation became Archon of Thessaly principal chief, judge, military commander and virtual monarch. Really benefited the country because of its long history of oppressive and warlike barons, neither he nor his son had trouble recruiting infants between the famed horse riders Thessaly. But Athens, with its democratic commitment and the traditional hatred towards the monarchy, only paying attention to the growing threat came from the north.
In fact, Philip was interested in nothing less than war with Athens. Plans had expanded and improved. After the disastrous Peloponnesian War, the Spartans underpinned his hated tyranny in the south of Greece yielded to Persia, in exchange for support, the Greek colonies of Asia Minor. That ended his prestige before its power declined. From that moment all the city-states agreed in principle that they had a sacred duty to free their relatives Hellenes. But as they were embroiled in disputes that came from previous generations, will never be pooled to do so. That was the dream that Philip aspired to become a reality.
For a long time objective minds were aware of the need to establish a high single command. Nonagenarian political philosopher Isocrates, Socrates remembered as a contemporary, had insisted on it for decades, sometimes quite incompetent bosses proposing, Philip saw a promising candidate and wrote really long and hard to tell. Philip was undoubtedly qualified for the job. If he had not fathered a genius, he was remembered as the most brilliant general of antiquity, comparable to Julius Caesar. It was not a ruler or severe, according to the patterns of the time, gratuitously cruel in war. Respect the culture, he felt comfortable in the presence of statesmen and peasants and hostility undermined its charm. Its balance surprise, especially since the captivity of Thebes was not the first: when I was very small surprise was that the usurper Ptolemy-lover of his mother, his older brother had to kill before his rescue and return to Macedonia-sent him as a hostage to the savage Illyrians.
Assimilate knew the jokes. After a victory was sprawled in a chair, overseeing the routine task of selling the captives to slave traders, when a clever prisoner said, "Philip, save me life, was a friend of your father!". He asked the prisoner details and said they were secrets. Philip waved him closer. The captive whispered, "Sir, come down the tunic, you see the crotch." Philip smiled and turned to the guards: "Well, it is a good friend, let him free." He is credited with the famous reply to a mountebank barber:
"Lord, how you like that you cut your hair?"
His son did not inherit this sharp humor. Alexander recorded sayings core containing more than ingenuity and jokes that earned him the affection of his men were childish and simple. After returning the life of a soldier who had been shivering with cold in his chair in front of the campfire, said: "You're lucky I'm not Darius, he would have asked your head." That comment was far from Philippi caustic irony, perhaps the young man had suffered its poignancy from earliest childhood.
And he liked even less the sworn enemy of Philip, the Athenian orator Demosthenes, a man who did not have the slightest sense of humor, though he had a remarkable talent for vituperation. He was heir to a great ideal and the last defender. Inevitably, his name is touched by the greatness of the ideal and the aura of a lost cause. No doubt this was a patriot and occupation of conviction, his faith in the free city-state was sincere ... as long as they were in Athens. Only with effort supports reading the speeches of Demosthenes, well polished and published by himself. They were admired in eighteenth century England, where libel laws do not prevent political insults. Pass as the brutal cartoon counterpart Gilray; Hogarth would have been too moralistic and too jovial Rowlandson. No less flash captures the heyday of Athens glare nor assertion echoes the immortal Pericles, in which the individuality of man is his right and pride in their city. All pages are full of invectives against political or personal enemies and against Macedonia ("country that has so far not been possible to buy a decent slave"). For him there is no weapon too humble fun of childhood poverty and an opponent does not stop at no lie that can drain. Although it has all the skills of rhetoric, his popularity is more than a somber reflection of the Athens of his day. It is difficult to read without having the certainty that would have recommended the death of Socrates.
He led his city to ruin, through the betrayal and even the traitors would have provided better service, but by a hatred and a deep-seated contempt. No doubt blindly believed in what he had said of Philip, that was a barbarian drunk was intended to enter in Athens sac and create a slave state. Demosthenes had that kind of envy you expect something bad from the rest of mortals. His belief in the free city did not exceed the walls of their own. He had no scruples to hold secret contacts with Persia and the king out huge sums for use in propaganda Oco and bribery against Macedonia. Of course, Philip also had its own fifth column, composed in part by purely venal agents and partly because men concerned about their own cities, like Isocrates, Macedonian hegemony saw the end of the constant wars between states and a glimmer of hope for the Greek cities of Asia. Philip shameless practitioner of realpolitik, at least it was not prudish.
The adversaries met when Athens sent emissaries to Pella. (Alexander had to be around eight years.) Demosthenes, the star, was reserved for the end and finding himself face to face with the impressive character of Philip, he "dried". With great indulgence, the king proposed to start again from the beginning, but he failed nerves. You learned discourses, memory and lost the thread. He could only stutter and take a seat, his rivals, before which they had boasted that would move to Philip, saw to it that the fact is not forgotten. The fate of nations, as grain prices, sometimes is determined by such events.
During the gala dinner that was offered, the young Alexander, who still took music lessons, sang several songs with a friend. Upon his return, Demosthenes taunted that interpretation and made some rude pun. He had a difficult youth, was orphaned at an early age he was cheated by his managers and was resentful for life. In this sense, it was as insecure as a child whose lyre would soon forgotten. But metals react very differently under the action of fire.
When Alexander was thirteen, the succession struggle in Epirus, hometown of Olympia-war threatened to become feudal. Philip intervened and installed on the throne the brother of Olympia: Alexandros (the Greek spelling distinguishes it from Alexander). It was the wise choice of a man in which, given the Macedonian family disputes, could be trusted to who knew where their interests. It was one of the most effective diplomatic coups Philippi. And it was an incorrect assessment, but the convergence of hidden forces, which made it the engine of his downfall.
That year also made another momentous decision. Alexander was able to receive higher education and as Athens had become virtually an enemy country would have to attend it in Macedonia. Philip sought a preceptor.
He received a flood of applications. Isocrates, close to one hundred years, was offended to see it ignored. Speusippus, Plato's successor at the Academy, offered to resign and move to Macedonia, but Philip was not interested in Athenian politics, but culture. It was only four years, when Alexander had already served nine, that Plato had died, leaving open one of the major hypotheses of the story. His dream of philosopher-king had not survived their hopes dashed. His teacher Socrates and himself had designed the model of the silk bag. The paradoxes of fate kicked them each in the form of the brilliant but unstable Alcibiades and the vain and superficial Dionysius II, while Macedonia was weaving silk in Aristotle.
According to legend, Philip hired the wisest man of his time on the day of birth of Alexander, as the English pair enroll your child at Eton. In fact, thirteen had no idea even worth the preceptor who had succeeded. At forty years ago, Aristotle was a scholar of growing reputation and had in his possession the important history of having studied several years with Plato, which, it was said, would have liked to happen in front of the Academy. However, it is highly unlikely that his academic standing was decisive for the election of Philip. Aristotle was the son of physician to the father of Philip, one Nicomachus. He had to treat one's own childhood diseases Philip and his two older brothers dead, Aristotle probably knew as a child. His hometown, Stagira, on the coast of Thrace, was destroyed by war while a student at Athens and the country be without established connections useful in Macedonia.
On the death of Plato, accepted the invitation of Hermias-old fellow student-eunuch governor had left the Persian government and created a despotic state, although benign, in Atarneus, overlooking the strait between the mainland and Mytilene. Gathered around a small court of friends and philosophers Aristotle gave the hand of a niece who was under his guardianship, which was influential thinker in a state of great strategic value to Philippi. He welcomed the philosopher who always had the courtesy to Greeks distinguished and offered him a house in which, far from the court and family distractions, the prince was educated with a select group of friends.
The works of Aristotle retain correspond to subsequent years in which he had founded his own university in Athens, the Lyceum. His Macedonian period of transition must have been after the teachings of Plato and we have no conclusive evidence of what was taught, although Alexander's later life gives us many clues. Plato was a metaphysical philosopher whose work is suffused with poetry in his youth that he resigned. Your personal mystical experience was one of the premises from which the logic built the universe. Surely the ardent imagination of Alexander found him an interpreter and a guide. Aristotle's temperament corresponded to that of inductive science. It is one of the great enigmas of history: if the gain offset the loss.
The pragmatic and inquisitive intellect and passion for exploration and discovery, characteristics of Alexander, were instantly captured by Aristotle. Botany and zoology Alejandro fascinated throughout his life, as well as medicine. Always greatly interested by wounds and diseases of his soldiers and gave personal recipes to friends and in this respect should be well educated because the Greek physicians passed his art to his children. Each time I left the campaign studied the flora and fauna, took notes and sent him copies of Aristotle, is said to have dropped deer ringed to find out how long they lived (with a great romance, Plutarch puts them necklaces of gold, which is not would be helpful for conservation). The Middle Ages had a whole collection of apocryphal letters of Alexander on these issues, the main source of wildlife fantastic romances, his real observations, which would have been a treasure for more science than biology, are gone.
Alexander also studied philosophy. In the Greek world was the central element of all adult studies. He had not yet become a specialty abstruse, absorbed by the minutiae of their own grammatical inflections. His language was understandable to the layman and his subject were the last human value judgments. The findings of these assessments influenced the debates about law, statecraft and personal ethics.
More than deep, the ethics of Aristotle was composed of high principles. This would have agreed with Socrates that he who wants to acquire it really believes, no matter what, "I know what you want to look." However, Plato has Socrates the following plea: "Make me beautiful inside and outside things may correspond to the inmates." Aristotle conceived as an image first "man of great soul" magnificent role for man to be prepared to represent him and never to betray. Despite being an intellectual giant, became the sorcerer's apprentice to convey that teaching a man as Alexander. It is possible that, at maturity, Plato was the witch. Aristotle unleashed a force that went beyond their own conceptions.
The need to rely on Alexander himself was matched by his genius and willpower. If I ever consciously decided to become the greatest among men, in all probability was in his student days. When that dream came true, would rejoice. At this point it is crucial not to think anachronistically. The Greek world did not admire the modesty and the spirit felt weak, despised only boasting liar. The fact that a man deserves the respect it deserves is the axis on which turns the plot of the Iliad. The last words of Euripides' Hippolytus, "Pray that your children may seem legitimate to me," did not offend the Greek public because the character had earned that right.It was therefore inevitable that in due time, Alexander became one of the most vain of human history. The secret of magnetism, both his contemporaries and to posterity, is that redeemed his vanity pride. Be exactly what he wanted was his passion apparently until the last breath exhaled. At the time he fell below his own indulgence, almost shame to kill him.
The course of law and civic education will definitely helpful at the beginning of their campaigns, which dealt with the old Greek colonies, no doubt had learned the nature of the regimes Greeks from tyranny (by then a technical term ), to the extreme and moderate oligarchy, democracy. The lessons must have taken for granted the existence of a homogeneous set of people (slaves, women, and most of the immigrants had no rights), Greek entirely, at least for assimilation. As beyond the borders of these companies would have to improvise. His teacher was explicit about the role of inferior races, the Greeks and the barbarians were men subhumans, created for use by men, like plants and animals. Was the dominant view of the time and if Aristotle did not rise above it, had some excuses. During his stay in Macedonia, his friend and relative was taken by treachery Hermias the hands of Oco, tortured to reveal the plans of their allies (did not) and crucified.
In one of the lessons of civic education to the students raised a hypothetical situation and asked how would face. Alexander, who most likely knew by heart the "right" answer, said that when he would see how to resolve arises. It was a prophetic response. He did what he did being flexible steel in an age of iron.
Among Aristotle's biological theories that included the woman is an imperfect form of man. Although heterosexual, male world of Greece took for granted, like Plato, that the vital relations of a man was with another man. Where Plato exalted love, friendship Aristotle extolled, within which each was to desire and promote the greatest good to the other. Regardless of any reservations that Alexander had over the course of civic education, it is certain that responded wholeheartedly to this precept. They met during childhood or adolescence, then had the company of Hephaestion.
Like Ptolemy, Hephaestion was born in the area. Probably had known a long time. At any rate, Aristotle, who left Pella when Alexander was sixteen and never again see him or his friends, Hephaestion wrote a whole book of letters. Unfortunately, listed among his works that no longer exist. And the responses would have been more interesting Hephaestion.
If Alexander Hephaestion had survived, we would know much more about him. And if Alejandro had survived long enough to commemorate it, even this idealized portrait would have allowed us to fill some gaps. The odds are that perhaps one of the most undervalued of the story. In life must have awakened great envy, not left behind anyone interested in making known his fame and only have the testimony of his rivals. It is remarkable how little critical quotes. The worst that is said of Hephaestion is that once took to settle a personal dispute where, although the details have been lost, perhaps suffered more provocation than we suppose. He began his military career as a partner (ie, member of the cavalry regiment of the king himself) and was promoted on merit of course, to the highest ranks of civil and military was never defeated in any of his assignments of increasing responsibility, comply multiple seamlessly crucial diplomatic missions, and exchanged correspondence with two philosophers.His loss was almost crazy to Alexander. Just underpinning theories that was just a bed partner or close friend liked by his absolute devotion.
Quintus Curtius Rufus describes it as taller than Alexander, more handsome, in which case it was certainly beautiful. No historian says flatly that they were lovers, but Plutarch says that, in Troy, Alexander laid a wreath at the tomb of Achilles and Patroclus in Hefesfión. Despite the reluctance of Homer, classical Greece was assumed that the love between the heroes was sexual. The fact that Alexander made a public confession as to be representative of his passion for personal loyalties. In addition, Olympia was wildly jealous of that relationship and Hephaestion letter chased across half of Asia. Survive a fragment of one of their responses: "Stop scold me, anyway, not that I worry too much. Alejandro know that for me is everything. " Were nearly four years under the tutelage of Aristotle. When Alexander was sixteen, Philip-engaged in a protracted siege and complex in eastern Thrace, appointed him regent of Macedonia.
It is clear that Alexander had already participated in the war. Although there are no files, the trust reposed in him was not a sinecure. Although the experienced left Antipater as a consultant, at this point Philip had assumed that his son would act on its own initiative if deemed necessary. The border tribes, in particular the Illyrians, not yet submitted, posed a constant threat, so did the Athenians, who, without declaring war, employed terrorist methods, taking a boat Macedonian and sold as slaves to the crew, captured envoy and demanded a ransom, stopped in Athens to a merchant who had gone shopping for Olympia, on the orders of Demosthenes declaring tortured to spy and executed. More pressing was the question of Western Thrace, previously submitted but, if lifted, would pose a threat to the communication line of Philip, who then almost reached the Hellespont.
Plutarch's comment on this period is brief. Alexander, "so as not to be idle, reduced the rebels Maeda, put in place a colony of several villages and gave him his name, Alexandroupolis." Just take a look at the map to clear the idea of looking for a hobby. Maeda The country of the region corresponds to the current uncultivated border of Bulgaria, the invaders down from there to the cultivated valley of the Strymon, which cut the supply route Philippi. And a successful rebellion that could have triggered others involved in a large military disaster.
The first "colony" of Alexander was, without doubt, a simple village on a hill. His father had founded Philippopolis in Thrace, only pride was later revealed that the young must have felt by this act of emulation. But more significant is the fact that at sixteen he was able to convene the standing army of Macedonia continue to be made unconditionally to the strengths of the Barbarians and to be obeyed in a bitter campaign in the mountains. It would be interesting to know where and how they came to trust him previously.
Then there was the command of his father (left Antipater regent), with the rank of general was sent to subdue rebellious cities of Southern Thrace. About this time he saved the life of his father, as claimed below. It was probably during the grueling siege that Philip made Perinthus, during which perhaps had to hire additional troops. Alejandro still remembered with bitterness when he was a great king of Persia. Philip said:
When a brawl broke out between Macedonian soldiers and Greek mercenaries, complicated by an injury he suffered in the scuffle, she fell and could not play dead rather than he himself had protected the body with the shield and killed with his own hand to the men who attacked. All of which Whereas his father was never man enough to admit, it was not, willing to owe his son's life.
Unfortunately we know nothing more.
Having completed the formal education of Alexander, Philip paid the school fees. He did it with a city. Stagira ravaged hometown of Aristotle, was newly founded, rebuilt and repopulated, probably the population consisted of slaves purchased. All this makes the education of Alexander in the most expensive on record. It was formative. He never forgot that the only self that deserves egotism is that now call the superego, the "intellectual soul" to which must be formed to govern as a sovereign, in the lower appetites and lower, so that disdain the limits of mortality - to covet riches just as honor, nobility and glory. Leading apprentice wizard that spell dead left behind, returned home and was taken aback by the thunder and lightning followed.
Philippi Trust in your child shows still get along, as usually happened when he was in season and out of Olympia. Alexander returned to Macedonia to resume regent while Philip continued his harassment of Perinthus fortress-ports and Byzantium. Athens was in open war and supplied the garrison besieged by an imposing naval superiority, which ultimately forced Philip to abandon both. During the march back to Macedonia Scythians defeated some hostile, but his army, stopped by the booty in cattle and slaves, was stopped by a northern tribe and King suffered an injury too serious to move it.
Meanwhile, the responsibilities of Alexander and Antipater were considerable. In the southern states had broken a complicated political and religious dispute about coming to Delphi, sacred grounds, raising the possibility of Philip's favorite tactic: the request for intervention in Macedonia. (Again and again, the geography of Greece, with its beautiful but barren hills and farmland coveted, has determined its history. The long and disastrous Peloponnesian War, the grave of the greatness of Athens, was sparked by a dispute over Megara a sacred land.)
The Holy League, a sort of religious United Nations-voted to punish the Anfisa, which, had taken over the fields to cultivate. Philip was on good terms with the League because years ago had expelled Phocis Delphi to a force that plundered the treasures and the Temple of Apollo. He had behaved correctly and humanely susaliados convincing that the foce impose fines instead of throwing them off cliffs, the propaganda of Demosthenes had represented the foce as martyrs and the oppressed Macedonian as a bloody tyrant. Grateful even warned the League that if he sought help, he was willing to provide it. The waiting time was crucial. From Thrace ordered Alexander to mobilize the army for failing to warn Athens, had to say it was a campaign against Lliria. Alejandro obeyed. Before that Philip returned, rumors came to the Illyrians, who were quick to take up arms. Alexander had to be prepared for this contingency. Moved westward to the border, repulsed the invaders and drove them back. It was his third independent operation in rough terrain, this time against a dangerous enemy. Was seventeen years. Philip returned to the pending developments in the south. Apparently, during this interval of peace Alejandro's parents had time to take care of their child's sexual indifference.
Perhaps Alexander had rejected a marriage proposal. Philip-womanizer early in the case that Ptolemy was his son-is disconcerting to see a young man approaching the age of eighteen and who was so shy in that regard and so bold in others. The royal succession, precarious and bloodstained, was the desire to consistently produce an heir in his youth (and never was more justified anxiety about developments in this case). Like other parents of any age, those of Alexander discussed his own involvement in sexual indifference. At that point the idea of marriage should scare Alexander. Olimpia did not let him alone and said he hired a famous courtesan, one of these "companions" that combined elegant geisha skills with those of the courtesan to the start. The hetaira failed.
Aristotle taught asceticism or sublimation of Plato, but his intellectual soul doctrine as regent of the lower self for years gave shelter to the pride of Alejandro. He was never sexual, but felt a deep need for affection, and her physical response to women in childhood was frozen under professed hatred that their parents take long to thaw. Meanwhile, gathered a group of friends and devotees, almost all older than him. Hephaestion was the only course of its age can be at its height any letters received from Aristotle. With respect to the others, none could be his lover and as soon as events would show, the inner circle of sycophants did not harbor attracted by the range. Alejandro friends invested their capital in such emotional generosity, his passionate, powerful magnetism and charm irresistible. Almost all were united with him for life.
The Holy League declared war on the Anfisa, but its ragtag army proved ineffective. Demosthenes foresaw what would happen and urged Athenians unwilling to counter the threat of Philip agreeing with Thebes. The dispute between neighbors was so old that, a century before the Thebans had sided with the invader Xerxes. And his subsequent overthrow of tyranny had roused more spartan envy esteem. Now they had concluded a treaty with Macedonia and was to be seen whether the breach.
As in the previous war drove the foce of the sanctuary of Delphi, Athens, Philippi proposed member of the League, which sent a contingent of troops. Demosthenes addressed veto, no doubt to prevent especially the fellowship with the Macedonians, in whom the soldiers could find human partners. When Philip moderation saved the life of the foce, had to pay damages and demolish their strongholds, Demosthenes said it was an outrage. As happened then, in the bitter political struggle, the verdict against Anfisa saved Athens from the dangers of a parallel prosecution "impiety." This diplomatic triumph was what Aeschines, the hated rival of Demosthenes. Political commitment and personal animosity led him to commit a grave error. At the next meeting of the League, persuaded the Athenians to the boycott and collected, without opposition Athenian delegate, accepted the help offered by Philip.
It was time that Philip as expected. His army was trained to a level hitherto unknown in Greece. The aristocratic cavalry companions grew in number during the tour with expert horsemen of Thessaly. The decisive step of Thermopylae was kindly taken the Theban garrison. Philip advanced to Elatea, Phocaea border, about two days' journey from Thebes and three from Attica.
Athens was in a panic. With stalls and pens of sheep from the market place was built a lighthouse to warn the suburbanites. With a trumpet was called the Citizens' Assembly. Demosthenes accused supporters of being traitors to the moderates who dared to remember the moderation of Philip after the war against the foce. This time the alliance with Thebes won the vote and Demosthenes headed the embassy sent to negotiate.
Philip also sent envoys to Thebes. He listened to both sides during the same session. The voting rights of the Thebans was limited to these citizen-soldiers and veterans. The Macedonians cited the mutual treaty, recalled the hostile acts of Athens and in exchange for the alliance promised a fair sharing of the benefits of victory. If the Thebans preferred to be neutral, he was granted in exchange for the right of way.
Demosthenes then raised the offers of Athens. They consisted of two peoples give Thebes protected by vows Athenians the Boeotians the surrounding countryside, the government held against Thebes in the sacred name of democracy, and if that were not enough, residents of Platea. This tribe border only ally of Athens in the heroic defense of Marathon, was granted in perpetuity honorary Athenian citizenship. The Thebans were in doubt. Demosthenes, who had never set foot on a battlefield, they reproached their cowardice. This simple remedy was a complete success. The Thebans renounced the treaty (or rather, broke it, since the agreements were carved in marble) and voted for the alliance with Athens.
Philip knew what position he was. He had not wanted to go to war with Athens. Having established his parentage, would undoubtedly have tried to conduct foreign policy model of Athenian Greek hegemony since the time of Pericles, but was innocent of any attempt to enslave its people or destroy their culture. Probably harbored the deep desire to be a new Pericles. His various proposals were blocked by the inveterate hatred of Demosthenes studied and rejected with insults. Educated in the traditions Macedonian, Philip had a simple and comprehensive vision of the leaders who ran from behind the scenes. And his assurance that there would find a successful result.
Yet, did not go south. First fulfilled the request of the League. After a winter of maneuvering around the massif of Parnassus, by a scheme made a lightning march on Anfisa, captured the mercenaries sent by Demosthenes and accepted the surrender of the city. Philip and his son were ceremonially celebrated, honored and crowned in the sanctuary of Delphi.
They did not return to Macedonia. They took no difficulties in the Gulf of Corinth, they fortified their strongholds and returned to Elatea. Even then Philip sent their latest offers of peace to Thebes and Athens. Demosthenes saw to it that the votes. Another hypothesis had to overcome historical crossroads. A midsummer forces north and south, about thirty thousand men apiece, were found in the Boeotian plain of Chaeronea.
Philip was in command from the right wing, since Macedonian traditional kings. The idea that the side that wields the weapon is more "honorable" that the shield has existed since time immemorial. As the enemy did the same, Philip knew, thanks to the time of his stay in Thebes, what would be the elite corps that would face the Macedonian left wing: the undefeated Holy Falange. He trusted that position to fellow cavalry, commanded by Alexander.
Philip himself faced the Athenians, who had the advantage of being on high ground. Brought them down by a mock retreat, ambushed them in which they fell, and defeated. Among those who fled was Demosthenes, who proved the war for the first and last time. To cover the gap, the other soldiers lengthened the row. Alexander hoped that time: he led the cavalry charge against the Holy Falange.
According to the patterns of modern warfare boldest in the battle Alexander was exposed as a commander should not do it responsibly. But our standards are not those of Macedonia, which remained Homeric ethos. Not only him but his men remembered the words of Sarpedon against the walls of Troy. Probably, Alexander knew them by heart.
Glaucus, 'why we honor you and me rather than others
places of honor, the best meat and brimming cups
in Lycia, and we all look as if we were immortal,
and we allocate large tracts of land on the banks of Xanthos,
fertile land, orchards, vineyards and arable land for
It is therefore our duty to take our jobs
the forefront of the Lycian, and fulfill our role in the
heat of battle,
for any of the Lycian brown armor can say
"Certainly, they are ignoble men who are masters of
these kings of ours, who feed on the fat sheep that they
and drink the exquisite sweet wine, for surely they have the force
and courage, and fighting in the forefront of Lycia. "
Multiple wounds of Philip show that, despite being an expert realistically assumed this meaning of the phrase "noblesse oblige".
It is true that throughout his life Alexander flirted with danger, but always with a purpose and with almost religious fervor. They often dubbed as fearless, but no man so fertile imagination is immune to fear. He had seen many men suffer a gruesome death on the battlefield after suffering a lingering death. Perhaps for that reason fear has always been the first enemy he had to overcome.
In this, the first of his major battles, led the cavalry against infantry (it did not have the advantage that would be available when the stirrup was invented) and, after a fierce struggle, managed to break the ranks Theban. Nearby, the Falange Sacred refused to surrender and died to the last man. Thebes still stands on the marble lion which marks the grave.
The victory was overwhelming and Philip, whose efforts had received a response Hellenized so cold, he returned to Macedonia. At the banquet held that evening, proclaimed a "Comus" Dionysian and guided them to the battlefield and his tipsy procession carrying torches, singing a song about Demosthenes. He was scolded by an Athenian aristocrat who was on the floor of the prisoners and drunkenness happened on the spot. Alexander's name is conspicuous by its absence in all versions of this episode. Philip was associated with clumsy, cowardly and brave son, both then and later rejoiced not triumph over these enemies. However, his vision of Athens would still be someone who respects the treasures of a great museum despite his conservative Philistines.
The aristocrat captive, whom Philip released and invited to dinner, sent to Athens the conditions of peace. The city desperately hoping for a barbarian horde to ravage the entire Attica, Demosthenes been touted as the goal of the Macedonian "was not slavery but the annihilation" In fact the only thing that Philip called for was the recognition of its hegemony. Not even intended to cross the border and could return prisoners without ransom.
While waiting for response, they burned the dead. This task, conducted on pyres and using wood as fuel only, must require a certain resilience to the soldiers of the ancient world. Athenian victims amounted to more than a thousand. (Our time of guns has forgotten the absolute helplessness soldier who retreats to his back and, leaving the heavy shield to move faster, could only run with spears chasing him.) Picked up the ashes, because asking the remains of the dead themselves amounted to formal recognition that the winner "owned the field." The Athenians asked for them and, as expected, Philip accepted the conditions, which certainly surprised them. He sent the ashes with a ceremonial procession escorted by Alexander.
The boy was eighteen. Would not pass by. Obsequiously was received. It was decreed that the Acropolis statues erected by his father and him, the head of the latter still survives. Apparently he visited the Academy of Plato and was Hephaestion, Xenocrates, the director of the Academy, wrote his own book of letters to Hephaestion, perhaps in competition with Aristotle.
In a show of force, Philip marched unopposed to the Peloponnese. In Corinth held a council attended by envoys from all southern states except Sparta, he was named supreme commander of the Greek forces "defense" against the Persians. Immediately returned to Macedonia to prepare the expedition.
Everything demonstrates that in this period of their lives and Philip Alexander got along better than ever. Although it is likely that Philip's death was already decided and that their authors just waiting for the opportune moment, could have occurred as a separation between father and son, like so many other violent circumstances at the time, but without the violence of inner conflict marked for life to Alexander. Fate decreed otherwise occurred, Philip fell in love and prepare a new wedding. This time the girl belonged to a Macedonian noble family. He was the nephew and pupil-evidently his father was dead-just Attalus that Pausanias was avenged by the suicide of young friend of the monarch. The sources did not make clear whether his rise to power was before or after the betrothal, but had a high rank in Macedonia and the marriage must have been considered more important than those of other legal concubines. Some historians have concluded that Philip had already made the decision to divorce Olympia. There is considerable evidence to the contrary. Alexander attended the wedding banquet.
The result shows that it did not for fear of Philippi. In view of their anger at the wedding, no doubt due to oppose Olympia Alexander supported the decision. Perhaps the young man thought that he would convey to others that his mother's position was not in question, believing it was a gesture he could afford. Or maybe he did as a simple gesture of goodwill towards his father, whose orders had been harmoniously for a long campaign, immersed in an atmosphere of male camaraderie and away from intrigues.
As expected, it was a bitter experience. A teenager sexually as fussy and homosexual preference that marked this period of his life could not have fun at a wedding Macedonian drunk with the prospect of seeing his father got into bed, amid the usual off-color jokes, with a girl younger than himself. And the idea of the anger of his mother must make you very tense. However, for reasons that seemed justified, Alexander attended and stayed until the bride was removed and made toasts. Attalus proposed to provide the health of the happy couple well-was expressed by the drink or calculated-the hope that your link produjese a legitimate heir of Macedonia.
The reaction was immediate Alexander, as was characteristic of him. He yelled while he threw his cup at the head of Attalus' Canalla! So what am I? A bastard, am I a bastard? ". It triggered a noisy chaos. Attalus also threw his drink. During the struggle, father and son exchanged words, which have not survived.Whatever, Alexander succeeded Philip drew his sword (probably had to fulfill the ancient ritual of cutting the bread of the bride) and pounce on him. Lame because of an old wound and drunk, Philip fell. Alejandro said coldly, "Look. Projects crossing from Europe to Asia and is not able to move from one table to another without falling. " These words, Alexander left the house and kingdom.
Obviously it was a crisis that no one present had planned, except Attalus. He had played his cards well and was smart enough to know that Alexander would react angrily, but his offense may have been a fit due to drinking. There is the possibility that Philip was aware of beforehand. Would not have accepted a generous gesture of the son who had shared his victories to see how he was insulted and provoked a predictably angry. Philip was surprised because I was obsessed with wine and behaved like Alejandro Alejandro, was one of those situations where the surprise release fires the players had tried to contain. Without further ado, Alexander told his mother to make the luggage and went through with it's rugged south-western border towards Dodona, in Epirus, the capital where there was the brother of Olympias.
Nothing would ever be the same between father and son, Alexander and his mother had received the worst insult that could be committed in the ancient world and no one had apologized. The words exchanged with Philip Alexander to take him to a situation bordering on filicide still being interesting speculations. Perhaps released long-repressed jealousy to the bearing of his son, his intellectual precocity, his impressive popularity with the soldiers and loyal inner circle of "friends of Alexander."
It is not possible to undertake a cross-country trip to Dodona, protecting a woman, without any escort. Most likely, it is given his close friends. Later, Philip very well known devotion kept him.
No author reported with what feelings Alexandros King of Epirus, who owed his throne to Philip, received her outraged sister say if Alexander was not well received at Dodona, famous for its cold winters and his oracle, the world's oldest Greek. Its center was an immemorial oak housed pigeons whose murmur was significant and was surrounded by bronze vessels that echoed to the sound of the wind. Their god was Zeus, who questioned writing on a piece of lead and survive many samples. The priestess played barefoot haphazard response. Unfortunately, the excavations have not found a single question of Alexander. However, this sanctuary was related to that of Zeus-Ammon in Siva, who then consulted at the expense of difficulties and dangers, and with spectacular results. Being who was hard to believe that during this crisis of his fortune not to visit the great prophetic center when he was at the gates. If he did, he kept the secret of the response. In Siva would do the same.
He left his mother in the house where he was born and rode north to Illyria. Less than two years he had repelled the Illyrian army defeated, returning to those lands bellicose. That might arise and be received as a guest shows how the campaign waged decency and how much respect arose. It remains a mystery what he meant to do in Illyria. For a time he was the son of his mother and emotions dominated his trial. It might even lead one to think Illyrian invasion to take his inheritance by force, but his innate intelligence prevailed. Anyway, was quite capable of playing a war of nerves to Philippi, which will undoubtedly be reluctant to leave for Asia and the Macedonian garrison walking away with this so dangerous and unpredictable presence in the rear.Alexander never had to withstand such severe conditions and humiliating, rude hosts to reconcile, wary of the possibility of betrayal, sleeping in primitive strength of the hills after the magnificence of Athens and Corinth, where he had received and honored as a a winner. Among the hardships they have endured later recalled with pride, does not make the slightest allusion to his stay in Illyria. But it worked. Demaratus of Corinth, a friend and guest of the family, acted as mediator. We do not know if it was the father or the son who threw the first probe.
Alexander returned to Macedonia, probably with his mother. Some sources disagree and leave it in Epirus, but it is unlikely that Alexander accepted those conditions. Not only was at stake restore the good name of Olympia, but the legitimacy of her son. Whatever the agreement reached by Alexander and Philip, was a fragile reconciliation. Soon it was tense enough for Alexander doubted the good faith of his father about his succession.
It is possible that some will return without guarantees, which did not commit. Most of the descendants of Philip were girls and the new wife had just given birth to another, there was no longer viable heir Alexander, gives the impression that his suspicion bordering on the irrational. However, the faction of Attalus-author of his exile, was the favorite in the past, many Macedonians were disinherited heirs for treason. To this is added up the emotional pressures of his mother, deeply offended by the favor with the new wife wasted, including regional and honorary name of Eurydice. It increased the dependence of Alexander of loyalty and affection of his friends who joined him with a delivery that Philip began to appear disloyal. The atmosphere was explosive and the first spark was enough to burst fire.
Arrhidaeus, delayed the bastard Philip was old enough to marry. The father of his bride-only factor that mattered-was Pixodaro, satrap of Caria, a powerful semi-independent state in southern Asia Minor that would decisively suitable for the next war. Plutarch's account of what it did realize the mood of Alexander. His mother (according to this narrative was in Macedonia) and his friends did nothing but take false rumors, "as if Philip, by a brilliant marriage, and great value, try to leave the kingdom in the hands of Arrhidaeus." Alexander believed it. Almost mad, and betrayal, as judged by any standard-Caria secretly sent an emissary own: Zetalo tragedian. The major players used to use diplomacy, traveling frequently, but to accept such a mission had to be Zetalo a devoted friend. I had to convince the satrap of that given his daughter to a "parallel bastard" and offer the hand of Alexander.
The story is vague as to the degree of imbecility of Arrhidaeus. He survived about six years to his brother as a puppet king, evidently able to say a few words in public, but did not dictate or participate in combat. The woman he married was a capable wife who acted in his name, but their union there were no children and probably never consummated. It seems incredible to think that once the Macedonian Assembly would have adopted in preference to Alexander as king, though his father had decreed so in life. Philip had his accession to the need for a monarch fighting, the direct heir, which was overlooked at that time was little more than twenty years and would have been obvious if he had chosen to change the succession. What prevented that Alexander is aware of these facts?
At the intellectual level was extremely flexible and quick to make adjustments. Emotionally, everything was different. The demands raised itself were such that, whereas until the end of his life was at the height of any hardship, pain or physical danger, under extreme psychological stress preferred break before bending. This pattern appears in more than one occasion throughout his life.
The alacrity with which the satrap accepted the offer due to open his eyes. Pixodaro obviously had not promised an heir apparent. But the clarification came too late and Philip learned. At this point the manuscript is tantalizingly brief Plutarch. Mind you, to learn, Philip went to the room of Alexander, accompanied by Parmenion Philotas-son and close friend of Alejandro, and gave him a severe reprimand. He was probably confined to his room, under house arrest. The presence of Philotas is inexplicable, unless neutral attend as witnesses, as his father was the oldest friend of Philip. However, the subsequent behavior of the young suspect that had betrayed the conspiracy without Alexander's knowledge.
Philip reproached his son to be so unworthy of his rank to seek alliance with a simple Carlo, the servant of a barbarian king. In short, his rank was granted and his doubts were so offensive as disastrous action. That marriage was excluded in your case and, after the revelations of Zetalo, Arrhidaeus was also rejected. The diplomat was shot to hell. For a man with the ability to understand Alexander had to be a very bitter, but live far worse. Determined to show who was boss and dismember the subversive clique, the king banished him from Macedonia to all close friends of Alexander. The only interesting exception was Hephaestion. There are several reasons for this, the most obvious being that Philip, like Aristotle, believed that exerted a positive influence on Alejandro, also could become a useful hostage by its conduct, especially if Philip was aware that they were lovers. He was very astute in judging men. As it happened, took the final trallazocon tamer's whip. He Zetalo arrest, he was in Corinth, and ordered him to move to Pella chains.
The tragic actor's professional status equivalent to that of an Irving or a Garrick. Although he was reprimanded, not only know other punishment except the deep humiliation of the shackles, was an extreme step for the cultural aspirations of Philippi. Anyway, I could not find a better way to hurt to the quick to Alexander, whose insistence on sharing until the last danger he exposed his men was almost an obsession. In this case, could not. The shame due to go deeper, as well as resentment. Admittedly, he never forgot the episode and the friend involved: during his reign Zetalo always been well received and one of his favorite artists.
Meanwhile he had begun the first phase of the war against the Persians. Parmenion and Attalus had crossed the Hellespont with a force of advanced and established a bridgehead. A year earlier, Oco King was murdered by his grand vizier eunuch Bagoas the kingmaker whose power sought to curb, his son Arses was young and was busy solving internal problems. Apparently, the resistance of the coastal satraps was weak and disorganized. If the friendship of Alexander by his father had stayed, I probably would have had command of the expedition, but took his place the hated Attalus.
Before leaving, Philip had to solve an issue of homeland defense: the reconciliation of Epirus. Be at the insistence of Eurydice, perhaps because Olympia was intolerable or perhaps because the responsible for what his son had done, the fact is that Philip had decided to divorce. As expected, the act would offend his brother, King Alexandros. Obviously, the king of Epirus was more concerned about the honor of the family of her sister's feelings because gladly accepted the compensation offered Philip: the hand of his daughter Cleopatra. At that time, the fact that his uncle was supposed impediment.
It would be interesting to know what Philip had made plans to Alexander about the next war. It could not be entrusted with the regency. If he stayed, it would be incarcerated and have no evidence that Philip had that intention. The alternative would have been to take a command in Asia and give conditions under which his pride and ambition have ensured a proper performance. States in the field and away from Macedonia, it was possible that, once again, father and son back to be good comrades.
The wedding plans were superb. As befitted Philip's position as Panhellenic commander, invited guests and senior government emissaries all over Greece. At the ceremony, held in the theater of Aegae, the old capital, near modern-Edessa, it would honor the twelve Olympians games in his honor. His images of cars paraded in golden wood before being placed in the "orchestra" should or circular stage located. Each god showed natural coloring applied to all Greek sculptures, including the best marbles, today only whitewashed by the passage of time. A statue of Philip, of the same features, closed the show ... so they were thirteen, which was already significant numbers before the night of the Last Supper.
Guaranteed publicity and wide throughout the Greek world, Philip thought it was the perfect time to refute the Athenian propaganda about his "tyranny". Traditionally, Greek despots surrounded by guards moved. When planning the procession, Philip decided that, once all the outstanding (which should include Alexander) entered the theater, his bodyguard stopped at the gates in order to enter alone. The captain of the guard who gave those instructions was neither more nor less than Pausanias, who over the years had come to occupy that position.
During the ceremony the royal throne would stand on stage. Philip would make an appearance for the parodist, the imposing entrance side of the open scenes of Greek theater. The fact that the captain of the guard was waiting for him there must have been quite correct or at least suspicion. When Philip crossed the inning, drove a dagger Pausanias in the heart.
According to Diodorus, the only source that describes the scene in great detail-the murderer escaped from a vineyard that was behind the stage headed for horses waiting in order to escape. Pausanias was ahead of his pursuers, but tripped over a vine. Before I had time to sit, the first people that took the lives he reached.
The chiefs and nobles crowded around Alexander, who was not armed for the sacred ceremony and formed a guard who moved to the citadel. Nobody questioned his accession. There was another suitor so famous. He became king of Macedonia.
The historic trial of Alexander's death his father, largely closed since the days of Plutarch, has been reopened in modern times despite the total lack of evidence by the prosecution. Otherwise, it would be a waste of time to analyze it again.
There is no point wishing or not the death of his father. Probably at least a year ago that I expected. The world was and is full of people who experience these desires, but be frightened at the thought of putting them into practice. For Greek thought and religion, parricide was the most feared crime and condemning all gods. Clearly, given his beliefs and his temperament, Alexander could not bear this burden without going mad. But we can not consider it a conclusive answer, as there is the possibility that convince him that Olympia was not the son of Philip.
For the Greeks, the physical union of gods with mortals was a belief as sincere as the immaculate conception for Catholics, with the difference that the first was not an exceptional event. And also unlike the second, had never failed science, biological studies of Aristotle clearly diverged such apostasy worthy of the hemlock. It is possible that prey of a Dionysian trance, Olympia honestly imagine almost anything. Since the issue of parricide is inconclusive, we must address the practical considerations of mobile phones. Assuming that Alexander was morally prepared to kill, why choose this time?
Was in sight of all in a Panhellenic festival, with the preference due to his rank and state envoys presented as heir. The worst of his disgrace was forgotten and I expected the war with great opportunities. He had lived under the roof of Philip and no doubt plotting his death when he could have more incentives, for example, after the wedding speech Attalus. It is true that the position had worsened Olympia as Alexander's improved, but later he did not kill anyone for his mother's demands and even refused to remove a ruler whom she detested. While credible human motives, always persist hatred and revenge, no doubt, prompted the real murderer. The future war would be offered to Alexander many times to pass this murder as an enemy action, a path that would undoubtedly have been chosen by an intelligent man who had devoted adherents. Why raise the public drama? Of all the possible suspects, Alejandro was the least they could benefit from that act.
Accomplices of the charges preferred are three young men who brought down the murderer, allegedly to silence him. This is based on two of these three men, partridges and Leonato then took command at the command of Alexander, and were among his friends. In this case the objection is clear. According to Diodorus, when Philip fell, "in the act a group of guards ran to the king's body while the rest went in pursuit of the murderer." And it was logical. How is it that Alexander could determine who would arrive first? As our own time should know, no explanation is needed, beyond the violence triggered by a violent scene to kill the man who caused it. Pausanias might have escaped had not encountered strains, suggesting that there was no effective prior agreements. Soldiers react quickly to a crisis are often promoted. If he had shown indifference with which so zealously avenged the death of his father, Alexander himself would have become the most suspect in the eyes of his contemporaries.
We must not lose sight of the accomplice to Pausanias, who was waiting with the horses. The fact that they were meant to know the flight suggests that he was caught and interrogated. Their answers could have been of great importance for the subsequent trials.
The only "evidence" against Alexander that appears in the texts of some ancient writer, indeed, the only opinion of this type is contained in Plutarch, that bag of anecdotes.
... Olympia bore most of the blame because he had added his exhortations to the anger of the young and had incited to commit the crime. Also dropped some slander [the Greek word means false accusation diabok] on Alexander. It is said that when Pausanias saw him after the attack and complained, he cited Alexander iambic Medea [the revenge of Medea wiped out almost all remaining characters]: "The bride, groom and the bride's godfather."
Perhaps it suffices to say that the last border war with Lliria, which is known that Philip took the field and possibly the death of his young friend, took place when Alexander was twelve years and the "bride" nine or ten.
Throughout his reign, Alexander was never suspected of a killing surreptitiously. When their power was immense and could have settled without any suspicion, suffered discomfort, frustration and abuse by men who disliked or distrusted it openly, but nothing happened to them until he was able to attack openly. Out of principle or pride, the truth is that he was extremely furtive attitude despicable. Another constant feature was the loyalty to his friends and gratitude to the extravaganza with those who supported him when he fell out with Philip. Believing he could use to Pausanias, vowing to protect him (which, as captain of the bodyguard, Pausanias would have known it was not possible) to ship it then less scruples than a mafia boss, requires as much credulity as any fragment of the medieval romances.
The incident is typical of Greek killings following an absolute enmity, which honor demands vengeance, and be seen at the hands of the actual victim or his kin. (The two massacres of this kind occurred in Athens while the writing was in the city were published: one in front of a tavern in Plaka, and another in Omonia Square.) One of the compilers of Diodorus says with evident skepticism that "Pausanias waited long time for revenge ', this is a surprising observation in the context of ancient Greece and, for that matter, of modern. Furthermore, it ignores the recent rise of the enemy Attalus to high military rank and status of real father, favors that may have seemed perfectly rewards for the offense on which Pausanias had pondered obsessively for many years. It is even possible that they would have said. Certainly that was used, but not by Alexander. Was a time in which the majority of Athenian politicians were men whose word was not enough unfounded even to condemn a dog. But they are more trustworthy when listeners remember their public events. Several years after the regicide, Aeschines accused Demosthenes, his enemy, having destroyed their blind hatred Athens to Macedonia. The speech says:
Citizens, that was the man ... that when he was informed by spies Charidemus that Philip was dead before it communicated to others, invented a vision and lied about the gods, pretending he had not received notice Charidemus, but Zeus and Athena ... which, he says, talk to him at night and tell him things to come.
The most authoritative commentary on this "vision" remains the historian John Williams, written a century and a half:
It was a public event that it was impossible to hide. There were assembled all the delegates of Greece and no message could surpass Demosthenes Charidemus speed with which news of such an event happens by word of mouth in a populous country. Not to mention that Charidemus probably was not the only delegate who sent a messenger on such an occasion. But Demosthenes said Philip's death long before the news came to Athens for other channels ... The accuracy of the information and falsehood about their alleged sources show an almost indisputable that he was one of the instigators and had prior notice of the date on which the conspirators were to act.
The value of the comment of John Williams is not in their scholarship but on personal experience.He published his biography of Alexander in 1829, shortly after the Napoleonic wars, and his words about the speed with which important news is transmitted in populous countries, written before there were telecommunications, sound right. To make long-distance signals, the ancient world used the heliograph and the lighthouse (the latter announces the fall of Troy in Agamemnon). As both documents previously agreed demanded a chain of beacons, their use would still be evidence of complicity, since there were no codes and the signals could only be expected to confirm a fact.
Pausanias, captain of the guard, knew exactly what his men occupy positions. Upon arrival, he had to distribute them. At best, could only be expected to have a fifty percent chance of escape, however, had the horses ready, probably also had a boat and someone must offer shelter. The speeches of Demosthenes and again show how, point to Alexander underestimated. Even after the lightning victories that followed the rise of Alexander to the throne, Demosthenes continued taunting him by calling him "Margites" anti-hero of an epic burlesque. Doubtless he had included a part for him in his "vision" of the demagogue, the theatrical young champion, the incompetent and inexperienced king, his impressive father died, it would be difficult to remove from the scene.
In recent times, the payer Persian Demosthenes had changed. Seeing that the king Arses was intractable, the vizier had poisoned Bagoas and replaced with a side of royalty: Darius III, one of his first acts was to give the Vizier a dose of medicine used to administer it. The new great king must have solid support in the Greek of Demosthenes information, which could have provided vital services in return for favors received if they have not rooted prejudices blinded. Darius was based on a false sense of security while Demosthenes interrupted mourning the death of her daughter, wore a festive garland and proposed a vote of thanks to posthumously Pausanias.
If I had thought it was delaying the time to publicize its role, to be absolutely certain that no risks, and then proclaim himself the author of this company, this was the most sensible act of his life.
Alexander's reign began in 336 BC, in his early twenties.
"His physical appearance is better represented in carved statues that Lysippus. [Plutarch does not say which of the contemporaries of Alexander expressed this opinion, if any did.] And agreed that only he sculpted. [In any case, must give permission to several more.] The artist has captured exactly the features later, many successors and friends tried to imitate: the neck position, slightly tilted to the left, and his eyes watery. Table of Appeals thunder wielding her complexion is not good, because the painted too dark and tanned, they say he was blond and ruddy tacked to the chest and face. "
His watery eyes were gray and its expressive capacity was not consistent with Greek artistic conventions. All major protests portraits show a marked bulge in the forehead above the eyebrows (the idealization given was probably more noticeable in real life), perhaps due to the development of frontal brain lobes, and the thick wavy hair and just, that fell from a peak, with the peculiar step cut to the neck when in southern Greece was fashionable short curly hair. Arian, whose main sources are two men who saw him frequently, said that Alexander was very handsome.
Shaving, had long circulated among youth in the south, in Macedonia was not known until Alexander introduced it. In childhood and adolescence had to admire her beauty that would not alter with a beard may be a sign of his bisexual nature. As the fashion beat, was so immediately that the later legend made to order all the Macedonian army to shave. He was quoted as saying that in the melee the beard gives the enemy a hold on point. You may also be offered this explanation itself.
"The reports of Aristoxenus is said that her skin gave off a pleasant scent and her breath and her whole body had a fragrance that pierced the clothes she wore." In all sources reveals his fondness for daily bath if could, in campaign must have been many times without washing, which makes this interesting observation. He was very healthy when it is not affected occasional fevers. In the era before dentistry, good breath test was good teeth and a good digestion. Passionately loved heavy exercise, hunting, running and ball games, but despised professional athlete in his century had degenerated and produced horrific specialized physical beauty rather than a balanced sculpture. He considered himself an Olympic-level rider, but rejected the offer to participate in games "unless kings had to compete with." His pride would not have withstood even the slightest suspicion that they had left him win the race.
He loved music and theater artists undertook lengthy and arduous journeys provided to act for him and were not received as mere interpreters, but as guests. By nature, Alexander had the biological rhythm of the actor and when he had time staying up late and liked to sleep in the morning, a pattern not necessarily related to heavy alcohol intake, as people know the show.
I could not live without books, which was sent to the heart of Asia, adding her favorite books as conquered territories. It seems that, after Homer, the author was most interested was Xenophon, whose influence appears clearly again and again. He encouraged his men by reminding the Anabasis, with their determined ten thousand, and made a parallel statement about the ineffectiveness Persian. The young Xenophon, a night of despair left the bed to rouse the army because their elders had died and there was none to take on the task, must be a man with the same passions that Alexander's (and Shakespeare, who moved the same King Henry situation on the eve of Agincourt). Undoubtedly treaties also valued riding and hunting. With his keen sense of theater, above all, Alexander was in the drama of his life who was basically in debt: the education of Cyrus, the only work of fiction of Xenophon.
In principle should read it as history. Later, when he arrived in Persia, found out some discrepancies, however, that the flesh and blood Cyrus had died in battle rather than Socratic calmly took it probably did even more fans. The image of a conqueror brilliant, powerful and merciful, that makes friends and enemies that won acclaim as a parent does not conflict with the Persians fragmented files. Alexander did not need to discard your hero worship, as evidenced by the devotion he said at the tomb of Cyrus.
Possibly overlooked Ciropaedia military lessons from elementary considerations. His father had been a teacher much more refined. Jenofonteafirma that no maximum for generals, but the model of an ideal ruler governing the conquered people and extended an immense empire.
He ruled those nations, despite not speaking the same language that he did the same between them, however, was able to instill fear for his person to the extent that no one dared to oppose, was able to arouse a desire so deep satisfy everyone wanted to be ruled by the will of Cyrus.
... In fact, the ruler must not only be better than his subjects, but to be spellbound.
The vast collection of the legends of Alexander pays tribute to the latter provision on a scale beyond anything dreamed up by the philosophy of Xenophon.
Affinity caused by a spontaneous, admiration for Cyrus must have become a powerful antidote to the narrowness of Aristotle. Again and again the behavior of Alexander highlights the debt that has been considered the first historical novel of the Western world. The following excerpts may be confused with quotes from a story of Alexander.
In campaign, the general must show that it is able to better support their men in the sun in summer, cold in winter and hardship during a difficult march. These attitudes make it loved by those he leads.
When others went to dinner at the usual time, Cyrus was [among the wounded] with his aides and doctors, because he was not willing to leave anyone stranded.
It is possible that the gods, like men, are more likely to lean towards us if we ignore them at the height of our fortune to flatter rather than only in adversity. This is also the way of caring friends.
He always showed all the kindness that was capable of holding that, just so it's hard to love or hate those who seem to be well disposed towards those who wish us evil, he who is affectionate and well prepared can not be hated by Those who know love. He tried to win the devotion of those around him thinking about them and worrying, showing joy in their prosperity and solidarity in their misery.
You [the men] hold in your soul that is fairer and more military: you enjoy, above all, praise. The men love the praise they feel forced to endure any hardship and danger.
Cyrus was the most handsome in person, the most generous soul, the more fond of knowledge, the most honorable love of fame, so it could withstand all the sufferings and dangers in the name of praise.
The last two fragments are essential for understanding Alexander. Modern ones have accused him of "an unpleasant concern for their own glory" think in terms of another era. Until then and thereafter, the highest levels of Greek literature are imbued with the axiom that to be worthy of fame is the most honorable of the aspirations, the incentive of the best men to achieve the highest standards. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle agreed. This ethos lasted more than Greece and Rome. The last word in English is the only epic lofgeornost: "most eager for fame". Close the cry of the warrior Beowulf to the deceased.
Alexander III inaugurated his reign as traditional Macedonian style, eliminating those that threatened the succession.
Plutarch and Diodorus agree that sought out and punished the conspirators of the assassination of his father. Neither explains the process of research, but the purge was not indiscriminate. The most important victim was his cousin Amyntas son of Perdiccas III, according to the most current succession laws would become the reigning monarch. He was a Macedonian race, which set him apart from Alexander, whose mother came from Epirus unpopular.
Philip had always seemed like a usurper to Amyntas, having won the conspiracy, would have become a natural choice. It is not known whether he was killed by evidence or suspicions. Alexander deserves the benefit of the doubt because, despite the humiliation she suffered with matrimonial intrigue to decay, did nothing to his brother Arrhidaeus, a harmless pawn of revenge that seemed demeaning. Anyway, it was dangerous to leave the pawns in Macedonian. Alejandro joined his court and took him on his travels. He must be well maintained because of the two was the most experienced.
Executed two Lincestis chief, a family of independent ancient kings of western Macedonia. Perhaps it hoped to regain their former sovereignty. The biggest, another Alexandros, was saved for after the murder immediately hailed Alexander as king. It seems that at some point the idea that the conspiracy was funded by the gold of Persia. It was probably true, is provided through Demosthenes or directly by the Darius, who had every reason to fear that Philip and imagined what it would come up.
Attalus, and dangerous enemy posed a peculiar problem. He was campaigning in Asia Minor, with their own troops, mostly attached to it by tribal loyalties. He believed, correctly, that he planned a betrayal. Alexander was in favor of standing trial under the laws of salads, but I could not run the risk of his army passed the other side. Therefore, on a secret mission sent an officer to call Hecataeus, if possible, Doing so imprisoned or otherwise kill him. Attalus Demosthenes corresponded with a view to joining Athens. Perhaps alarmed by the rapid initial successes of Alexander, not clearly understood the sequence of events-and cowered Attalus sent the letter of Demosthenes to Macedonia, attached a plea for forgiveness. In the meantime, Hecataeus had concluded that he could not take more risks and killed him immediately. Given the circumstances, no one complained that the laws were not respected. You may have an order Hecateo real I could show before or after the fact to the officers of Attalus and the other general of the expeditionary force: Parmenion.
The theme of Attalus is important. Alexander served as a precedent and would be decisive in a crisis later in his career.
In fact, at that time could not tread loopholes or decision may take him a long time. No time. On hearing the news that the great empire of Philip had passed into the hands of a young man of twenty, all lands conquered by him rebelled at once. Alexander was surrounded by more dangerous than his father had faced the death of Perdiccas III.
The most immediate was the defection of Thessaly, whose great masters had no intention of making it a hereditary archonship Macedonia. Garrisoned impregnable step between the mountains Olympus and Ossa, the narrow gorge of Tempe. Alexander immediately realized that if the lords had their way, the entire south would rise up and face another Chaeronea. He went quickly, recognized the ground with his strategic insight was lightning quick as was possible steps to save the opening step to the side of Ossa and presented at the rear of the Thessalian while they were awaiting further advanced. Embarrassed, he paid tribute without a fight and offered the former Philip duties and taxes. (Alejandro Phthia exempted from taxes because it was the birthplace of Achilles.) Thermopylae In a conference called Holy League, whose members recognized him without a single dissenting vote.
In Athens the panic reached the same levels as after Chaeronea. Recalling with concern the vote of thanks to the murderer of Philip. Sent an embassy to present his apologies to Alexander. This was received with courtesy and did not accuse anyone. On the march did not cross the border of Attica. He did not visit, nor ever would, the museum's immortal Western civilization. Convened a conference in Corinth, as Philip had done, and with the same delegation of functions assigned to him his father, was sworn commander against the Persians.
The steps and the strongholds that dominated the south were trimmed. Although it had erected the magnificent walls that crowned the Acrocorinth Macedonian, was also trimmed its acropolis. As in the times of Philip, had its Cadmea Thebes (a stronghold artificial low-rise), which was in the hands of the Macedonians. Southern Greece was assured ... just in time, if we take into account the threats from the north. It was not possible to undertake an expedition to Asia without controlling Thrace. Parmenion expeditionary force was in danger of looking cut their communications.
In Macedonia, Olympias took full advantage of the absence of Alexander. Not credible that, as argued by Justin, Olympia moved to gallop from Epirus gold hinges Pausanias's body, exposed in the cross of the traitors. She had enjoyed the greatest satisfaction: Eurydice, had forced his young rival to hang himself, probably by threatening to torture, after seeing his second son dying newborn. Plutarch says that, on his return, Alexander was angry. He had saved the lives of Arrhidaeus and that girl was just another pawn in the state.
Winter came. During his short life, Alexander had to prepare the army just inherited to the urgent task of safeguarding the forces were already engaged in Asia. In early spring, when the bands stopped hibernating Thracian warriors, Alexander moved to the northeast with his usual speed, his mind not only addressed the immediate dangers, but of the future. Having conquered the military route to the Hellespont, the objective was the hinterland of the northern tribes submitted yet. They were the same who had attacked Philip on his return from Byzantium and had inflicted a serious wound. They inhabited the lands bordering the Ister (Danube), beyond the wild mountain of Haemon, the current búlgafa Stara Planina. When sixteen years was as regent, the campaign against Maeda took him there and then would have continued if not for his father called him "for fear that too large a company offer." His strategic sense had been strong. Now he could settle accounts and to protect the umbilical cord with Asia.
Since the battle of Chaeronea, climax of a battle led by Philip from beginning to end, Alexander had no control. There was independently led an army from that, at seventeen, rejected the Illyrians. He had been in exile, had fallen into disgrace, his projected position in Philip's expedition was not clear. But it was enough to present to the troops and leaders and rugged terrain, where Philip himself had been defeated, to follow him with enthusiasm and blind faith. This event historically overshadowed by his exploits later, is as remarkable as the others.
Besides the Macedonians, had a contingent of Agrianians, a Thracian tribe, whose young leader, Lambaro, and had become friends, perhaps in previous wars Lambaro or perhaps because, like other noble Thracians, was sent to Pella and hostage for the loyalty of his father. Anyway, was devoted to Alexander. Even by the standards of the rural Macedonia, is considered late to the warlike Thracians, blue tattoos that were made and collected as trophies the heads of their enemies. However, throughout his life Alexander was interested individuals.
Since the beginning of the campaign showed his characteristic ability to quickly adapt to the unexpected. Proponents of Haemon holed step behind a row of cars, they threw over the troops of Alexander with the help of the lethal force of gravity. The Macedonian phalanx deployed in open order and instructed that they could not avoid the cars that lurks under a roof of shields (anticipation of the "turtle" Roman). The cars passed over, Alexander did not lose a soldier crossed the pass. He advanced to the plain bordering the tribalianos, which were about to cut the rear. He immediately turned to face them and pulled up tribalianos impregnable pass. Alexander never wasted a human life that kind of attacking positions, sending archers and slingers who harassed distance when the enemy took the bait and went after them, fell over with all his might. Panicked, the enemy was reduced to the usual contrast between the victims of persecutors and the persecuted. For the soldiers of the ancient world had an incentive unknown today in the commentary that a decade after Alexander made his men: "While I have addressed none of you has died on the run".
After that battle he marched north to the Ister. Sought to control not only the land that bordered it, but according to Arrian, wanted to cross over.
This is the first time we hear of such longing, the Greek word is pothos - although their are many examples in life history. Its multifaceted nature contained a powerful vein of browser. The Ister was the northern border of the known Greek world, which had more than just hearsay. However, the dreams of Alexander always had a practical side and did not intend to cross the great river just "because I was there." The tribes that dwelt on the other side were renowned for being fierce warriors composite and invaders. Alexander wanted to leave a deep impression before departing for Asia. And if he crossed to the edge of them, were likely to desist from passing below his.
In its lower course, the Danube was a river of characteristics that neither he nor his men had ever seen. He sent a war galleys from Byzantium-which had been submitted, but it was only a squad, rowers and Alexander occupied place needed an army board. At this point, Jenofonteacude the aid of their persevering readers, elaborates on inflated leather rafts used to cross the Euphrates. Skins were also used to make tents (which must have been extremely bulky back trains campaign) and Alexander managed to turn them into rafts, filling them with hay for stability. Also seized local canoes. With this makeshift flotilla crossed the Ister at night, with 4,000 infants and, however surprising it may seem, 1,500 cavalrymen. The horses had to swim.
An eyewitness, probably Ptolemy describes in great detail this season. He had not yet been promoted to high command. Even after the death of Philip, Alexander was unable to return to his friends banished. His current chief of staff was another friend of that time: Philotas, the son of Parmenion. As it had lost favor with the king, entered the new realm with a higher rank.
No matter how experienced they were officers, was a completely new move for the Macedonian army. No doubt the strategy and broad understanding of the details correspond to Alexander. When you reach the other side the infantry advanced through the high wheat and crushed sarisas holding aside (they were well trained) to make way for the cavalry.Once in the open, Alejandro deployed forces. The natives were so surprised Getae this mysterious arrival at dawn they fled in terror before the horse, the people first and then to the uncultivated lands, taking on the rumps of horses to many women and children as they could. The Macedonians took the city and "all the loot that dropped Getae." In terms of the fourth century BC, the booty included women and children remained. The only options for such victims were the slaughter or slavery. In this case, were enslaved.
On the banks of the Ister, Alexander made sacrifices in honor of Zeus the Protector of Heracles and the river spirit for having graciously granted the pass. As they had managed to cross back and no one drowned, Alexander started to expect results. Soon came the embassies of friendly tribes living on the banks of river. The reception was to last a long time because the last to arrive were the Celts, from a remote settlement near the Adriatic. These men, until the Macedonians considered very high, stood out on the rumored conqueror who had come to pacify. Out of vanity or curiosity, asked Alexander what he feared most. Replied that they were not afraid of anything, except that the sky will fall on them. Swashbuckling fun for the show (something he never allowed), he sent them back with a pact of friendship.
While in the North received the news that the formidable Illyrians had risen and that a middle-of antariatos tribe, thought to fall on him when they went to quell the insurrection. When the young man-was learned Lambaro closely with the elite of his warriors Alejandro Thracians-advised to forget about the antariatos. As warriors were worthless, he himself would invade and remain busy. Moved as always before a spontaneous gesture of friendship, Alexander honored and promised to unite the family Cina shaking hands, one of his sisters bastard. It met again. After the devastating performance of its mission, Lambaro returned to Thrace, fell ill and died. Cina share or not share the pain of his brother, the truth is that Agrianians remained his most loyal auxiliaries.
He ran through familiar ground and reached the border with Illyria. Cleito, the main military leader of the Illyrians, was still in his hands the mountain town of Pelium and peaks that dominate it. The troops surrounding the city fled when they saw the Macedonians and abandoned the fresh corpses of the nine victims who had sacrificed to bring about the victory: three black sheep, three boys and three girls. (No wonder that Alexander did not like to remember his exile in Illyria.) Around the city, barely managed a large body of relieving surround him, and led the troops who came to the rescue of Philotas, who was in charge Guard of draft animals, but soon became trapped in a dangerously narrow passage between hills and river. He faced the situation with total courage. Was deduced from the previous flight of the Illyrians, who already knew him for years who was known in these parts, and made with the troops at his disposal a fine display of aggressive maneuvers. His expertise and unknown intentions discouraged both members of the tribe retreated. Alexander ordered his men to shout and beat their shields. The enemy abandoned their advantageous positions and retreated to the fort.
Even in rough terrain and harassed while crossing the river, he asked his archers to shoot from the water and did install the light catapults, smart operation, as they had been dismantled for transport by mules.His men were engaged in a fighting retreat and never left helpless behind. Soon after Alexander took advantage of the indiscipline of the Illyrians, who must have known well-organized a night attack, defeated and forced to leave the city. The west was dominated, but it would not break. He threatened an even more serious threat came from the south.
Had spread the word about the uprising. After a brief appearance at Corinth, the new king of Macedonia was admitted to the unexplored lands of which did not reach any news. Demosthenes appeared Wasting no time, contacted the main Dario and satraps and offered them in exchange for funding, keep Alexander in Greece. The Greek cities of Asia were enslaved tacitly, for the democratic principles of Demosthenes were strictly local. Darius responded so willingly to their list of accounts, later captured Sardis-show disbursements for its ally worth 300 talents.
It later emerged that the Thebans had taken some anti-Macedonian-whose lives were saved after Chaeronea Philip on condition that exile-had killed two Macedonian commanders due to the relaxation times of peace left the citadel, and then had besieged the garrison. Spurred by this news and well funded, Demosthenes sent to Thebes a large shipment of weapons. The Athenians continued to ensure that Alexander was a young man and urged them to join in the war. The Athenians voted to enter the war began to prepare. They still get news from the interior. Rumors announced the death of Alexander.
No illness or injury that would justify such error. Demosthenes pulled off a man who swore he had seen him fall to Alexander. Based on this testimony, the Thebans openly proclaimed its alliance with Persia against Macedonia. When a week later they learned that the army led by Alexander descended Thessaly, at first refused to give credence to that claim. In any case, it was possible that it was that Alexander. Probably related to Alexandros of Lincestis. (They must have assumed it was the new monarch.)
Then found they were wrong. Alexander had moved its forces from Pelium through a series of mountain passes, distance covered even by air-hundred miles in a march that lasted six days. Almost without stopping to pick up Allied troops in central Greece, in six days more came to Boeotia. The next day he appeared at Thebes.
If he had been dead, the treaty with Thebes would have been canceled. Your first patient came from that he was aware of the rumors. Emotional or religious reasons, camped in the grounds of the hero Iolaus, truck driver and beloved companion of Heracles, in which couples in the sanctuary Holy Falange used to deliver their votes. He sent an emissary to the city and offered to accept their surrender on condition that the anti-Macedonian surrender they were there illegally. The Thebans refused the offer and mocked demanding the return of Philotas and Antipater. They practiced a raid on the firing of Alexander and killed several men. The Macedonian then occupied a strategic position next to the door looking to Attica and to providing easier access to the beleaguered garrison Macedonian.
It was also the arrival route from Athens, whose intentions no doubt already knew Alexander. In that sense, the monitoring was unnecessary: no troops arrived from the south. The alarming rate of march took them to reconsider. The Athenians closed their doors, without the slightest protest of Demosthenes, and let the Thebans alone will weather the storm.
At the moment did not explode. Alexander kept waiting to negotiate. In their march to the south of troops gathered from satellites Macedonians, especially foce and residents of Platea. It should be recalled that the latter were descendants of the heroes of Marathon, heirs of eternal Athenian citizenship, which Demosthenes had changed by the Thebans at Chaeronea Eve.
Alexander remained glued to the Theban siege lines in your access point closest to the Macedonian garrison, still trapped inside the Cadinea. As can be seen further, it was not an acropolis perched on a natural rock, and for defense, based on its impressive walls. Arrian gives great detail for the next series of events and says explicitly that its source is Ptolemy, who must participate. He claims that Perdiccas, who was then only had the command of a small military unit was stationed near the fortifications of the siege. For some reason, did not wait for orders, his men threw into the stockade and began to tear it down.
It is futile to expect justice to Ptolemy Perdiccas, as they had become his mortal enemy for many years before he wrote his story, and it is very likely that you failed to mention a good reason to account for this apparent lack of discipline, for example, a signal of the garrison to announce that there had been a weakening in the ranks of the enemy, which required quick action. As he had shown the death of Philip, Perdiccas was the right man. He managed to break through and enter. An officer saw him and supported him with their troops. Alexander, who was not far away, he realized that they risked being cut off and sent in reinforcements, although it reserved the bulk of the army. To storm the fence inside, Perdiccas fell seriously wounded. The rest continued to advance, the Thebans were reorganized and forced to retreat. The situation became critical to Alexander: on the spot and attacked the Thebans repulsed with such force that the gates of the city, open for them back in, got caught and allowed the entry of the persecutors.
It was the end. When the Macedonians came in droves, "with Alejandro everywhere," the Theban cavalry sprinted across the plain and infantry fled as he could. The ancient city was subjected to looting. According to Arrian, the foce and the people of Plataea were the main actors in a killing that spared no age or sex, even in the suppliants dragged from the temples. It has been said that if he wanted, Alexander could have prevented. It would probably be true in the case of Thrace or Illyria, and no doubt it was after he crossed Asia, when he had absolute authority over their troops. But his position was unique Thebes. Allied troops were composed mostly by men who, until a week before joined their forced march, known only by name, was just twenty-one the son of Philip, the king raised a great respect, and the Thebans were known enemies against those who had accumulated several generations of hatred. Before the intervention of Philip, the war against the foce was characterized by appalling atrocities. The atrocities of the people of Plataea, recently betrayed, if someone other than themselves was responsible-can be attributed, rightly, to Demosthenes.
Arrian says that the 'best' Theban citizens (a term often but not always refers to the upper classes) wanted to reach an agreement and that extremists prevented this. The genius of Alexander included one leader infallible intuition of those rare moments when the command is ignored and the consequent loss of prestige of these.For the rest of his life almost never rejected a request from a Theban and if found their way to one that served as a mercenary of the Persians, forgave him because he had no home. Amid the carnage, he saved what he could find, must have been a random process-, rescuing priests, old friends, guests of the Macedonians (probably the hosts of the youth of his father) and the descendants of Pindar, and the home of the poet. General vote of the Allies, was swept almost the entire city.
After the sack, Thracian troops to Alexander dragged a woman he accused of having killed one of his officers. She clearly admitted his guilt. The officer had broken into her home, raped her and then asked him where he kept his valuables. She replied that in the well, leading to the garden, and when the man bent down, threw him to the bottom. When the Thracians arrived, the woman had just finish it off with stones. He added that it was challenging Theagenes sister, who had fallen at Chaeronea at the head of the Falange Sacred. Alejandro instantly forgave and released with their children. This famous anecdote of Plutarch supports the sharing of responsibility for the killing that makes Ptolemy. Most significant is the fact that the woman was brought before Alexander. The Thracians were not allies who had just joined, but regular troops. If he had left them free to plunder the city would not have issued a statement which implied that the officer had received his due. In addition, the soldiers would have taken revenge for his own hand.
The Athenians were celebrating the mysteries of Eleusis, the most solemn rite of the year when the first penthouse Theban fugitives arrived at a gallop and broke the news. Panic reigned in Athens for the third time. They stopped the mysteries. The villagers crowded with household goods within the city walls. We selected a peace embassy to go out and beg for mercy: several promacedonios and confidently, Demosthenes, the eloquent champion of the city. The others rode to the border of Attica and at that point his thoughts became so disturbing that he apologized and left the game.
The sad remnant abject presented to the winner congratulations on your safe return from the north and by their recent triumph. Alexander accepted the surrender of Athens politely and agreed to forgive them if they give the most virulent anti-Macedonian. The skilful Demades, the same man who had been used as an emissary Philip after Chaeronea, Alexander persuaded to renounce the latter requirement. Upon learning that Macedonia had spared Demosthenes, Antipater must have thought that the young monarch had lost his mind. After Alexander's death, hastened to correct the error. Alexander himself, with what their guidelines, must have seemed unthinkable that Demosthenes was able to lift his head again. He could not judge the Athens of the fourth century BC However, the head away from the martyr's crown, showed that it made more sense than the old Antipater. It had served its purpose in the south. Greece was assured. He returned to Macedonia and prepared for the company that would occupy the remaining third of your life.
Once in Macedonia, Alexander the traditional sacrifices made during the celebrations of the Olympian Zeus and, in addition to the usual games, art contests held "in honor of the Muses." During those days he received the news that a famous statue of Orpheus, preserved with religious fervor in the south of Macedonia, had begun to sweat profusely. Seers analyzed the omen and concluded that the new monarch's exploits inspire poets.
As much as I would have liked, Alexander never had his own epic. He and posterity have been better served by the memoirs of a soldier, a sailor and a builder. His best poetry section was coined much later by the gentleman Montrose, who introduced him in the middle of a lyric poem:
As Alexander will be king
and will reign alone;
My spirit never scorned
a close rival to the throne.
He fears his fate too
or worth very little
who is not able to risk
winning or losing everything.
Is shorter than he would have liked, but it conveys its essence.
In the meantime, Darius, whose troops fought a defensive war against the local bridgehead-Parmenion, worried by the news from Greece, hired 50,000 Greek mercenaries. The general led the Menmón, a veteran of the reign of Oco. He had participated in the revolt of the satraps and after the exile in Macedonia, where he studied the tactics of their hosts until they call back. Alexander, who never thought badly of old Artabazus to be against the service of a Persian king, did not have many contemplations with the Greeks who did the same. The army assembled by Memnon had only a few soldiers without money who rented their swords in exchange for something to put in their mouth are mostly composed of Southerners who were waging war against Macedonia after their cities to sign peace treaties . And Alejandro offended as they did not the Persians, who, in his opinion, only doing their duty.
Got ready to leave in the spring. During the winter, the closest urges him to marry and beget an heir before starting out, fearing that he died.
It is said that Antipater was very insistent, was a loyal board because if left as regent and the king died without an heir, would be well placed to take the throne. However, as successful as Philip and Olympia years ago. Alejandro replied impatiently that it was time to stay home "and looking wedding party celebrating the birth of their children." Do not necessarily imply the former the latter. If after his departure did not stem a stem, could have called his wife to Asia to try again. Clearly still found repugnant the idea. Perhaps he also thought that a child raised in Macedonia in his absence would be totally dominated by Olympia.
If he had accepted the advice of Antipater, perhaps a successor would have survived eleven years, and in the case of the parental preference, a fourteen; the entire course of Hellenic history would have changed. It is said that when asked how he had put so quick to Greece, said: "Do not postpone anything for the next day." But deferred the issue and sparked a generation of wars.
At least I saved expenses. At that time the economic problem was acute. It was said that when the throne, the most valuable of Philip was a thin gold cup that night in a box kept under the pillow. Later accumulated great wealth, who also spent: in the army, buying support in Greece, Macedonia and preparing to civilized war. Alejandro later declared: "From my father I inherited a few cups of gold and silver, less than sixty talents in the treasury and a debt of five hundred who had not paid. I left after borrowing another eight hundred. " Despite this-or perhaps because of its cause, money became his personal property and distributed them to friends and loyal supporters. Some do not accept anything, as Perdiccas, whose entry suggests, despite what Ptolemy says that at Thebes was right. "What is there left for you?" Said Perdiccas. "Hope," replied Alexander, Perdiccas's response was prophetic: "The share".
In early spring, Alexander moved to the east with 30,000 infants, in part handles and lightly armed archers, and some 5,000 cavalrymen. He left with little more than the Macedonian troops who had fought at Chaeronea to invade an empire that had he had an enemy from a size next to yours, there might be up in arms because a million men. Tarn has correctly pointed out that Alexander initially embarked on the war because "not even remotely thought of not doing so: it was his inheritance." And his singular genius was evident in the war engendered.
Marched to the Hellespont with the fleet, but the Persian army, much higher, did not attack. During the crossing of the strait at the helm of the flagship. Child probably had sailed by the now defunct Lake Pella. In the midst of the waters made a sacrifice to Poseidon, to reach the other side threw the spear at the front and wish and was the first to leave the water and ashore. It turned to look towards Europe, which would not see.
As was typical of him, the first thing he did was to see Troy in ruins, but easy to find in natural rock-site, made offerings to its protective and devoted his panoply Athena in the sanctuary of the goddess, took to himself, as own right, a selection of ancient Homeric Athena allegedly trophies, including a shield that would later save his life. There Hephaestion and his friends paid tribute to the immortal, Plutarch says that Alexander and his comrades were stripped and made a ceremonial run around the burial mound of Achilles. All sources agree that made sacrifices in honor of the hero. Some enterprising businessman offered the authentic tourist lira de Paris (whose other name was Alexander), the Macedonian was quick to reject such a relic of a decadent and hedonistic preferred the Achilles instrument that played the exploits of heroes. The truth is that probably the lyres and singing remained a sensitive issue, even though they had been eight or ten years.
After the consecration romantic adventure, he organized his forces for the conquest of Greece across the sea, their only goal at that time. He moved north and then east along the coast of the Dardanelles, where they waited the Persian forces.
The army was not led by Darius, not put off anything until the next day if I could wait until next week or month. The commander was the most skilled mercenary general Memnon, at the head of 15,000 Greek soldiers. Anyway, half a dozen aristocrats outranked Persians. When Memnon advised burning fields and starve the Macedonians, who could not survive long with the provisions they had brought the local satrap indignantly refused and convinced the others. They decided to defend the east bank of the Granicus River, just upstream of the mouth, it was a sensible option in view of the magnitude of their numbers (the number is disputed), which was apparently lower than that of the invaders. Alexander would have to address before moving inland and the high banks of the river gave them the advantage they needed.
When Alexander came to the river, the soldiers sent to scout informed her what the position of the Persians. After the landing, Parmenion had met with him and replaced his son as deputy chief Philotas. If discouraged Alexander proposed a pitched battle and a surprise attack at dawn, another controversial issue in light of subsequent events-Parmenion probably made on the basis that the enemy would adopt the tactic certainly strongly betting sensible in its infantry top of the bank to sting with their spears to the insecure and disadvantaged riders while trying to climb.But the shore was defended by cavalry. Surely, General Fuller is right to see in this another example of the aristocratic noblesse oblige and the Persian pride. The infantry was composed of foreign mercenaries ... and a gentleman should not hide behind them.
With its stout horses, held by the handle of the heavy saddle and holding their huge spears in hand, medieval knights would have formed an impregnable defensive line. But the Persians, in the volatile former chair of the rider also had the disadvantage of not having even small spears as weapons to hand combat, but throwing javelins, of which it is likely that each carry more than a couple . The Macedonians were armed with spears resistant dogwood. Although dependent on the rider's arm movements, which would have fallen if he had used the momentum of his horse, spears as weapons were still higher than dogwood. The armies were close enough for Alexander noticed this detail.
He gathered his troops to face the river and delegated Parmenion the left wing, occupying the traditional position personally royal right; Philotas was his brigade commander. Arrian gives the names of all section chiefs and it is interesting that Craterus and Perdiccas, who in the future would be great generals, commanders were only phalanx. Hephaestion Ptolemy and still had no control. As befits a true professional, on a war footing Alexander had no favorites.
The fact that he was armed brilliantly so far as to be recognizable as far as the deplorable sight, according to modern standards, was also recognized professional attitude at all times, except ours. Xenophon, that soldier pragmatic attitude narrates approving the arms of Cyrus shone like a mirror on his helmet and wore a white plume. Alejandro got two, one on each side.
After driving to the river to its first shock troops, Alexander returned to the right wing, raised the cry of war, riding in front of all, he went straight into training ready to receive it. He led the assault to the Persian high command, which is traditionally placed in the center, rescuing central part of their shock troops, who were hard-pressed. For a while skirmishes were not resolved in the steep river bank and agitated, as the Macedonians had to face the melee every time I reached the top. Exhausted javelins, the Persians had to resort to handguns. Amid the thuds and shoving broke the spear of Alexander, one of his knights, Demaratus of Corinth, probably grandson of Demaratus who had negotiated his return from exile, handed him another spear. With this, pounced on a famous Persian general, killed him and immediately became embroiled in a fight, was hit in the helmet and lost one of the plumes. As he has an opponent, another lifted his scimitar to drop it on him; Clites "the Black"-brother-Helánice his nurse arrived just in time to reap the arm of the second assailant.
The resolution, discipline and resistant dogwood spears prevailed. The Persians were thrown into confusion and fled. Alejandro's let out and concentrated their attack on the mercenaries, whom he considered traitors to Greece. It was a savage butchery. Although some escaped, only took about two thousand prisoners, and instead of re-employed, he sent them to forced labor Macedonia. Memnon escaped and returned to combat. Arsames the Persian satrap, who had rejected the advice of Memnon before the battle, also escaped, but committed suicide.
There were few casualties salads. At twenty comrades killed in the first assault, Alexander granted exceptional funeral, exempted from taxes for their families and made statues cast in bronze. After the battle he visited the wounded Arrian writes, "looked at his wounds, he asked how they had actually encouraged them to talk about their exploits and even to boast of them." Attitudes like this explain the extraordinary relationship that would develop in later years between Alexander and his army.
Persian generals buried with honors of war and offered a proper funeral Greek mercenaries killed in the battlefield. For men the first century BC, this attitude was much more than a gesture: it was the ritual for a peaceful transition to the region of darkness. What for the modern man may seem cynical, he was generous and unusual for his contemporaries, if we consider this fact more clearly understand the influence he had in his time. To this is added the forgiveness of the locals who, unlike the mercenaries, had served the Persians under recruitment. Marched south to Sardis, located inside an impressive fortress on a promontory high, which surrendered without a fight. In Asia Minor would face, especially in cities where only the garrison and the officers felt loyalty to Persia, the Lydians were the people of King Croesus, Cyrus conquered in time. The treasury of Sardis was well stocked, although not up to the legend of Croesus, and was just at the time that Alexander needed it. In the former site of the royal palace under the direction of a beam divine had built a temple to Olympian Zeus, garrisoned the Acropolis and allowed the people to maintain their traditional customs and laws. Olympian Zeus, the god protector of Macedonia, on the back of almost all the silver coin did, is enthroned as the famous statue of Phidias at Olympia. On the obverse Heracles, with his hood like a lion mask. As the mint was moved to the east, Zeus is carved by craftsmen who are not Greek and is becoming more diffuse, while Heracles seems increasingly to Alexander.
The coastal city of Ephesus Greek opened the door, showing a society full of hatred and revenge. On behalf of the Persians had ruled the Greek oligarchs collaborators. Knowing Alexander's victory, Democrats traitors lynched or dragged out of the temple and stoned him to death, along with their children. Alexander restored democracy and severely forbidden to carry out further reprisals, "knowing that as soon as the people were unjustly kill some men, out of pure hatred or to seize their property, as well as those who deserved it." Arrian says that after the decree of Alexander's popularity increased even more.
He made a sacrifice to Artemis and held a brilliant victory parade. The Greek cities fell at his feet like ripe fruit. In each drove the propers and established democracies traitors to the Greek. He explained that this was what he had come to do, and the time may not seek anything else.
He moved fifty miles south, came to Caria and saw for the first time that such a dire state that had been in relation to their past. The satrap was long dead Pixodaro had happened to a relative affection Persian interests. If the plot of Alexander had been successful, probably would not have received more than one wife caria superfluous. But what we got was a Carian mother.
Pixodaro was a usurper.His predecessors had been a brother and a sister, married (as in Egypt) according to real practice. On the death of husband, wife, Ada, had the right to govern alone, but the expelled Pixodaro. Ada quietly retired and moved to the powerful fortress Alinda port. Alexander surrendered the fort and offered allegiance if he reinstating their rights, diplomatic allegiance in worship soon became mother and was affectionately indulgent and received. Ada nursed him and pampered him, amazed at his simple diet, cordon bleu stuffed himself with until Alexander was forced to politely refuse their meals. Soon, Ada formally adopted as a son. At this point the paradox of the situation must amuse Alexander.
Unlike many men whose childhood was dominated by his mother, Alexander never felt sexually attracted to older women. Preferred a subsidiary role. Later he assumed a much greater commitment, and a third link of this kind, apparently the most insignificant and inconsistent, he should be living.
He went to Miletus, one of the ports in the territory of the usurper. The commander of the garrison began to negotiate the surrender, he learned that they were about to get reinforcements by sea and changed his mind. The small fleet of Alexander, with hundreds sixty ships, quickly occupied the strategic port of Lade, across the strait, the Persians had to settle for his four boats aground north.
It is said that Parmenion insisted trigger a naval battle, probably because the Macedonians were in a better position. They had seen an osprey, a favorable omen, on the shore, at the height of the sterns of their ships. Alexander chose to leave in peace to the Persians because, he said, his ships were crewed by experienced sailors and a victory will lift morale. The eagle had landed on the ground, pointing out where to target fortune. Finally, "was not willing to sacrifice the expertise and the value of his Macedonians." Reckless with his own life, never squandered his men, a fact well known to them and never underestimated.
Alexander opened a breach in the walls of Miletus and took it by assault, while his ships closed the mouth of the harbor to prevent the Persian aid received. Some soldiers of the garrison escaped by sea, using their shields as balsa wood, and went to a nearby islet. He sailed after them but "to see the island's men fight to the end, pity because it was loyal soldiers and the enlightened." Freed the Milesians, and the mercenaries, who were Greeks, the contracted service.
Unable to enter port, the powerful Persian army was stranded with all his soldiers. The warships of antiquity did not have enough capacity to transport food to feed for long periods the rowers, sailors and soldiers carried. Loading dock constantly needed water and food, hence the importance of supporting ground troops. The fleet did not. Alejandro Philotas instructed to occupy the coast and surrounding the besieged not loading supplies. On the ground were greatly outnumbered, after a vain attempt to provoke a naval battle, the warehouses were empty and had to leave. The overall success of this secondary operation suggested that the logical mind of Alexander an important strategy and long term, why not deny the Persian navy all ports of call?
"He played eagle movements indicated that the ships had to conquer the ground."The impetuosity of Alexander in the battle was accompanied by her amazing facility to establish a long-term goal and wait. His plan was supposed to dominate the eastern Mediterranean coast before go inland, and ensure the control of the liberated cities and its own submissions. Strong bet for this strategy when their ships scattered all transport except for a couple of siege machines, in spite of the spoils of Sardis, he felt he could not afford to maintain a fleet. If you defeated would be isolated, but assumed that the loss-as well as the fear-not exist.
His next goal was Halicarnassus, capital of the deceased Pixodaro satrapy. Imposing fortress rebuilt in later times by the Seleucids and the Crusaders, was a more difficult to Miletus and called for a total siege. One of the two commanders was the expert Menmón. Arrian describes in great detail the great moat filled to raise the siege towers, the outputs from strength to burn, the final gap in the wall. When the city was clearly at his mercy, Alejandro shares suspended, withdrew and offered negotiations for the next day, agreeing to the conditions. At midnight, woke up and saw the city in flames, Memnon and his men set fire to talk and wind spread the flames. Alexander took it by assault and ordered to kill all they catch arsonists set fire, but saved the citizens. Memnon and his staff had escaped.
Alexander and was master of Caria. Fortresses garrisoned the Queen Ada reinstated on the throne of the satrapy.
His next action was to give control to Parmenion own. If subsequent chronic rejection highlighted the advice of Parmenion by the young monarch for reasons of convenience, that is not evidence that these incidents were fictitious. Rather point to a known human model. Parmenion was about half of the sixties. For over twenty years had been the best friend of Philip. Now he had to deal with a high command consisting mostly of men a generation younger, under the command of a chief of a little over twenty years. If he had adapted easily to the thought processes of Philip to Alexander, would have been practically a miracle. Shakespeare's Antony complains that the tutelary genius of Octavio intimidates his, and had to suffer Parmenion this perennial. By Alexander, the man who had been so close to his father, who had married a daughter of Attalus when he was in power and in disgrace he was always meant to cause some tension. Anyway, highlighted Parmenion to send communications lines of the conquered territory. His tendency to repeat this policy would have dire results for both. Before leaving, Alexander gave permission to return the country to the newlyweds Macedonian soldiers, it was a very popular order also took into account the future needs to have formed by his fellow troops. He attacked the tribes of the mountains, intractable throughout the world, the winter had forced down into the valleys, which facilitated their domination. During this period Parmenion Darius intercepted a message from Lincestis Alexandros, whose two brothers were executed for complicity in the murder of Philip, in which he offered the throne of Macedonia if he could kill Alexander. The prince had been promoted and commanded the cavalry Thracian. It had always been a source of danger as a possible successor in the event that Alexander died without an heir, his survival represented a significant exception of Macedonian royal precedent.At that time, Alexander, who had no evidence that the Persians had made that offer, kept under arrest precautionary rather than accuse him of treason. He recalled that during the recent siege of a swallow had entered the royal tent and hovered over the sleeping occupant. Alejandro half awoke and pushed gently but the swallow returned and landed on his head. The soothsayers foreshadowed the warnings of the pet bird announced internal dangers. But Alexander went out his hand.
He spent the winter to reduce coastal forts, down south and go around the curve to the east of Asia Minor. By the spring was admitted by the mainland to Gordion, the scene of the famous knot. It was a leather strap, completely wrapped around the poles of an old car which was supposed to have reached its most famous monarch, the legendary Midas. Plutarch says, probably with hindsight, that man can undo that knot was destined to rule the world. Arian said that according to some accounts, Alexander cut it with the proverbial sword of the way and that, according to others, pulled the varal in which the leather strap was tied up and discovered the hidden end. "Do not try to explain exactly how that Alexander broke the Gordian knot," writes Arian scrupulously. Everyone agrees that managed to undo it. To clinch the matter, there was thunder and lightning. Further south almost impregnable addressed the passage of the ports of Cilicia, but had to take it by assault, escaped deployed forces as they heard that Alexander himself was in front. In Tarsus nearly lost his life when he plunged into the Cidrio (the river that carried the boat of Cleopatra to Antonio), because he was tired, sweaty and hot. The river carried meltwater, suffered cramps and a bad cold and feared for his life. Then gave a passionate testimony of their friendship. Philip, his physician, he was about to administer a drug when a letter arrived from Parmenion, which ensured that Darius had bribed the doctor to be poisoned. The prosecution could not seem trivial in light of the proposal of Lincestis Alexandros. It is even possible to try it with Philip, but he ignored it. Alexander gave the letter to the doctor and while he read it, drank the medicine. Philip looked up in horror and saw that Alexander smiled and held the empty glass. The purge was a powerful potion. Alejandro can stand without losing confidence in the treatment of ignorant, although due to delay his recovery, which took several weeks.
Darius finally moved to act, marched westward from Babylon with a huge army and camped in a plain, where available space to deploy his men, blocking the southward march of the Macedonians, in close proximity to modern Aleppo. As know that Alexander was ill, probably his recovery was prolonged after two years of continuous campaign, Darius thought the Macedonian king was left behind by fear and felt very encouraged.
Diodorus says that the great king, which measured six feet, had become famous during the reign of Oco to kill in close combat a champion of Cilicia with which no other warrior would face. At that time was about fifty years and it was possible that had fought the duel, if it ever took place, a quarter-century earlier. Maybe it was just propaganda to support its accession to the throne, she needed reinforcements, perhaps the power and luxury, its value had changed or had been, as usual, more specific than general. Anyway, it seems that since the battle of Granicus had become a frightened man. The recent death of his Menmón general, who became ill during the campaign, had thrown further Darius.
When he went back to his feet, Alexander made methodical cleaning operations to protect its flanks and communications. Darius, very encouraged by this further delay, thought to launch an offensive. Arian responsible for this excess of confidence to the flattery of courtiers, it is also possible that the soldiers wanted to throw him more determined battle.
Now confronted with a momentous battle, Alexander set up a field hospital in the inner bay of Issus, he left the sick and wounded and marched south to meet Darius without knowing the latter for an inland route differently, moving north . Armies without being crossed. Darius came to Iso in the rear of Alexander. The only Macedonians were found that were in the hospital. Whether or not his order, the fact is that the dismembered alive. Alexander never paid in kind, moderation rarely practiced in the ancient world or, for that matter, in some parts of the modern.
The news that Darius had abandoned their position in the plain and gone to Iso, which did not have room to maneuver, it seemed so incredible to Alexander sent a lander to confirm. He informed that the bay was full of Persians. He gathered his officers to give them instructions.
Arian said he told them how Xenophon and his ten thousand-a body of infantry isolated and without support, had made their way successfully from Babylon to the sea. He recalled the difficult time they had overcome together "and everything else in a moment, the face of danger, a brave general would say to encourage his brave" something that was very adept. That would be isolated if they lost was not even mentioned. Eventually they crowded around Alexander, he took his hands and begged him to lead them. Following topics on its stiffness, derived from the Roman tradition, often cast shadows on the deep-rooted emotional bond between Alexander and his men, which would last a lifetime. As with Granicus, the Persians formed behind the River steep banks. The front stretched from the sea to the nearby hills and the hosts could have surrounded the Macedonians smoothly if they had arranged space. As it happened, the huge amount of reserve forces remained in the rear to no avail.
Modern historians believe greatly exaggerated estimates of Ptolemy, which claimed 600,000 troops to the Persian. But the Macedonians, surpassed even eight or ten each of his men, according to conservative estimates, at that time must have thought that the enemy was really so numerous. He continues to believe that the Greek mercenaries of Darius were around 12,000; the 5,000 horse Macedonians were just a squad compared to the Persian cavalry, protected by heavy coats of mail. His commander was Nabarzanes distinguished general, for whom the battle would be the prologue of a drama bleak.
Alexander took the intermediate steps slowly and not to tire his men. When they arrive at the edge of the bay made form and order of battle, gave speeches. He rode along the line, exchanged a few words with the officers and men singled out previously mentioned they had fought valiantly and their exploits. The fact that known by name to several thousand men was one of the secret weapons of Alexander. Xenophon speaks favorably of this gift in a major.
A Parmenion, who had met him during the march, he assigned the important position of the left wing, near the sea. The center was composed mostly of children.Alexander held the right wing with the real cavalry and peers. Arrian describes the battle in great detail. The Persian cavalry concentrated on the beach, against the wing Parmenion vulnerable. Alexander sent reinforcements, who rode behind the high sarisas crouching infantry to try a surprise attack, but Nabarzanes continued to fight without flinching. On the right the hard Agrianians, legacy of the late Prince Lambare shooters jumped on Persians and put in disarray. In the center, which faced a phalanx of Greek mercenaries, the race was close, the Macedonians fought for their pride and the Greeks to bring him down. The pride, discipline, morale and ultimately allowed the phalanx saris progressed slowly. Alexander, who bided his time, was launched on the river with the comrades of the cavalry, crushed the enemy's left flank and returned to the Greeks. He let the phalanx finish off the job now easy and went to the target that she had never taken his eyes off: Persian royal guard, the 'immortal', within which was the great king, striking in its ornate chariot by virtue of his stature and his kingly robe. Riding the old but still spirited Bucephalus (who probably owed his long life to the light weight of the rider), Alexander sang the hymn of battle and led the vociferous cavalry, who was exalted by success, in a thundering charge and relentless.
As the cavalry approached, perhaps when the dust cloud settled down and was able to clearly see Alexander, Darius failed him courage. He turned the car and escaped. Amid the turmoil unleashed, the center of the Persian forces followed. The entire front collapsed. The huge army was thrown through the narrow steps. Thousands of men who had not participated in the battle were killed or trampled by the cliffs fell, dragged down by the fugitives pursued by the Macedonians. Nabarzanes, still resolutely fighting action against Parmenion not yet decided, he became aware of the disaster and learned that the king had fled. Withdrew his men as best he could, with vivid feelings that would address the time to show.
If the real car had been occupied by Oxatres-Dario's younger brother, it is unlikely that the fight was over so soon. He fought with the king firmly until it was too late, a fact that Alexander did not overlook when they met again.
Eager to pursue Darius, Alexander waited until verifying that the victory was assured, although the price was high, behaved like a professional. Changed mount for the prosecution and miles later found the car, weapons and royal robe, of which Darius had disengaged before resuming the flight on horseback. Returning with these trophies, Alexander learned that it was less important than the great king had left.
The tent was intact Persian, with a team worthy of the palace, toiletries and tableware in gold and silver, inlaid furniture, a couch, a sumptuous bath, a throne. It is said that, seeing a stage with which the famous palace of his father was almost ascetic, Alexander said, "So this is what it means to be king."
That night he dined with his officers in the royal tent, with gold and silver dishes, after washing the stains of battle royal bath, and walking distance to hear some women wailed asked what happened. They replied that the complaints came from the harem. Darius had left his wife, who was reputed to be the most beautiful woman in Asia, to his two young daughters, his heir, a child of five or six years, and his mother. Upon learning that the spoils were his car and his clothes, women mourned the death of Darius and destiny for themselves anticipated.
Other eminent Persians had left their wives in Damascus, as it seemed a safe place. Darius, immoderate and too confident, had brought his family. To Alexander must have seemed very unprofessional, the consequences of its abandonment, at the hands of troops who claimed revenge for the atrocities committed in the hospital came as a surprise. Until then nobody had bothered to ladies. Of course they were reserved for the gratification of it.
Immediately, Alexander sent an officer for the reassurance: Darius was still alive and they would be protected. The queen mother, Sisigambis would receive the names of the fallen Persian nobles and authorization of Alexander to chair the funeral rites. The next day, after visiting the wounded Alexander himself had a sword wound in his thigh, went to see the Persian royal family. Arian acknowledges that this fact gave rise to many legends. However, the evidence is contradictory. Comments from Arrian, Quintus Curtius Rufus and Plutarch just disagree and when they do it in the same direction.
Alexander was accompanied by Hephaestion. They walked together, dressed simply. The poise and the presence of Hephaestion surprised women, used to relate the height with royalty, and the venerable Sisigambis tried to bow before him. Hephaestion fell, the eunuchs of the harem were warning signs, afflicted, the Queen Mother tried to return to bow before the king. Alejandro stepped forward and forced her to her feet: "Do not worry, Mother. You have not made a mistake, he too is Alexander. " However it seems puzzling that when the interpreter translated it, Sisigambis thanked him with regal dignity.
The queen, Estateira, was the sister of Darius. Although the dynastic incest was common in the East, the marriage was prior to accession to the throne of Darius. Since it was a beautiful era, was to have far less than thirty years and as his stepsister legitimate union with a common father's youngest wife. His two daughters, just outputs childhood, old enough to suffer the usual fate of the captives. Alexander assured them protection. He bent down to the youngest, who embraced him without fear. He turned to Hephaestion, not to the interpreter, and said that the grandson of Sisigambis share the goodness of his grandmother and, unfortunately, that gift was absent in the child.
The family decided to dignity, privacy and security of a royal harem. Alexander had been instantly smitten by Sisigambis. Since the age of absolute seclusion exempted from, returned to visit.
Sisigambis never been king's wife, but mother and late age. Anyway, for the old aristocrat who had lamented the heroic death of his son, the reality of his survival must have been an even bigger blow. Despite the chasms of culture and language and error that began the next visit of Alexander, apparently the Persian and Macedonian have much in common. Alexander recalled that his mother and sister were doing work on the loom and was presented with a gift of colored thread. Sisigambis never seen anything like it except in the hands of the maids, and accused the impact of what he thought was a reminder of their new condition. Alexander caught his expression, reached the bottom of the problem and graciously asked forgiveness. The friendship flourished.
He did not see the young queen, according to Plutarch, it was dominated himself in any case, decided not to give rise to scandal. Out for flatter or as a joke, friends encouraged him to claim his droit du seigneur, Alejandro naming forbidden in his presence. While abstinence may not involve any effort, the thought of pride and self-esteem of women, in maintaining his small court and the services they were used, corresponded to his spontaneous generosity. Further explanation requires that crawl on their way to ladies and eunuchs in the Persian royal family and the entourage of cumbersome furniture.
You can do so to enjoy the company of Sisigambis-only Alexander's death said the depth of their bond, or to ensure that no one bothered. However, had captured forts in which could have stopped safely. And there is another reason that would have been characteristic of him.
The subplot of the most picturesque Cyropaedia Xenophon is the story (fictional, so we know) of Cyrus and Mrs. Susa. After his great victory over the Confederacy Assyrian, was reserved for the lady as the best of the booty, along with his wealthy family. Her beloved husband, who was away, had not participated in the battle. Persian officials a glimpse of his beauty when he tore his clothes in the middle of regret to report that it was "the most beautiful woman in all of Asia, born of mortal." By way of consolation, had assured him that was reserved for the most distinguished men, and then pressed to Cyrus to see your prize. No, answered by God would not do it, especially if her beauty was so great. Perhaps he would be looking too long and forget their duty, love, at last, after all, was a kind of slavery. He entrusted the protection of the lady a follower of confidence when he fell in love, he was sent away for the sake of security of women. Touched by so much chivalry, Susa lady offered to send a message to her husband and beg him to unite with Cyrus. The husband appeared confident. "They embraced with joy, as they should, because they had lost hope to meet again." The woman spoke of compassion and self-control of Cyrus and begged her husband to retribuyera it loyally. Thankfully, he took the right hand of the king and was loyal to the death.
Alexander not only had a strong theatrical sense, he had learned from Aristotle that the great soul man chooses his role and lives it thoroughly. Also experienced a deep delight when he gave pleasure to others, whose sincerity many anecdotes attest. It's easy to fall into the temptation to imagine that he hoped to overcome the tragedy of Xenophon. Darius had not been shown as an implacable enemy and ready to fight while he had a bit of life. The reunion with the wife, mother and children, headed by an indulgent winner certainly would have become one of the great historical anecdotes of Alexander, and no one was more aware than their possibilities. His determination to realize those dreams was crowned with great success. And if in this case failed, the responsibility fell on the destination rather than the impossibility.
The story of the lady of Susa, has another aspect: her husband became a vassal of Cyrus.
In the course of Alexander's time there is no one can say with certainty that it was then decided that there needed to be limited to the goal of liberating father and Greek cities could and would be a great king of Persia. Undoubtedly the most likely time is after Iso, seeing the imperial splendors had enthroned a weak man.
Darius fled during the night with slugs, along with a handful of members of his entourage. At daybreak he joined about four thousand fugitives scattered wandering. Eight thousand Greek mercenaries escaped by sea and returned to their lands. The king himself barely reined until he crossed the Euphrates. Clear the way, Alexander advanced south into Judea and coastal cities of Phoenicia. Had fulfilled all its obligations to Greece and now waging a war of conquest.
It is as absurd anachronistic moral standards apply to this as it would condemn Hippocrates not teach aseptic surgery.During the long evolution of human thought (usually ahead of human behavior), the idea that the war was wrong had not yet penetrated the world. Socrates himself, who considered the search for good as the work of his life, he declared proudly during the trial: "Athenians, it would be strange that I, who withstood my place in the front lines and facing death on the orders of my commander , leave the place that God assigned me. " Aristotle warmly supported the wars of conquest Hellenized long as the "barbarians" were not treated as men. A century later a handful of Stoics began to question the morality of the war, but almost no one paid attention. Rome Christian soldiers preferred martyrdom to the worship of the divine Caesar and the eagles of the Legion, but he never refused to fight. In our own generation what has been tolerated and even approved of the same opinion formers who condemn Alexander shows a divergence of standards as disparate as might be expected to be the best qualities of the Macedonian, not the worst, which aroused resentment. The words of the Earl of Chesterfield, the philosopher undervalued, are as true today as in 1748: "The things that happen in our time and we see with our own eyes do not surprise us as much as we read the past, but by no means are less extraordinary. "
Dario Alejandro wrote from a camp of Mesopotamia and conditions proposed rescue his family. Your note was a general manifesto, first accused Philip of aggressor and then to Alexander for breaking an old alliance: a reminder of the senseless war Macedonian humiliation of Xerxes for a man who occupied a position of strength. Darius had taken up arms against these injuries, but "the battle discoursed by the will of some god."
That comment almost invited Alexander to replicate, as it did immediately, he had taken the land "by the gift of heaven." The rest of his answer was an uncompromising challenge. He had been elected to avenge the evil that Xerxes was to Greece. Oco had invaded the dominions of his father Philip, Darius himself had procured the death of Philip and "had bragged about it to the world in his letters" (¿captured Sardis perhaps?). In addition, Darius was a usurper who had conspired with the purpose of killing his predecessor (true or false, was a logical suspect in any Macedonian king). The royal family returned would be free as were willing to go look in person. (Failure to blackmail and threaten the safety of their own make a sad contrast to modern times.) Legend apocryphal later contains countless challenges, often endless, launched by Alexander. The peroration of the following, which probably comes from the royal archives, it sounds true:
... Now, when I write, do not treat me as an equal, but as the sovereign owner of Asia and how much I belonged. If you do so, we treat you as an enemy. And if you do not share my opinion about the sovereignty of Asia, check your with me on the battlefield and not run away, because I will find you wherever you are!
Soon after, a detachment under the command of Parmenion accepted the surrender of Damascus. The governor had agreed Parmenion secret, fearing treachery, would not enter the city with his men and asked to leave with the treasure by the simulated flight. The governor was followed by a panicked crowd, including the harems of the Persian nobles who fought in Iso.
As not part of the royalty, not protected strictly those ladies. One of them plays a role in the legend of Alexander and the other in its history.Plutarch says only stayed with Barsine, widow of Memnon Artabazus daughter, by the surprising reason that Parmenion - neither more nor less than he! - He said it would be beneficial for him. The doubtful element of the story lies not only in this, but there were powerful reasons to invent it. There is not a witness that the woman accompany him on the march, not a single claim for their part, or that of his powerful family, giving him children. However, twelve years after Alexander's death came a seventeen-born, therefore, five years after the capture of Damascus, alleged her son, "raised in Pergamon ', was a pawn plaintiff and ephemeral during the wars of succession, probably chosen for his physical resemblance to Alexander. The fact that other Barsine marry must have served to both launch and sustain story - no source says to take into account a child, being that of Roxana posthumously, must have been his only son in life, there with a mother almost real. This is hardly credible that a man named cities with the names of his horse and his dog.
More convincing character in a beautiful fruit salad, maybe a high class courtesan, who was fortunate to Philotas. He was impressed and amused by the distinguished achievements and her own family. The woman listened with great kindness. Later Philotas would realize that he had overestimated their own charms.
The real booty that Alexander was in Damascus was composed of vast treasures, war funds of the great king and the nobles' private coffers, which finally released him from all worries concerning campaign financing. Greek envoys also captured four: two of Thebes, which released on the spot for his persianización natural to consider, one of Sparta, who remained detained for a while and then freed, and an elderly Athenian, son of the celebrated General Iphicrates , friend, guest of his grandparents. He persuaded the old man that will add to his entourage, where he remained for life, and when he died his ashes were sent to their relatives scrupulously Athens.
Sidon opened the door willingly and gave the pro-Iranian governor. This had an interesting result: the first independent mission of Hephaestion. Before being conquered by Persia, for several generations, Sidon was a monarchy, Hephaestion and Alexander entrusted the task of choosing a king.
It was a funny show of honor, which implied that Hephaestion himself would have been worthy of the office if I could do without it, Alexander was realistic about these missions, and it required integrity and expertise. Immediately, Hephaestion was surrounded by sycophants and schemers. Your own host, a relevant citizen, probably fearful of the hostile factions rejected the offer with the excuse that ran through his veins no royal blood. At these words, Hephaestion asked if he survived a descendant of the royal line, was the unexpected answer that was one, born in rural poverty and worked as a gardener. Hephaestion studied its references and found them excellent, had the ability not to interrupt him in his humble work and sent emissaries with a royal robe that could be presented with dignity. When the emissaries arrived, they found him watering. Surprised by the election of one candidate who could not be accused of bribery, the Sidonians assimilated the situation well. Care to their own honor and that of his friends that implies that choice, and its success speaks eloquently of Hephaestion.
Abdalonim King was always a hard worker, respectful and honest.It is pleasant to record an example of human gratitude. After the death of Hephaestion, while his great memorial remained unfinished because Alexander was gone and envious rivals criticized relentlessly, as did Ptolemy-surely the brilliant history of this officer, Abdalonim designing their own coffin. A magnificent stained marble Hellenistic frieze represents a battle scene, in which Alexander carried out a heroic act. However, almost everyone recognizes that the central figure, a handsome cavalryman who overthrew the Persian enemy, is the only surviving portrait of Hephaestion.
From Sidon, Alexander continued his march southward, toward the obstacle posed impressive shot. This port was a Phoenician fortress island was separated from the beach by a deep channel. Had its own large merchant fleet and navy and ships docking port Persians. When Alexander approached, the city sent emissaries who offered to put at your service. Alejandro tested them by asking them to sacrifice in the temple state of Melkarth, the Tyrian Heracles. This involved the refusal to open the door to the Macedonians and the statement that also prevent the entry of the Persians, and that commitment was not as likely to meet Alexander resumed the march.
Aware of the immense task ahead, Alexander held a council of war. He said that if they stopped shooting at the rear, the Persians used as a base to invade Greece, where Sparta had already rebelled openly against the regent Antipater while Athens was waiting his opportunity. Later extended Egypt, a rich target and willing to receive him, because he had forgotten the brutality and sacrilege of the reconquest of Oco. Once secured the coast and placed under the Macedonian power throughout Asia on this side of the Euphrates, could advance to Babylon.
This realistic analysis convinced the staff. He made a last attempt to avoid a place so expensive and sent envoys with an ultimatum. Tyre violated the sanctity of immemorial emissaries, put them on the walls so that Alexander was witness to his murder and threw the bodies into the sea. After Alexander announced that he had a dream in which Heracles stood on the walls of Tyre and extended his hand to guide you to the heart of the city.
These walls, made of stone and mortar, reached the forty-six feet high on the side closest to earth. The stratagem and surprise attack were discarded. Alexander got to work immediately and began building a pier from the mainland.
Outside the scope of the missiles, the first installment is over quickly. Alexander oversaw the work and handed out awards for the tenacity with which they worked. Then the channel was deep and filling stones required more and more time, were a bow shot of the walls and Tyrian ships now available of sufficient draft to address them and harass them. Alexander made up two mobile towers mounted with catapults, reinforced with skins and leather with a parapet extended from one to another tower. The moving works as advanced and protected the carriers until the last moment, when they ran to dump their loads. At a time when a strong wind, the Tyrians launched a fire-ships, loaded with high boiler cock burning pitch. The towers burned and workers are thrown into the sea or perished inside. Alexander ordered the construction of new towers and moved to Sidon to organize the army.
It took a couple of weeks, where he unloaded his boundless energy to organize an expedition of ten days to subdue neighboring tribes. He took the now old Lysimachus, the dark knight in childhood Macedonian had fun with the stories of Homer. When Alexander set out to explore the hills, Lysimachus begged to go with him, remembering the old game and stating that they had more years than his prototype, the Phoenix, the tutor of Achilles. Plutarch adds:
When they left the horses and began to roam the hills, the rest of the soldiers stepped forward, as night was about to fall and the enemy was near, Alexander was delayed more and more to encourage and help the old tired and lagged and before you know it was in the rear, far from his soldiers, with small company, a cold, dark night and in very bad place, until at some distance saw many scattered fires of the enemy and relying on his quickness ... ran to one of the nearest fires, killed with the dagger to the two barbarians who sat before her, snatched a firebrand and returned with it next to yours. I immediately kindled a great fire, which so frightened the enemy mostly fled, and attacked those who were defeated soon, so rest assured for the rest of the night.
After this tribute to friendship, Alexander returned to Sidon, where he waited for Cypriot ships, the rulers of the island had shaken off the Persian yoke had joined their cause. In all gathered around the candles and led the attack on Tyre. His own flagship occupied a place of danger: the closer to the city walls. The Tyrian, surprised by the number of ships, port closed with a succession of boats, as Alexander had done in Miletus. There was no way to entice them to come out.
Its operations had acquired a massive scale and in addition to the experts he had brought Greeks, including Cyprus and engineers around the Phoenician coast. Catapults mounted on board and bombed the walls of Tyre with heavy stones. The Tyre threw rocks into the sea to thwart the maneuvers of the vessels. Tenaciously, Alexander ordered them to return the rocks and the hoist. To perform this maneuver their ships had to anchor. The armored Tyre sent ships to cut ropes. Alexander made support ships carry. The enemy sent divers to cut the ropes under water. Alejandro replaced them with strings. At the end of the channel allowed the fleet to put along the walls, which also approached the pier.
The Tyrian-developed ingenious about his day-brought out their newest weapon. Heated red-hot sand and threw it on the Macedonians who occupied the front rows. Diodorus says: "They sneaked under his corselet and his clothes, burning the meat with intense heat ... the men shouted and pleaded as the tortured and no one could assist them, went mad and died as a result of suffering excruciating pain. " Many were thrown into the sea. Unaware that would become a regular feature of civilized warfare, Alexander considered an atrocity. Given his penchant for leading the vanguard, only chance of saving that must be burned alive.
These preparations had taken half a year. At the end of Tyre was attacked by the boats, with the support of the pier, which nevertheless did not reach the walls. Owner of the land nearest canal, Alexander was able to bring their ships to assault the walls closest to the sea, offering the least resistance. He threw heavy stones to crack torsion catapults the ashlar masonry, the arch type were giant versions of the medieval crossbow bolts and sharp bronze were able to penetrate armor. The landing craft carrying portable towers, and one of the features of this siege is that brought by sections. The final day of the attack personally came to a tower. We can imagine a wide bridge galley, with two or three rows of oarsmen to give speed, heavy-looking structure situated amidships and crowned with armed men, after the outstanding figure of Alexander, who directed the pilot over here and thither in search of a gap, while the plate is swung like a giant tongue, ready to stretch at the earliest possible occasion. According to Arrian, Alexander was at all times aware of acts of courage which deserved honors.
He witnessed a heroic act when Admetus, the captain of the guard, jumped into the first gap spotted, encouraged his men and died on the spot. By then, the ship had moved Alexander at full speed to support, the Macedonian ran across the plate and led the detachment. Meanwhile, his ships broke through the barrier of the port. The Tyre realized that all was lost and left the walls.
The Macedonians pursued and shot down a few could achieve. Alexander forbade them taken out to those in the sanctuary of the temple. (In a temple, they found a statue of Apollo famous Carthaginian Sicily booty-chained to the base, as in a dream God had informed a Tyrian guess that left to join Alexander.) Although Arian does not give the number of deaths, estimated at 30,000 enslaved captives, obviously the vast majority even crowded merchant port. Quintus Curtius Rufus says that killed six thousand armed men. Both he and Diodorus say that 2000 was crucified. Perhaps it was dead, the Macedonians in this way displayed the bodies of executed criminals, but not later mutilation practiced in England. Quintus Curtius Rufus, who is not trustworthy as far as atrocities are concerned, shows that they were alive. It would be wrong to categorically dismiss after the episode of the red-hot sand, but the odds are against you if we consider the general history of Alexander and their interest, at this stage of his career, to reach levels Hellenic.
During the siege, he received another embassy of Darius, who not only offered him a considerable sum of 10,000 talents in exchange for his family, but the conditions of peace: all of Asia Minor to the west of the Euphrates, an alliance and the hand of his daughter . This was the occasion of the famous dialogue with Parmenion: "If I were Alexander, accept such advantages before being exposed to new dangers." The Macedonian king replied: "And I also, if Parmenion, but I am Alexander." Darius said he did not need money or offer you half the land, which already had, rather than its entirety. If he wanted to, marry the daughter of Darius, with or without their consent, and if looking for an alliance, and submit request. Dario Alejandro allowed to take the measures suggested his answer and left for Egypt.
As Wilcken has shown a masterly analysis, that moment of decision on the part of Alexander is one of the great historical evidence that individuals, rather than economic forces, can change the destiny of humanity. Had he heeded Parmenion, Greek civilization would have been more firmly established in Asia Minor, but never have come to the East, in Persia the balance of power would keep his precarious and it was possible that in the future, the emergence of a monarch stronger reverse the defeat of Xerxes.
Hephaestion was promoted and was given command of the fleet that patrolled the coast. Alexander moved south to Gaza, the last point of resistance coast. Betis was in the hands of a eunuch general considered impregnable its location high and steep. Although not a port, if avoided Alejandro Gaza, Darius would feel encouraged to come down on his rear. The siege, which lasted two months, included building a high embankment to install their machines. One day that Alexander was in the works, a hawk dropped a stone on his head, perhaps mistaking his helmet to the back of a turtle which aimed to crack such as the bald poet Aeschylus, who died of an error committed by an eagle-like. Iles, Alexander asked the seer to interpret the omen Aristandro. The seer said that Alexander would take the city, but that day should pay attention to their safety.
Given the advice section remained a while, during which he spent almost nothing. Of the strong came a large force that began to bring down the embankment and his men immediately set out to help Alexander to his. Soon after nearly being killed by a man who, after surrendering and to spare his life, brandished a dagger, Alexander dodged thanks to its quick reflexes and brought him down. Out because he thought the omen was fulfilled, because it challenged or because they got carried away by enthusiasm, the fact is that Alexander continued to fight until he sank on his shoulder the heavy bolt of a crossbow catapult. The doctor removed it, causing heavy bleeding and applied a makeshift bandage, as Alexander went immediately into battle, he went away. He kept fighting and losing blood under armor until he fainted. Although the wound was deep and long kept him immobilized, he directed operations until the city fell.
Good historians have rejected the story of Quintus Curtius Rufus whereby the Betis brave, wounded, was brought before Alexander, refused to pay homage and then dragged him around town tied to the back of the car. Anyone who is not convinced of his constant generosity to the brave enemy, something to be proud, in this case can rely on your vanity. Before that guise abusing Hector, Achilles was killed in the climax of the epic duel. The wound had prevented Alexander fought in the final attack and was the last man in the world willing to do a show so unpleasantly bottom. The story is interesting as typical of Athenian propaganda, written by someone who was aware of Homeric aspirations but, directly, I knew nothing of its nature or was too "committed" to worry about it.
Did not campaign in Egypt, but an advanced triumphantly.
Hephaestion was waiting with the fleet in the Delta. The Persian satrap Mazaca aware of the defeat of Iso and lacking a proper Persian garrison, put a good face on the need and welcomed Alexander. This Pelusium garrisoned port and marched up the Nile, next to his fleet, to Memphis.
Currently there are almost no Europeans do not have any visual image of ancient Egypt, however trite it is. We must make an effort to imagine the impact this had on fabled civilization Alexander and his men, most of whom had not even seen Athens, which has become a legend since childhood, as they followed the great river that was their support, National Road and its sacred path. You have to imagine how it felt to reach the great temples of Memphis, the pyramids, with sides of geometric smoothness, the smile still scorched from the enormous Sphinx. He must change the scale of human perspective.
Acclaimed throughout Egypt as a liberator, Alexander was enthroned as king, with the double crown and adder, the arch crossed scepters and flail, symbols of the pastor and the judge. Survive cards that say: "Horus, Prince strong, he who put his hands in foreign lands, beloved of Amun and Ra's chosen son of Ra, Alexander." With regard to Egypt and its people, as immemorial tradition became a god.
It was also king of free choice of his subjects. His first act was to sacrifice to the god Apis, in the same temple in which Oco was killed by a spear (and, it is said, ordered him to be roasted for dinner), the sacred beast that was the divine incarnation. Alejandro worshiped all the gods of Egypt and did so with sincerity, because thanks to the tolerant attitude helena identified each with a Greek god whose attributes seem to match. There was a constant exchange between Greece and Egypt and probably the priests could communicate among themselves without the help of interpreters.
He neglected the Greek world and held ceremonial games, not only for athletes but also for the performing arts, which probably was more to his liking. Of the Greek cities came many participants. It was the first time I tasted the sweetness of true magnificence of the palace did not come as a rude provincial Persia.
Memphis came down the river to the coast, where I had to try some matters relating to their conquests in Asia Minor. He sailed through the Delta and ran aground in the vicinity of Lake Mareotis. It seemed an ideal place to establish a city: good anchorage, good soil, good air, good access to the Nile was so determined to undertake the works that wandered through the site, dragging behind architects and engineers and pointing out situations Market Square, the temples of Greek gods and Egyptian real road. A smart man realized that Alexander had no chalk to mark and offered flour, which the Macedonian accepted. The birds feed on it, so the soothsayers foresaw that the city would prosper and would feed many outsiders, Alexandria prediction is fulfilled. At some point in their progress must have been eager to cross the site of his tomb.
Arian says: "Then he dominated the yearning to visit Ammon, in Siva." Although this oracular shrine was famous throughout the Greek world, had no political or strategic value. For all we know, until then no king had visited. Darius was beginning to mobilize in Persia and Egypt once secured, the sooner you do it in front, the better. But Alexander was determined to undertake the pilgrimage. Maybe he heard something to the priests of Memphis and felt it was essential that journey, it is likely that they learned something in Dodona.
Various explanations have been given in his name. For example, maternal ancestor Perseus and Heracles, parental influence, had sought the counsel of Zeus-Ammon before embarking on his great works. This deity was a common ancestor of the former and, consequently, of Alexander. Apostille Arian who came "in the hope of knowing yourself more deeply, or at least say that they knew better."
He left the coast and penetrated inside the dangerous path which, if unleashed a storm of dust, a whole army could get stuck, as they said had happened on one occasion. As we trudged through the sand water became scarce, but a rain that saved them. Ptolemy (in this case comes to snacks) said that guided two serpents who spoke with human voices. Before you call him a charlatan, should remember that the desert sands emit strange sounds. Anyway, arrived at the green and shady oasis Siva. The high priest, who was accustomed to visiting pilgrims and probably broken Greek language, hailed Alexander as "son of Ammon." This formal treatment, which must by now be familiar, it was noticed by his friends, who were allowed through the forecourt after purification rituals. The divine king, whose person could only bring holiness, came as he was alone and entered the Holy of Holies.
That oracle functioned according to a characteristic principle, a kind of board "Wicca" on an enormous scale. It had originated in the Theban temple of Amon and seniority was immemorial. The symbol of God, a round object shaped navel, behaved in a kind of vessel from which dangled precious vessels, on the shoulders of many priests lay the long poles toll. The priest turned, took a time-bending or the instructions of God and the prophet interpreted the divine response from these movements.(A Muslim sect continues to practice in Alexandria a similar ritual, but not the idol, the faithful say the divine guidance takes place through a pressure on his shoulders.) It is possible that the strange procession were visible from the patio, but the only meaning was revealed to Alexander in the inner sanctum. If it had been proposed to publicize what he learned about himself, as Arian says the solemn experience led him to change his mind. He merely remarked that he had obtained the desired response for his soul. He never said what was asked.
He says he wrote to Olympia and told him that when he returned to Macedonia, would tell him in private. Hephaestion probably told him he was ready to tell his mother. In that case, this friend remained as silent as the grave which was secrecy.
If you have written the letter, the main question of Alexander had to refer to its origin. From that date their sense of destiny acquired a demonic strength. At this point the scientific rationalism is inappropriate. The Greeks (including philosophers) were a divine touch on all the outstanding qualities. Alexander had passed countless times to other men in leadership, courage, ingenuity and endurance, what I felt inside was already confirmed. Continued to recognize Philip as his human father, assuming perhaps a dual paternity seed and soul, matter in which Alexander had to meditate often not shared with anyone. But it is certain that from that time was considered a sort of son of Amon, which was made public. It was not irreconcilable with the fact that mortality testified his scars of war: men begotten by the gods died and were received in heaven.
Of course, nobody thought Alexander's life that might be engendered by the Pharaoh Nectanebo. This absurdity arises only later legend of his great prestige in Egypt, we must never ignore the folklore that can not be imposed or buy.
Alexander returned to Memphis following the route of the pilgrims, a current and more secure way. Upon arrival, Greek embassies graciously received, made a sacrifice to Zeus, held a parade and competitions for athletes and poets, the latter had no shortage of topics. He took up the task of governing and, as usual, assigned to civilian positions native governors, gave the command of the garrison to their own officers, and restored the rites and customs suppressed by the Persians.
After a stint in Egypt, unknown Philotas accused of disloyalty whose content is unknown. Must have happened when Antigone, the beautiful captive to Damascus, opened his mouth. He told anyone who would listen that Philotas always boasted that he and Parmenion, his father, had made the real task of the conquest despite the honors accruing to the young. Gossip so light does not speak in favor of devotion and Antigone should not be surprised when the faithful took Craterus to hold a private interview with Alexander. This did nothing, must have thought that the situation was characteristic of the usual style of Philotas-and simply ask him to warn if something terrible happens. Antigone returned with Philotas, in whom I trusted.
By then he had killed Hector's younger brother Alejandro Philotas that had been very close, when the shuttle crammed in trying to reach the royal barge sank. Alexander offered him a magnificent funeral. Perhaps it had been an affair with Philotas which was not quite in agreement, then the match was best to proceed with tact.
Alexander left Egypt and went to Tyre, fortified again by the Macedonians.The Persian fleet, which had no bases in the Mediterranean and was largely captive or dispersed, no longer a threat. Now it was time to head east. He made sacrifices in honor of Heracles-Melkarth-Herculean labors awaited him, and held other games. The theater was beautifully represented and two of the sponsors were tributary kings. A representation in style was the now famous as the star Zetalo, the devotee Alexander sent an emissary to Caria. The Macedonian kept to himself his anxious partisanship and was very disappointed when the judges, on whom failed to influence, was awarded the prize to another actor. Only later acknowledged in private that would have given half of what he had to have seen that Zetalo stood with the crown.
In the same spirit and in approximately the same time made one of his few but serious misjudgments about a man. Among his friends exiled by Philip included a Macedonian nobleman named Harpalus, whose attachment could only be genuine because then Alexander was unable to offer anything in return. Those times were overcome and Harpalus, who was recalled at his accession, but whose lameness prevented him from going to war, he was appointed inspector of the Treasury. Probably never laid hands on money. During the stage of the campaign for Iso was in trouble not clear, probably economic, and fled to Greece with a dark accomplice. Leal, obviously grateful and convinced that someone had led astray Harpalus, Alexander sent a message of "come back, all is forgiven." Harpalus reappeared, must have been quite influential, was an educated person in which Alexander hoped to send him books and is likely to be touched and felt really sorry. To demonstrate that all was forgiven, Alexander returned to the man lover of luxury to the temptations of late had turned and charged it with all the funds the military. Harpalus For a while he accompanied the expedition. Eventually, it was found that Alexander had been wrong to trust him, but the disappointment would take a long time coming.
Were insured Western Asia, Egypt and all your communications. Alexander moved eastward to meet Darius, and finally abandoned the Greek world, except what you carry.
After the conquest of Egypt, the chroniclers of Alexander recorded events including abutments takes several weeks devoted to the mere transportation from one place to another of the great court, the administration and the army, to plan and populate a city or to rest his men after a hard campaign. On the vast and varied landscapes of Asia, in the midst of the surprises of the exploration and war, Alexander developed a kind of daily life practice when nothing prevented. Plutarch is who else talks about it and probably based on reports of missing Cares, the chamberlain of the court.
The day began with Alexander the public prayers. Unlike his privilege of divinity, his priesthood was one of the functions of human kingship. His personal celebrations were reserved for big events, but regularly commended his people to the gods. Morning libations made almost to the day he died, that was so sick they had to take him to the sanctuary in a litter.
After 'breakfast feel "(in a chair, a couch): after day dedicated to" hunting, administer justice, serve the military or reading. "It was an amateur hunter, interested in the features of the land and animals, while the army moved slowly to step up, Alexander spent time on the hunt. Was close to the long ages of humankind in which wild animals were crucial sources of food and dangerous enemies, as recognized by Xenophon when he called the sport "the image of war." "Administer justice" had become a daunting task. First, was in charge of the affairs of Macedonia. Antipater was severe and capable, but I hated Olympia and complaints, accusations and intrigue everywhere followed Alexander. She was jealous of his son's friends and frantically jealous of Hephaestion. Alexander, who wrote without fail and he sent many generous gifts, I felt that from time to time was running out of patience and is quoted once saying that Olimpia charged a very high rent for the nine months that provided housing . Even allowed to see him in public by sharing with Hephaestion a letter of Olympia, a fact which, considering how much it would have enraged exasperation shows your child.
Must also consider mainland Greece, with his unruly "subjects-allies." Sparta continued to rebel until Antipater in 331 BC ended the uprising. The danger of the South demanded a standing army in Macedonia and fittings in all strongholds whose magnificent masonry walls can still see. If Alexander had not been able to attract foreign troops continue to pay and maintain their loyalty, their numbers would have been stretched to breaking. Antipater faced domestic emergencies, but all important political decisions took the king.
Emerged from all this the complex administration of the conquered lands. In the city-state had restored the Greek forms of government, where the Persian satraps were indigenous, had appointed satraps, native whenever possible, to the ancient kingdoms kings had given them. Was the pharaoh of Egypt and founder of Alexandria, a monumental project that demanded lots of experts. During the initial stages of all the communities mentioned, a constant traffic problems and arbitration following the march of Alexander.
For Alexander, "meeting military affairs" meant far more to appoint members of staff and managing major strategies. Never be considered above the concerns of a regimental officer. Without doubt, the love of the army was for him the breath of life and never tried to get it without effort. Not only was it being the first to face the danger and the last to take comfort when conditions were adverse. Before a battle, rather than speeches men greeted by name. Alexander remembered the exploits of someone was in itself a reward, but was generous with material rewards. However far they were from their own, are constantly interested in the problems of soldiers. When they discovered that a man with a good record pretended ill to stand beside her lover, Alexander discussed the issue and declared that, being a courtesan free, it could be compelling, but perhaps she was persuaded to continue his beloved . And if the man did not have a penny, it was likely that Alexander will facilitate the media. In both the battlefield and fatigues, was aware of the merits. A soldier who was part of the entourage of the treasure, and carried the heavy bag on his shoulder when his mule gave up, received orders to move it to their store and keep the content. Like Xenophon Cyrus, Alexander awakened a deep desire to satisfy it.With respect to the soldiers who served under him, never had to resort to the brutal Roman army. Never one of its regiments was "decimated", divided into dozens and killed one in ten men. However, he was meticulous with discipline. On one occasion, his troops were deployed in battle formation, he noticed a lone soldier preparing belt late javelin and approached him, pulled him out of the phalanx and said that the vague not served at all. The survival of this anecdote shows it must have been as traumatic as a beating Julius Caesar.
He accepted the surrender of rich cities and prevented the looting troops. One of the rare occasions that imposed the death penalty was due to two Macedonian raped the wives of two separate foreign auxiliary soldiers, his men were his men, whatever their origin. This sporadic attention to the affairs of its soldiers often had to take as long as the administration of his empire.
Although never described in detail, the consequences are evident countless conversations with men whom he considered and treated as friends general, actors and musicians Macedonians at the time, and at least Persian lords Persian eunuch, a Indian sage, the old Sisigambis, and few knew personally. Occasionally, due to visit Arrhidaeus, his poor brother jerk, which disappears from history until the death of Alexander, when it is discovered near the royal palace.
Given that routine matters constantly fell behind during periods of frenetic activity, surprisingly, had time to read, not only history and civics, but classical tragedy and modern poetry. At dinner that closed the day and relax tensions, "never was so pleasant conversation of a prince," says Plutarch and apostille that this only applied to the nights when he was sober.
With respect to alcohol consumption habits of Alexander have said many stupid things can be corrected by the most basic medical knowledge coupled with evidence of his own life. Aristobulus, quoted by Plutarch says that he liked to stay up late drinking wine, not heavily but for the sake of conversation. It is incredible that this skepticism when I wake up any night of the year in London, Paris, New York, Athens and Rome, hundreds of people whose constitution allows it do exactly the same. In the case of Alexander, the mere registration of its dynamic energy (exercised during marches up and down to jump a moving car) and his amazing resilience becomes absurd the idea of habitual drunkenness. On the other hand, in the traditional sense, the social life of Macedonian men included the deliberate and heavy alcohol intake in honor of this or that. Certainly in those times did not fail and at least twice, got drunk with disastrous consequences. There is no question that he and his generals liked to chat while drinking liberally, but the overall image appears clearly that he behaved as usual Aristobulus says, though sometimes overreach.
In vino veritas, and Alexander was no exception. When I drank too much, the insecurities of childhood appear at the surface in an insatiable longing to hear reassuring words. He loved to tell you about their achievements, and if he did not sufficiently demanding more. No doubt the hostile propagandists made the most of this feature, although it would be absurd to reject the statement of Plutarch, who, while not citing a solid source, has as much psychological coherence. Probably could irritate even his dearest friends, even though we are told that only demanded the truth. However, the type of affection awakened throughout his life confirms the words of Aristobulus on his usual charm.
In July 331 BC, about the time of the twenty-fifth birthday, Alexander moved to the east, towards Mesopotamia, where awaiting Dario across the Tigris.
He had undertaken the massive mobilization of forces not yet conquered the eastern empire. He had lost the valuable reinforcement of Greek mercenaries, about 4,000 men. In addition to the elite troops of Persia, the cams were less disciplined but fierce and resilient Bactria and Sogdiana, orders Bess, satrap of Bactria and powerful cousin of king and of many races auxiliaries tax, extending Caucasus to the Indian border. Now all the soldiers were stationed in Babylon, where the Persian commanders had struggled to improve the weapons. After the lesson of Iso, replaced by spears and javelins prepared a formidable squad cars with scythes, with poles of the yokes as spearheads and multi-blade wheels. Unfortunately, they could do nothing about the consistent failure of Darius in his capacity as commander in chief.
The cavalry under the command of Nabarzanes, was of high quality, was composed of riders born, with horses far superior to the Greeks. Compared with the high copy, probably as large as the modern horse, Bucephalus must have seemed a stocky pony. The idea that these troops wore down the Greeks with harassment tactics promised better results than a battle, even without a known history of Darius. But he was determined to regain the honor lost in Iso or made him feel that he should redeem it. He marched with their numerous hosts the ancient city of Arbela, between the Tigris and the hills.
He sent a detachment of cavalry west of the Euphrates for the purpose of locating Alejandro and prevent him from crossing the river.
The engineers deployed advanced Macedonian double bridge on stilts from the other side until it appeared Alexander and the Persians, commanded by Mazaeus, satrap of Babylon, were without resistance. Babylon, the heart of ancient Assyria conquered, it was the region most loyal of the Persian Empire.
The Tigris, whose name means arrow-was too fast to build a bridge and had to wade. Alexander made pass between two columns of infantry, cavalry, to turn the current one and the other to catch the men who were swept away by floodwaters. Personally led the infantry, remained in the bank and noted the shallower sites. Do not lose a single man.
No other non-mechanized troop commander was able to move with the speed of Alexander. He also knew when it suited him to wait. Instead of burning across the river plain, whose crops had been burned to Mazaeus retreat, surrounded by the northern highlands, cooler and well supplied with water. Darius came too late to catch up as he crossed the Tigris and bought time by sending an army of slaves, smooth Gaugamela halfway down. He was told that Iso was lost because it lacked space to deploy its forces and knew that cars require uniform field.
While Alexander marched south to meet Darius, east of the Tigris, there was a lunar eclipse, one of the most disturbing phenomena of the ancient world. Through Aristotle, Alexander knew his causes and not suffered the fatal delay of superstitious Nicias, who, the previous century, lost all the Athenian troops in Sicily and, with them, the Peloponnesian War. Anyway, Alexander is not worried his soldiers concerned with notions of astronomy, but called for the soothsayers to encourage them to identify the moon shadowed with Persia. Sacrifices made formal powers in the game: the sun, moon and Earth, the fact of knowing what influence they exercised those powers did not affect their faith in gods.
Truth be told, the eclipsed Moon was definitely Persian. Estateira, wife of Dario and Asia's most beautiful woman born as a mortal, had fallen ill and died. Plutarch says, unpretentious scandal, who died in childbirth, in which case it had to happen much sooner. Anyway, Alexander stopped the march a day to practice the rites and assumed the duties of a relative, including fasting during the day.
Alexander may have been reproached for having sacrificed Estateira towards its sense of theater. It was not possible to represent the magnificent piece of Xenophon. However the cars were padded, travel on dirt roads rigid wheel must have been exhausting, not to mention that they were exposed to infection. Perhaps wished he had been satisfied with a less dramatic example of generosity that could have allowed, he never tried to use women as hostages. Now there to witness the suffering of children and Sisigambis and constant affection but this shows that at no time blamed his death, there is no reason to doubt that the Macedonian was sincere sorrow.
At this point, Quintus Curtius Rufus tells a story that will have major repercussions later. Alexander sent to one of the officials who accompanied the queen whose name gives, to report to Darius of his death and assure him that he had received the usual Persian funeral. The scene takes place in the royal tent, where Darius claims that these honors are a tribute to a beloved. The eunuch then reassures him Darius expresses respect for the enemy behavior. This episode is a prologue to much confidential information from the headquarters of Darius. In the case of Quintus Curtius Rufus, it looks like that was provided by an eyewitness: a vivid and lively teller of anecdotes endowed with the discretion of a court. Soon we will have occasion to deal with this character.
Exploradorespara Darius sent to inform him of the arrival of Alexander. Esteatrapó some and find out where the Persians. Allowed four days' rest to his men, hoping that Darius would move away from their battlefield prepared and garnished. He fortified his base camp, no doubt remembering the slaughter of Iso, and left there for all non-combatants, including the Queen Mother Sisigambis. Then led his troops into the plain of Gaugamela. From the low hills that surrounded the massive Persian hosts saw that the most conservative estimates Infants estimated at 200,000 and 40,000 cavalry. His own troops were made up then of 40.000 infants and 7,000 troops of cavalry.
He called a council of war on the Macedonian style, whose kings were conferring with their bosses as primi inter pares. Various commanders favored immediate action to bring the troops rested, which, in view of the Persian troops, speaks well of their confidence in Alexander. The experienced Parmenion said it was a way prepared by Darius, who perhaps had set traps and thorns on the road. Alexander agreed, camped and recognition came on horseback, probably happy to have an excuse to stop and make calculations without being given the impression that he was overwhelmed by Persian forces. He took a good look at the outposts. After checking his immense superiority in cavalry, the weapon most based on their tactics, he returned to camp and thought.
Parmenion, who evidently had accompanied him, advised a night attack. Alexander said he did not "steal a victory," referring to Xenophon, who first coined the term "steal a march."Flaunt daring insight over part of the personality of Alexander. Night operations gave rise to endless possibilities of confusion and error, the nocturnal pursuit defeated enemies would give an opportunity to return to form and morale. Darío had given you a year to gather the strength he had left and put them on the table. Now Alexander was proposed at their own game defeat in the field of their choice, and all bets clinch with indisputable finality. It was the essence of their own destiny and much more, and knew it. He ordered his men to load up because they slept well and depart before dawn. He stayed up late, thinking and planning.
Darius had been thinking. As expected Alejandro, his ideas had gone down paths similar to those of Parmenion. The Greeks were outnumbered and irredeemably they could do was to try to gain advantages in a surprise attack at night. He gave orders, not just the outposts but to all his men, that they stay up all night, armed men and horses tethered. Hearing was to obey. He spent the night and the soldiers were tired. In Alexander's shop put out the lamp. Once decisions are made and the outcome in the hands of the gods, fell into a deep sleep. When it came time to wake up to the men and feed them, the officers found him sleeping like a child. They gave the necessary orders and returned to his tent. In the end, had to shake Parmenion. When asked how he could be so calm, Alexander replied that he had much greater concern when the Persians burned the crops. Now were fulfilled the desires of your heart.
The day Quintus Curtius Rufus enrolled in a Roman school of rhetoric was fateful for the story. With access to invaluable sources that have been destroyed by fire or looting, which gives us glimpses tantalizing, converts each of the major speeches of his story in its own model, so that the seekers of can really do without them without losing anything significant. In this spirit of academic exercise that does Darius and Alexander endless prewar speeches, in which we need not linger. It's more interesting-he comes from a source of first hand Arrian's description of Alexander's instructions to his officers. He said they did not need speeches of exaltation that was enough self-worth and pride, it was enough that each would encourage the men under his command. No longer fighting through Asia Minor and Egypt, but by the sovereignty of all Asia. Let each keep a strict discipline in times of danger, which is completely silent when ordered to advance stealthily, he launched a terrifying battle cry when the time comes, that was attentive to orders and transmit them at full speed . Alexander provided the blinding dust to prevent the transmission of visual signals. Should maintain a flexible and rapid response needed before any change of tactics.
The instruction to launch a terrifying battle cry may be related to the fact that, according to Plutarch, before the battle, Alexander made a sacrifice in honor of Fear. The Greeks were always willing to personify natural forces, although no other registration consigning their honor to this deity. It seems that from Iso Fear regarded as the familiar spirit of Darius. Compliments all the preparations, advanced with his men from the low hills toward the plains, as the morning light that the hosts are allowed see the faces.
Persian front with plenty of room for maneuvering and ahead of the Macedonians in a ratio of about five men for every one-was so long that if things went wrong would be not only overwhelmed, but surrounded. Alejandro swelled its flanks with soldiers looking in the opposite direction, in the event that produced a rolling motion could come back out to form a square. As usual, led the left wing Parmenion, which was opposed by the brave and able Mazaeus, Eufratesciertamente whose removal was not due to cowardice. Darius took the actual position in the center and front had the Greek mercenaries and other seasoned troops, and fifteen elephants and fifty chariots with scythes. Alexander commanded the Macedonian right wing. Faced with the awesome army of Bactria, led by Bess, his satrap. The Persian line stood out both by the Macedonian Alexander went into battle in a nearly opposite to that of Darius.
Anyway, he started moving step by step to the right, as if to escape the outstanding Persian line. Darius ordered an equivalent movement to keep the extension but did not enter combat troops, because trying to guess what he intended to Alexander. He moved right up close to the edge of the field thoroughly searched by Darius. In the rugged terrain that opened further, scythed chariots could not shoot and the cavalry would be hindered. It was a test of nerves. Darius took the bait and ordered the men prevented any movement Besso's right. The Persian troops engaged in combat. Through a series of maneuvers exactly calculated, Alexander dealt with increasingly participate Persian troops. And he waited patiently for the right time at the head of the comrades of the cavalry.
Darius had located and ordered him to attack with scythed chariots. But Alexander was able to make a thorough reconnaissance and take action. The Agrianians attacked them with missiles, some of the bolder members of the tribe were launched on the horses head, forced to stop and toppled the charioteers. Those who made it through wide corridors found among well-trained infantry, crossed the lines at full speed, without suffering the least damage, and then quietly broke the rear of them.
Meanwhile, the left wing of Darius increasingly involved in combat, while Parmenion forces were pinned on the right. Raleaba center. Although it was less effective, Alexander had managed to concentrate his forces faced a Persian weakness zone, right where it was proposed to place it.
It's time to change horses. A squire was prepared by veteran Bucephalus, twenty-four years, and kept it fresh for that instant moment of his active service. Alexander rode at the head of the real squad. Column formed with a tapered tip of the Macedonian was the apex, launched the war cry and rushed to Darius, who was in the front line. The cavalry had not forgotten the order to produce a deafening noise, followed him hoarse and offered his tribute to Fear.
Fear was the friend of the Macedonians. Unperturbed by the fifteen elephants overran the Persian front and approached the royal chariot. Darius turned it over, took the reins that had dropped the wounded driver was the first to flee. The Persians fell near the driver saw the flight of the car and convinced them he was the king who had fallen and died. The center collapsed, general signal of defeat. Alexander and the cavalry continued to advance, beating, and determined to catch up with Dario.
Then came a message from Parmenion, according to which valiantly fought their sector. Rupert Alexander was not in the Rhine as the messenger reached him in the dust and confusion, left the prosecution inviting the men to support and consolidate the victory. As it gets to the point threatened, fought a fierce battle that killed sixty peers and Hephaestion was injured. That message has sparked much controversy and to be seen whether further was emphasized by the chroniclers of Alexander discredit provided Parmenion. Its propaganda value is doubtful if we consider that Parmenion perform a resistance, competently fulfilled, and the message saved Alexander the grave danger that the battle ended with a questionable result. No doubt wanted to tell the world why he had allowed to escape him between Dario fingers and hoped to receive the honor just to rescue the left wing (when he arrived, the danger was passed), but this does not mean looking Parmenion scapegoats looms without discrediting the story.
As it happened, the career of Alexander opened a small gap in the line, not of strategic size, but big enough for the small detachment sent by Darius tried to rescue his family. That troop composed of royal guards and Indians got past and went to base camp, which lost precious time looting and killing non-combatants before reaching the target. Diodorus that many Persian prisoners joined forces with their countrymen, and prepared to escape, and that when women asked him to hurry, the Queen Mother Sisigambis remained silent and motionless in his situation. Soon after, the Persian garrison was defeated.
Meanwhile, the satrap Mazaeus had heard the flight of Darius. Like Nabarzanes Iso, who had also faced the daunting Parmenion and had left in the lurch, Mazaeus concluded that their obligations had come to an end. He saved many of his men as he could and quickly returned to Babylon. Although Nabarzanes and he had reached the same conclusion, they were different men, each will behave as nature dictated.
Alexander found that Parmenion forces and had no problems and walked away quickly with colleagues, with the hope of Darius before he came to his base in Arbela. The race was so fast that collapsed a thousand horses. (A Bucephalus nothing happened. Alejandro had dealt with that taken care of. The old horse did not return to being in a battlefield, six years would be spoiled.) Arriving at Arbela, Macedonian found that horses had died unnecessarily because, once again, the great King abandoned his car, and everything which could not be in headlong flight, which had to include many women. Alexander ordered a halt to his men a rest and to analyze their goal. Until then Darius had assigned nearly the same military importance to himself. In Arbela concluded that, after all, his capture was a very significant priority. It was so completely the way the prosecution dismissed for other purposes and so public his disdain for Darius as an enemy it would be inconsistent to assign great importance to the responsibility of Parmenion, if they had it in his flight.
In his analysis of the battle, the military historian EW Marsden puts part of the moral victory to the top of the Macedonians and their closer links with the commander, while partially assigned to the extraordinarily detailed understanding of the art of war Alexander. Synthesize:
It is difficult to recreate the chaos typical of certain phases of large-scale fighting, confusion due to noise, movement and dust, the atmosphere of doubt and uncertainty, the terrible shirting ... For modern generals have to be extraordinarily difficult to remain calm and objective when they control operations from a command post located several miles from the theater of war. Much more difficult had to be for Alexander and Darius, who were stationed at the front line of battle itself! Apparently, Darius had the rare ability to select conflicting reports, make accurate observations and, keeping cool and collected, in these circumstances to order early and well evaluated. Alexander had that ability and very sharp. This was the third factor in Gaugamela.
Darius and other disorderly army trudged toward the southeast, crossing the mountain passes towards Ecbatana (Hamadan), the summer residence of the Persian kings. The royal road to the south-that came to Babylon, Susa and Persepolis was expedited for Alexander. The choice of target does not take long, By now he must have spoken to the Persian captives through interpreters and had formed their own opinion about the moral value of Darius.
Quintus Curtius Rufus, again apparently based on the informant had access to Persian to a previous writer says that Darius left the big cities to prevent follow Alejandro footprint. Certainly, if your goal was to raise arms in Persia, and months of life that were just evidence of this. Although his son was captured, had an effective heir Oxatres his bellicose brother. If this had happened to a great king killed in battle against the invader, the course of the war have changed greatly.
As it happened, the next stage was a walk to Alexander. Perhaps even he had not sensed when he approached the massive walls of brick and bitumen Babylon. Herodotus, who had visited a century ago, states that the walls around one hundred fifty-five square kilometers, where it was possible to harvest during a siege. Even the old fortifications of Nebuchadnezzar, who then formed the inner circle, were immense. The exterior walls had fifty-five meters thick hundred and twenty in height and was a monument to the builders Assyrians, with their hordes of expendable slaves. Cyrus had taken the city without a fight, but Alexander must have known more realistic version of Xenophon. The mass of Babylon was visible miles before the other side of the plain, which predicted a siege at least as massive as that of Tyre. He did not even need to acknowledge. Along the way, Alejandro Mazaeus met its satrap, fresh from his battle with Parmenion. She took her children hostage and invited Alexander to enter.
A little more than a century that Babylon had made his last attempt to break free of Persia, Xerxes had severely crushed. Its population was disaffected lover of luxury or indifferent, the members of the garrison were disappointed and did not have the same commander contemplation before a conquered king and a fugitive. When offered this amazing gift, as expected Alexander suspected that it was a trap and continued to advance in battle at the head of the vanguard. However, the walls were helpless. hundred gates wide open and lowered the drawbridge. As king of Babylon came in a chariot of gold-plated state, amid the splendors of the Caesars triumph never surpassed. Eager to outdo Mazaeus, the treasurer of the city was filled with flowers and perfumed with incense route. Lead the procession rare and exotic gifts, selected horses and carts carrying caged lions and leopards and attended by magi and priests, the real singers sang hymns of praise and Mazaeus cavalry parade. As always with Alexander, was conspicuous by its absence, a Roman motif: the spectacle of humiliated and chained captives.
After seeing the ancient splendor of the palace, Alexander visited the treasure. There remains the assessment of their immense wealth. Generous bonuses distributed among his men and mercenaries were two months extra pay. The latter included many Greeks who had preferred to stay when they obtained permission to return after they burned all the Greek cities. They could afford the luxuries of a city that had not previously had allowed them to plunder. Babylon marks the true beginning of the extravagant generosity of Alexander, who, from that moment, prodigaría. The first donation was a good policy and fair treatment. Provide pleasure and be surrounded by gratitude and affection met a deep need of his personality. In childhood, his preceptor Leonidas had forced him to live in poverty in the midst of plenty, Alexander liked about freely as they do so only those who have struggled. He liked showing off, which combined with his sense of theater. All these desires were filled in Babylon and the Macedonian develop his personal style as they receive money.
From the Babylonian throne granted the same status it had enjoyed before the crush and make Xerxes down the ziggurat of Bel. The priests of the god received large amounts of gold to rebuild their sanctuary. (Later this disastrous consequences.) Mazaeus was immediately confirmed as satrap. The gift of this high office to a Persian, satisfying locals should not have to be popular among the Macedonians, to highlight its excellent performance at Gaugamela was logical and Parmenion's reputation would not suffer as tribute was paid to the strength of his adversary. The positions of major and treasurer of the garrison were for Macedonians. Alexander spent a month on vacation Babylon and gave his men were busy, but it is unlikely that the court bubbles disturbed. As he was able to leave the impressive treasure left by Harpalus, the loyal childhood friend definitely knew he had been forgiven.
The soldiers were initiated into the fight slowly after demoralizing pleasures of the city, marched to a quiet rural area where they held games. There was a significant development: there were prizes to the value during the campaign. As was characteristic of the extraordinary harmony between this army and its chief, it was proposed that all the troops and their commanders express their views to judges by acclamation. There were eight awards. It consisted of the usual crown of gold or money, but command posts, each of which exceeded a thousand men. Until then, Alexander had driven his staff in the context of tribal hierarchies of Macedonia at the time, with great insight and astute dramatic assurance that the elect would be popular, introduced merit-based real.
Susa was close, but there was no need to hurry. Immediately after the battle, the city had capitulated to Alexander sent envoys. No doubt the news of the flight of Dario had outdone, as the royal road relay provided the world's fastest posts with men and horses rested along the way. It is possible that Darius ordered to surrender himself in order to prevent the city was sacked. Susa was saved and the paradox is that today survives only turned into a mound. (The impressive fortress was built with no shots by Alexander, but for archaeologists of the nineteenth century to shelter members of local tribes.) Anyway, at that time was the administrative capital of the empire, the main royal residence and was built on a ledge of Mesopotamian plain, on the very threshold of the Iranian plateau.The fragments of the palace suggests the existence of shiny glazed ceramic surfaces, mostly yellow and blue, modeled in relief. In the treasury Alexander found a staggering, not to mention jewelry, that were never taxed, even approximately, of 40,000 talents of silver and 9,000 gold darics. Calculated by Wilcken in 1931 at a figure that is approximately 14 million pounds, this is only possible to think in terms of Fort Knox.
In the house of the vizier Bagoas eunuch-maker kings, Darius seized at his death, they found rich vestments for the value of a thousand talents. Plutarch says that the house and its contents were donated to Parmenion. Among the treasures palace, Alexander was left with a precious jewel to save your copy of the Iliad, Aristotle had copied for him as a child. Continued to keep under the bed. Surely he must have put the dagger in a more accessible place. On more than one occasion almost need it.
Most of the gold and silver bullion was in the form of solid, ready to coin a few at a time. Alexander had more ambitious ideas. Metals went to his home currency, the money came out punching hand, wearing the molds whose various versions can still be seen. Soon the Olympian Zeus was around in the front, the symbols of the lion and the real kyrbasia-o-peaked cap, surrounded by the miter, Purple Ribbon. It would be fair to assume that Alexander had already tested in the privacy of your room.
He kept handing out money, delighted to be asked, the fact that taken as a sign of friendship. When someone told him that a modest amount would be enough, he replied: "To ask me, but not for me to give." The magnificence made him pompous. Among his friends was a young independent who used to play ball and resolutely refused to claim money, until he heard rumors that Alexander was not happy with it. During the next game, whenever the ball was thrown beyond the monarch, who finally shouted: "What about me?". The youth replied: "Not asked me." According to Plutarch, Alexander laughed hear the answer and showered with gifts. Given or spent, the wealth of Susa was to influence history. For centuries it had remained sterile, as if no one exploded, and now would flow towards Alexander and his armies wasteful. The active trade routes that wealth created Hellenized the empire before Alexander put an to work.
It was at Susa, where, the throne of Darius, which was about two meters tall, Alexander realized that his feet did not reach the floor. Someone approached a low table. An old eunuch of the palace began to mourn because it was the table where his master poured the wine. Moved by the grief as true, Alexander began to remove the feet, but he said Philotas was a good omen and the king changed his mind.
Among the riches contained the old spoils that Xerxes took Athens, including bronze archaic Harmodio estatuariode group and Aristogeiton tyrannicides lovers, taken from the Acropolis. Later returned to Athens this monument of great value, still standing at the time of Arius. Held to honor the sacrifices victory and a torch relay race. New troops arrived in Macedonia.
The Persian satrap was reinstated in his position, commanding the garrison of the Macedonians. In Susa, Alexander Sisigambis installed and grandchildren in the same harem of Darius had to carry out the war. The big scene is no longer and never expected to interpret a difficult road through the mountain passes that separated him from the Persian.
He found strength for the first time since Gaugamela. The people of the hills of Uxia sent the message that the kings always paid tolls when using your steps. Very confident, the bandits stopped paying. The guides showed Alejandro Susa a shortcut leading to the strength of uxianos and caught it. The Macedonian thought to expel the entire tribe of strategic habitat, but the head-relative-Sisigambis able to send a messenger to Susa to beg the intercession of the Queen Mother. After some hesitation, Sisigambis wrote to Alexander. It was the first favor he asked. Alexander immediately issued a general pardon and, by extension, the tax exemption.
Between Alexander and Persepolis stood the passage of the Ports impregnable Persian, defended by the satrap of Persis, which had closed the pass with a wall. From the cliffs above, his men threw rocks at the troops Macedonians, was a death trap and Alexander was quick to withdraw its troops. By one of those revenge of history, represented the reverse is the story of Thermopylae A local pastor who was taken prisoner offered to show a route that skirted the harbor. Alexander promised a generous reward and followed him. The shot, much longer and more dangerous than that for which Ephialtes had led the men of Xerxes, was covered by a thick layer of snow, but Alexander and his troops crossed it reduced briskly. When reached by surprise advance guard of the Persians, they reacted like the foce of Leonidas, as they could escape into the hills, without telling his commander, who was caught off guard. Then the bulk of the Macedonian army crossed the port without difficulty. Persepolis was open.
In the city there was no one able to offer the formal surrender. Alexander received a message from the treasurer frightened, according to which the city was the victim of anarchy and if they did not hurry to the treasure (which evidently feared being held responsible) would be sacked.
The fate of Persepolis, which tipped the balance that way, probably it was decided at a meeting on the road. Amid the confusion thousands of Greek slaves (probably from Asia Minor helena) escaped and went to meet the army of Alexander. Some were older men who had been in captivity since the wars of Oco. It was a macabre and monstrous embassy. Diodorus says:
All had been mutilated. Some were missing hands, feet and other other ears and noses. These were men who had learned arts and crafts and were well prepared, after forming his other limbs were amputated and only those of them left their work depended.
Quintus Curtius Rufus says, moreover, were marked by iron. Both sources agree that Alexander wept for them.
Transport offered to return to Greece and promised to keep for life. These men conferred and decided it would be unbearable to return to their cities into monsters repulsive. Surely they had already forgotten. (The ancient Greece was renowned for his compassion, the Alexander was considered an eccentricity.) Some had wives who had given slave children. Applied for land grants in which to live. Alexander acknowledged that it was fair, gave them money, seeds and livestock, good clothes for themselves and their wives, and gave them his sad village.
The next day marched on Persepolis. His troops got what they were willing from Gaugamela: a city rich plunder.
It was the ceremonial capital of the empire, opulent addition to the small Macedonian Aegae.The king and nobles were the main headquarters there and surely supplied a rich merchant class. Quintus Curtius Rufus says that many people were killed because the troops gorged randomly looting did not bother to ransom. Although today is hard, we should try to imagine the orgiastic pleasure that looting was not for the men of the ancient world, after enduring hardships and dangers, they felt that they deserved, a foray into the power, aggression, greed, the anxieties, rivalries and instincts of the hunter and the player could wake up and met in a dizzying succession of events. Perhaps no one but Alexander could have been in Babylon and Susa retain. In Persepolis granted a day. Anyway, he gave orders that no women removed the jewels they wore.
The treasurer was promoted to governor. He had kept intact the vaults of the palace. Its content was equal to three times that obtained in Susa.
Darius spent the winter in Ecbatana, guarded by the Macedonian Information Service case showed signs of activity. As there was not, Alexander spent the winter in Persepolis. It must have been during that period when he made his long-awaited pilgrimage to the tomb of Cyrus the Great, in neighboring Pasargadae, the ancient capital of what had once been Elam was a kind of small Persian Macedonia from which Cyrus also had conquered an empire. As the results, Alexander honored him, if they are deserved, the same is true of Xenophon, but the rewards of history are fickle. Persians and Athenians had established a hungry mind-at a time when no one else's influence, that all men are children of God and anywhere is possible to find excellent beings, Alexander said, he makes his own who others.
Returned to the palace of Persepolis, with its tall columns topped with lotus and in the infinite relief of tax bearers carrying offerings to its constructor: Darius the Great. We have no data to be held as royal ceremonies such as those that characterized his stay in Babylon or Susa, though perhaps only due to difficult winter access. When spring came and the time to resume the march, Alexander had set fire to the palace. Today, people know this episode practically know nothing more of Alexander (and who continue to be more impressed by this outrage to an empty building that living holocausts of Coventry and Dresden), just punishment, if he deserved it for a man who cared deeply about his reputation. The sources are not unanimous (though not irreconcilable) about why he did, and historians continue to debate the issue.
Arrian-Ptolemy-whose source was undoubtedly present, is simply that it did against the advice of Parmenion, who argued that, rather than the act of a king, would consider the work of a dictator. Diodorus, Quintus Curtius Rufus and Plutarch agree that Alexander gave a drunken orgy to which they invited a number of pipers, and courtesans, which included Thais, the Athenian courtesan mistress of Ptolemy, the future monarch that at the height of revelry Tais recalled that Xerxes had plagued the Acropolis and urged Alexander to allow an Athenian paid in kind, in which Alexander immediately proclaimed a "Comus" Dionysian, who led with a garland on his head and a torch in hand that dropped the first tea and then allowed to launch the next Tais. Plutarch adds that Alexander came to his senses after a while, and ordered out the fire.If so, it was too late: the ash layer found by archaeologists covered everything. No one was wounded when the inside was too hot and went out to watch. Certainly a first class fire, which is in between the fear of the occurrence of human life, is one of the great joys that atavistic human being continues to enjoy. Nowadays it is frightening to think that burned archaeological treasures, but for the Macedonians - and even more for the Greeks, Persepolis had another significance.
Tarn has chosen to reject outright the celebration of the feast and consider the burning of the palace "as a proclamation." It is true that Arrian does not mention the party. However, it seems likely that Ptolemy, which he wrote was a venerable monarch and grandfather preferred to suppress details of his wild youth, as the exuberant Tais. Without doubt, the objections of Parmenion are historically true. It might even remind him to Alexander that he had intentions expressed in more sober moments. I wanted to be king rather than conqueror and it was clear that the Persians will hold it against the burning of the ceremonial seat of the empire. It is easy to conclude that once seemed like a good idea, like so many other events due to parties with success.
As for archaeological treasures, were so much in the hands of the lion, lizards and quicksands Persepolis is currently the best preserved monument of Achaemenid era all.
Seeing the fire, and knowing that he had skimmed the cream of wealth Persian troops out thought it was a sign that their efforts had been completed and they could start back to their lands with the booty. Soon out of his mistake: Alexander was limited to only a pause before the final reckoning with Darius. They went through difficult and unknown territory with a purely military target. But following his commander without protest.
Has not been given enough importance has been underestimated over the extraordinary magnetism that implies this. The Macedonian army was formed in archaic and feudal democracy. His ancestors had made and unmade kings, monarchies and killed. Alexander grew up between these men and accepted their traditional freedom of expression, which has no parallel in the annals of the emperors. With the exception of foreign auxiliaries, was completely alone with them in hostile territory and if you would rioted at their mercy. Alexander was not a secret policy to intimidate and spy on them: two subsequent frames to end her life were revealed in the last minute for ordinary people. Develop relationships of intimacy and trust, and inspired singular possessive attitudes that create unforeseen complications. The dependence of Alexander's troops had turned almost superstitious, as evidenced by the reactions they had before their injury and illness. As spring melted the snows of the high peaks, followed him north toward Ecbatana.
When Alexander came to town, Darius was gone. He took possession of the Summer Palace. Deposited in the vaults of the treasury of the vast reserves that remained after the war fund provisioned. In Ecbatana as treasurer and governor left his old friend Harpalus.
As usual, Darius had left the initiative to the enemy. Upon learning of the advance of Alexander, he moved north, first sending women to that they were safe. He stopped on the way to meet the promised reinforcements, but they sensed the disaster and did not attend the appointment.
Alexander went on the march and took the time to secure communications. In Media Bistanes found, surviving son of King Oco, who was willing to tell where Darius fled.
This meeting highlights an important factor in the history of Alexander: the power of mortal enemies in the ancient world. By the standards of modern nationalism, Bistanes was a traitor according to their time, fulfilled their religious duty because he avenged his father poisoned and his brother, in whose murder he was convinced (rightly or wrongly) that Darius had participated. If it were Greek, this obligation would also have overridden other loyalties.
Dario moving north toward the passage of the Caspian Gates, with the hope of reaching Bactria. Quintus Curtius Rufus has a unique and detailed account of the journey of Darius. Totally devoid of propaganda value, has almost no rhetoric and returns us, finally, the story suggests an eyewitness expressive soon appear on the scene.
The disaster of Gaugamela, Darius had rescued about thirty thousand foot and four thousand shooters. Among the early 3000 included Greek mercenaries, the loyal core of the 50,000 troops Menmón. Although some of the exiles did not dare to return to their land, the truth is that most could have dropped in favor of the Macedonians, but his courage and loyalty were exemplary.
The 3,000 troopers and many infants were under the command Bactrian Bess, his satrap. Other controls were run Nabarzanes, the able general of cavalry, and the old Artabazus, childhood friend of Alexander, who was about ninety years but was still lucid and active.
The abode of the great king was pathetically empty. 7000 bore only coffers talents concubines were gone, their personal assistants were reduced to a handful of court eunuchs, the largest Egyptian Bubacar and the youngest a boy named Bagoas, accomplished singer and dancer. As was the favorite of the king, had been castrated to keep their exceptional beauty.
When reinforcements failed him, Darius established a camp and called a council of war. Quintus Curtius Rufus has made a speech in his mouth, but the best was probably true. The rest of the speeches seem much more authentic. The old Artabazus reaffirmed his loyalty and that of the Persian troops. Then Nabarzanes forward. Noting that seemed to chase the bad luck, he concluded that the gods had abandoned Darius, and suggested that Bess, his cousin, came to the throne for a while, retreating when the enemy had been defeated.
It seems that the formal meaning that Bess was replacing the monarch as royal scapegoat, in order to carry their bad luck. Darío not had no doubt about his true intentions. He drew his sword and lunged Nabarzanes. Was kindly withheld mercy begging gestures and the two retired commanders. It follows a picturesque account of his efforts to corrupt overnight loyal to the Persians, with the indomitable opposition Artabazus. He had opposed the dangerous tyrant Oco and at that time he was loyal to a weak king that he had not done any harm, but was sure he would receive the forgiveness of Alexander.
Nabarzanes priorities were different. Since the flight of Iso had realized that the only way to provide effective Persian resistance was out of the way to Darius. Had developed a plan to deliver to Darius to Alexander, to make peace with the purpose of gaining time, to proclaim the king in Bactria Bess and from there to resume the war. The Greeks and the Persians did not accept. Consequently, in the morning the two were repentant and loyal and resumed the march.
Dario trusted them, but not the Greeks, who were aware of the nightly activities. During that day's walk, his commander, patron, he approached the royal chariot, Boubacar-beckoned the chief eunuch, and asked to speak to the king without an interpreter, as he had some knowledge of Greek. It was a logical precaution because Besso rode a short distance. Dario listened to their warnings and dismissed him with kind words. If pattern was right, his position was hopeless and we must ascribe the merit of not grasped at straws at the expense of the lives of their loyal.
The following high in the Alborz, Carpio side, Artabazus begged the king to take refuge among the Greeks of Patron. Darío dignity rejected this counsel of desperation, and covered her face with a veil while the old man withdrew, his face bathed in tears. When the Persians came to the Bactrian for supplies remained. At dusk the guard that surrounded the shop, from amongst the famous immortal, took off silently. Darius gave up all hope and lay on the ground.
"Hence there was a great loneliness in the store, except for a few eunuchs who surrounded the king, for there was nowhere to retreat." This intimate touch definitively characterizes our witness.
Soon after, Darius Boubacar called to his side and ordered the eunuchs trying to save. On hearing the cries of anguish of Boubacar, others came quickly, and joined the lamentations. Bess and Nabarzanes assumed that the king had committed suicide and quickly entered the store. Eunuchs to know he was still alive, no longer restrained, held down, tied him and took him away in an ordinary trolley.
Such was the quantitative disadvantage loyal troops that it was impossible to resist. Darius had conquered the kind of loyalty that lead to desperate businesses. Two noble Persians crossed the pass to lead Alexander and put her through their king. It was the best choice for the unfortunate, but it was too late. With the best cavalry to the rescue Alejandro left a suicidal career, reached the rear of the Bactrian stragglers whose discipline had gone to hell and punches his way toward the prisoner. The conspirators broke to Darius and told him to ride a horse. The king replied that he preferred to face Alexander. Upon hearing such a Barsaentes Bess, with or without the consent of Nabarzanes, stabbed with spears, mutilated mules pulling the wagon and fled. Nabarzanes, perhaps opposed that act, he followed a road with six hundred horsemen.
A Macedonian soldier heard someone moaning for water found the dying king. At this point concludes the story of Quintus Curtius Rufus, because the manuscript is damaged. Plutarch says that Darius drink, thanked, praised the courage of Alexander and wished him while his successor, it may be advertising or romance, although there is no doubt that Alexander would have preferred rather than Bess. The two monarchs, the fortunate and the unfortunate, did not meet in life. Alexander undertook a long and fruitless search among the wagons, when it came to seeking, Darius had already breathed his last breath. Alejandro covered it with its own layer, the last gesture he could do, and ordered that his body was sent to celebrate Sisigambis royal burial at Persepolis.
Alexander accepted the surrender of Nabarzanes Hyrcanian the plain, which borders the Caspian Sea. After refusing to Bess for reasons no one can explain, Nabarzanes sent an emissary to ask for a pass, something I never would have gotten if Alexander had not considered that it deserved a hearing.His war record and what he said during the hearing because a good impression, but never got a job or command of troops, he forgave his involvement in the regicide. He gave gifts to honor the traditional and unusual gift: the young dancer Bagoas. "He was loved by Darius and soon would be for Alexander." It is difficult to find the source of Quintus Curtius Rufus comment because it seems that life-long relationship.
Plutarch says in detail that Alexander had twice rejected and considered a grievance, the proposal of giving beautiful Greek ephebes in captivity. As expected, Quintus Curtius Rufus follows that Persian girl was offered as a mere gift or bribe, but the odds point to a larger cause: that Bagoas had been eyewitness to the murder of Darius and could declare that he had opposed Nabarzanes .
Nabarzanes was a soldier brave and loyal almost to the end. While in despair he was willing to give up the inept commander leaving it in the hands of a magnanimous enemy, it may seem excessive regicide him, because for Zoroastrianism was a heinous crime, such as Alexander know very well later, when he held that a Persian court judge Bess.
As Bagoas, must have known, since the arrival of the eunuch of the Queen to inform her death, which had allowed the captive ladies kept their servers. Apart from any loyalty he felt toward his master, whose memory, apparently, treated kindly, had little to lose according to Alexander and no future among the rebels. The murder was an act caused by panic and unexpected by all, including murderers.
If we assume this hypothesis, all the circumstances agree: the departure of the other conspirators and his men immediately after the regicide, the flight with Nabarzanes Bagoas, and Quintus Curtius Rufus 'assertion that' was especially through the boy's pleas that he [Alexander] was moved to forgive Nabarzanes. " The testimony of the deceased monarch's favorite was an incontestable proof, an influence far more likely than mere flattery of an attractive young man. Anyway, it is clear that it was reluctant to have when the court Bagoas to communicate to the chroniclers valuable story. Assuming that the Greek Persian learned this was not the height of a story so vast, we can entertain guessing that Alexander himself dictated the final form.
Anyway, Bagoas stayed. We know him through Quintus Curtius Rufus, Plutarch, Athenaeus, with additional questions, Arian, are more likely to have censored the boy Ptolemy Alexander Persian rather than its own Athenian lover, not because it was man-made in the Greek world was unimportant, but because he was a eunuch "barbaric". Alejandro few compatriots shared his view that "all men are children of God."
To the Macedonians, mindful of his race, was a modest eccentricity Bagoas of Alexander and the less you talk about it, the better. However, the final story of Duane and who else could provide it, says a lot about him and, indirectly, of Alexander. In addition to the graphic detail and talent for evoking the scene, present the loyalty and good taste are not intended to flatter insightful roughly to a real lover at the expense of the dead, the pathos of the last night of Darius and the insistence that "did nothing vulgar or vile"; its graceful homage to the victor, pronouncements or not, did harm to his memory and provide much pleasure. Sensitivity, respect for oneself, without servility charm and top it all, beauty is not strange that, at least once, sexual demands were met Alexander.
Apart from the scenes witnessed only eunuchs, no doubt part of the story was told by Artabazus, which was filed shortly after Nabarzanes and was warmly welcomed by Alejandro, who immediately restored to him upon graduation. After spending years in Macedonia, certainly spoke Greek fluently. The newcomers were the Greek mercenaries from their hideouts in the hills.
They had sent emissaries to check the conditions, but Alexander, with his usual animosity towards the Greeks who fought in the Persian ranks, demanded their unconditional surrender. Some dispersed, an Athenian with a violent anti-Macedonian history and some committed suicide in 1500 were delivered. By then, Alexander already knew his loyalty and Bagoas Artabazus mouth. Do not punish anybody, freed those who were hired prior to declare war to others, rebuked and joined his army with the usual pay. The story of the attempt to prevent Darius pattern against their murderers might come from the pattern itself.
Given its history, in any case Alexander would have treated with respect the body of Darius, but the actual funeral was also awarded a proclamation: the duty of a great king to his predecessor. There was a suitor in the running. In the east, Bess had kyrbasia and with the visor up (royal prerogative, as the princes had to take it flat) and called himself Artaxerxes.
It is not known if they moved the patriotism or ambition. It was revealed that Alexander had two disadvantages never knew: it was unable to discipline their men and earn their loyalty. Anyway, Alexander claimed the right to proceed against him for rebellion and treason regicide two reigning monarchs. To highlight this claim was held an important act of loyalty. Oxatres, the combative brother of Darius, came voluntarily to cheer on Alexander as king. He returned to dominate the blood feud: the enemy of his brother's murderer was her natural ally. Alexander, who apparently formed a high opinion of Oxatres, immediately recruited him into the ranks of peers. Their membership was a high propaganda value and was the only price to pay was revenge Besso.
Alexander had to inform his men that the death of Darius had failed to end the war. Macedonians gathered and persuaded by "effective arguments," which must be reduced to the pure appeal of his personality, it was not a question of strength. Not even left all the Greek auxiliaries, which offered free choice and the payment of the costs of home. Soldiers re-enlist received three apiece talents and bonuses of the Macedonians reached the same generous scale. Such occasions were among the main pleasures of the life of Alexander.
He was about to penetrate through the wilds of Central Asia, with massive additions of his court and army, as mentioned in the Persian romance, "The camp was a world in motion ... the market that accompanied it resembled that of a capital and it was possible to buy everything, even bird's milk. " It also covered the secretariat, engineers, craftsmen, administrators, doctors, valets, slaves, architects and manufacturers of armor, a horde of speculators who were living independent of well-paid troops, women soldiers and civilians, along with their children, almost constituted a second army. Their lines of communication would be extended indefinitely, it was not possible to know which stores offer the new territory.The catch to leave behind would be as decisive as oxygen to the diver. Entrusted to the command post Parmenion. This was about seventy years waiting for an uphill campaign for that appointment, honorable and worthy of his age, probably solved a problem that Alexander had a long time. The old general ordered his own army, partly composed of mercenaries, including recruits perhaps Greeks, and access to the treasure of Ecbatana to meet their own needs and those of the quartermaster of Alexander.
While in Hyrcania, Alexander had a secondary operation mounted against the inhabitants of the forests of the mountains, notable only because it was the penultimate appearance in the history of Bucephalus. While being guided through the forest for the real-squires were in charge of the horses of the king, Bucephalus and the others were kidnapped by local attackers. The horse was twenty years and its likely destination was obvious. The old horse had probably half a dozen times saved the life of his master, both as a young adult, the idea that his life had just become a beast of burden so much frightened that he sent messengers to Alexander to threaten devastation general if not returned. The response was immediate, the friends met again and, relieved, even rewarded Alejandro thieves.
The real squires, whose services the king appeared to provide spare horses in the field of battle, were the children teen Macedonian aristocrats. In previous reigns had been held hostage troubled parents and now his duties were midway between those of a page and a squire of a medieval castle, but the monarch did not have a specialized body of squires. They were so numerous, were close to fifty, to rotate the guards, and at night guarding the royal apartments or shop. When new troops arrived Hircania Macedonia, probably arrived new squires, since the group had brought Alexander had reached adulthood. Perhaps the adventures of the beloved Bucephalus gave bad marks to some of the newcomers and triggered momentous events.
Unlike the medieval princes who taught their squires just good manners and fight, Alexander had to educate their own, even if he was campaigning. His training was in charge of Callisthenes, a figure of some importance in the history of Alexander. He was nephew of Aristotle, who had recommended him for the post of archivist real. (Hence the use of his name by the author pseudo-Callisthenes.) It was a literary dilettante who had written a history of Greece to the days of Philip's rise to the throne and that later writers cited for his antiquarian notes, especially in regard to the Homeric sites. Like his contemporaries, Alexander considered the Ilíadacomo a history book, probably in Asia loved visiting the famous scenes of Greek birth or of the exploits of their heroes. Many ancient writers accuse Callisthenes their praise, but do not define, and does not survive a single direct quote from their works. Perhaps Alexander emphasized that descended from the champions of both sides of the Trojan War and compared their achievements with theirs. If you praise a presentation consisted essentially florida real achievement, lent him a bad service that may be realized when his mind matured.
Meanwhile, Callisthenes had maintained close contact with the Lyceum, but since then the correspondence would take much longer to reach destination. It seems that this servility was rejected by Aristotle, who had many ties with Macedonia, in particular his close friendship with Antipater, for now, not a conflict of loyalties.He is quoted saying that Callisthenes had good intelligence, but not cultivated. On another occasion, possibly later, it was unlikely that he lived a long time, perhaps the latter deduction comes from the reflected indiscretions in his personal letters. No doubt he was convinced, like Aristotle and his school, the Persians were barbarians corrupt and destructive and that the proper mission should be to Alexander's conquest and revenge. He must master the anxiety when the old Artabazus was welcomed as guest of honor when peer cavalry appeared a Persian prince, when the satraps reappointed after his surrender and when the gelding Duane favorite being the conventional Greeks considered less than human-made his way to the royal bed. The behavior of the Greek conqueror should have been an ostentatious show of superiority helena, a proper sense of contrast.
But a new shock awaited him: Alexander began to wear clothing Persian.
The clothing was quite indefinite, as is what clothing adapted. His own version was more "modest" than the Persian and more "amazing" that the meda. The leaders of the reliefs of Persepolis are more than one hundred years before and it is not possible that fashion remained unchanged. The jacket and pants are Medes and Persians long robes (no doubt the court dress) and striped hats. Nobody wears the "Persian girdle" adopted by Alexander.
In everyday life the Persians, like the Medes, wore pants, but Plutarch says that Alexander abstained from barbarism to cover their upper and lower extremities. He wore a kind of long tunic with belt, and probably a layer on the arms, then the actual colors used by the Roman Caesars, purple and white. He also wore the turban, which strictly speaking was a headband with the same colors. However, as the tape was played so common among the Greeks could not have been controversial, and most likely on solemn occasions Alejandro kyrbasia tie around, like other Persian kings. The raised edge of the helmet-shaped headdress was an important symbol of royalty.
With regard to the Persian dress, Herodotus says that footwear was introduced allowed something inside that a man may take look taller, a fact that might have influence.
At first, Alexander was the dress for your audience with the Persians, then for private parties, and later led her to mount, according to Plutarch, probably by car. To the Macedonians did not like much, but considered it a fad forgivable, as Bagoas, which deserved indulgence. No one protested.
It was a good policy towards the Persians, despite the policy never was all for Alexander, who was a complex man, emotional, and who profoundly affected human contacts. If the Persians had fallen ill just know it would have been unable to flatter and would soon be resumed with emphasis on the role of Greek conqueror. Obviously appealed to him. His style, dignity and beauty, courage so cruelly wasted by their monarch, the integrity of Artabazus old and delicate touch of Bagoas left their mark on him. Wanted to appear before them as an aristocrat, in its words, and had no trouble finding advisers. Artabazus Oxatres and knew the ceremonial the baubles he could not consult them on pain of losing dignity could learn in the relaxed intimacy shared with Bagoas versed to the last detail of the day and night regal. Bagoas influence is one of the imponderables of history. It fell when he beat the teen, but this, like the talent of Hephaestion, is something we can be certain that Ptolemy preferred to ignore.
The contradictions between the concepts of king and conqueror back to that time. The Macedonians had placed in the second race and his pride-a fact that is of equal importance, the prospect of returning to their land, leaving a colony to provide tribute and slaves. Among the Persians the opinions were divided. They had been killed and the rightful successor Oco, the provisional Darius had been a real disaster for some, Bess was a hero and for others, a regicide compared to which the conqueror abroad did not mean a negative change, because he seemed willing to civilized. Although not known democracy, justice Persian valued and considered fair to Alexander.
Bactria, still loyal to the tyrant, would present a stiff resistance. The days of pitched battles were not repeated until he reached India. Over the next two years would campaign for rugged territory, fighting tribesmen knew the terrain and often settled in steep ramparts. Sometimes, a satrap who had sworn allegiance, and had been his guest Alejandro rebelled as I turned my back, the chivalric code of honor that had been in Macedonia suffer severe setbacks. It was logical to trust their experience rather than their expectations. Faced a rebellion of the most tenacious when an act of high treason, much closer, causing a severe crisis in his life. He was stationed at Fort Drangiana real when he heard that the conspiracy to murder had been organized neither more nor less than Philotas, his childhood friend.
Alejandro had ignored previous warnings. Assessing the loyalty of his friends according to which he kept them. (No doubt one reason for this optimism was consistent with unwavering constancy Hephaestion, a certainty that dated from childhood.) Although it had lost its position of trust, Philotas adopted much of the pomp and luxury with an extravagance nouveau riche that earned enemies. It was the only survivor of the three sons of Parmenion, as the second had recently died of an illness. Given their age, position in the rear Parmenion could cause resentments, but diminished the power of the family in court.
Very little is known about the conspiraci6n to kill Alejandro and nothing about the media who thought to use. The instigator who came out was a dark Dimna, which is not mentioned anywhere else, who apparently was about the limits of Alexander's inner circle and complained of a slight unspecified. He tried to recruit a young man named Nicomachus, who was a lover, but the boy, aghast at what he heard, I immediately informed her brother. Eager to get rid of this dangerous and disclaim knowledge and guilt over the two went to Philotas because it was someone close to the monarch. All sources agree that Philotas not report the incident. Diodorus, Plutarch and Quintus Curtius Rufus say they are committed to do for two days straight and apologized claiming that Alexander had been busy, but in reality, had talked freely with him. The brothers began to despair and distrust. The largest occurred in the royal apartments and reported to the squire in charge of weapons of Alexander. Unlike Philotas, he interrupted to Alexander while bathing. The king asked his brother, he learned that there had been a delay, and found out why.
Alexander reacted with his usual speed and was immediately cordoned off the camp to prevent them from spreading the news. He sent a brigade to arrest Dimna, who certified his guilt by committing suicide before they could stop it.Obviously Nicomachean revealed the names of other conspirators, including a member of the royal guard, which certainly suggests something more than an individual's personal anger. Philotas known behavior was clearly unfair. All sources agree that admitted that he knew of the conspiracy, and his defense was to say that did not buy it. (In more peaceful times than ours, some historians have come to accept this fact, but now we can say that when you are notified on a plane there is a bomb, honest men are not at risk.) Nicomachean Although I would not have addressed have known that was involved, perhaps Dimna only told those who dared to express.
Until the camp was surrounded, Alexander was forced to keep the old ways to Philotas, which went against his nature. Then he arrested all the accused. Arrian cites two sources and argues that Philotas was subjected to public trial before the Macedonian Assembly, acting as attorney-Alejandro was relevant because a witness had been available when the defendant said he was not-and assuming its own defense Philotas (the flowering Quintus Curtius Rulo devices negate their version of events). The Assembly decided that he deserved death. Arrian does not speak of interrogation under torture, a fact alluded Diodorus, Plutarch and Quintus Curtius Rufus.
Before coming to the conclusion that Ptolemy concealed, as we must always ask if she needed to do. It is likely that, being a current trial for treason, as demonstrated in another text. In such cases, torture was widespread throughout Greece and across, with one exception. The Athenian democrats accords to its own citizens and allowed, instead, offered slaves: if torture did not produce evidence, they assumed that the slaves had not witnessed anything unusual, the defendants did not benefit citizens this privilege became very suspicious . In the case of Philotas, maybe its high graduation and his military record made Ptolemy silent, so the question remains.
There were more trials, some of which ended in acquittals. Among those convicted, "to defend wordless" Alexandros of Lincestis included, had long suspected. Of royal descent, probably chose him-I knew it or not, as appropriate puppet monarch. Traditionally, Macedonian publicly executed those convicted in this case they did with javelins. It was a purge arbitrary. Alexander had to face a terrible choice.
Conspirator or opportunistic insensitive, the fact is that Philotas had betrayed him. No army in hostile territory could allow still alive. Even fewer could afford the communication cord to a parent who had relapsed in the duties of the archaic blood debt.
Oxatres Prince had joined the foreign invader so to avenge the death of his brother and the prince Bistanes to avenge his father. There was no certainty that Parmenion-whether or not an accomplice to his son chose not to switch sides when he learned of his death. That was his first thought when Alejandro cordoned off the camp. Ancient Macedonia laws stipulated that direct male relatives share a traitor's death. It was pure intimidation, or presumed connivance, simply acknowledged the debt of blood, which made all the survivors in the king's enemies.
It would be strange at the time Alexander did not remember Attalus. Traitor tested, had been saved from arrest of the soldiers of his tribe cam. In this case, the practical problem was the same. Changed only two factors: first, the guilt was not proven and Parmenion, on the other, was infinitely more dangerous.
Until then, the young conqueror had only known the rewards of power, glory, honor, splendor, wealth and pleasures of unlimited generosity, admiration and affection. Only had cost him the hardships and dangers of which he prided himself. For the first time learned of the terrible demands of power. The realized as soon as he suffered, but may keep open a last chance.
Three players left on the backs of swift camels on the road garnished. They carried a royal decree that had protected as the murderer of Attalus. Arriving at Ecbatana gave the order to the senior officers of the army of Parmenion. In the private park of the palace which served as his residence, an envoy who knew Parmenion a letter delivered to the monarch and then another false, signed with the name of Philotas. I read the second "with joy, as denoted his face" when he shot down.
The letter, mentioned by Quintus Curtius Rufus without comment, explanation or dramatic overtones, it deserves the deepest attention. Why bother with the cards if Parmenion was already helpless before his murderers? The protocol required that real office was read in the first place, had to send it to authenticate the other letter, that mattered: the letter with the forged signature Philotas. Parmenion was not killed before, but after showing obvious joy to the content. If I had expressed puzzlement, irritation, mild disapproval, anger or fear, does have unsheathed the daggers? In one of its passages very lucid but nothing worthy of trust, Quintus Curtius Rufus says Philotas framed his father. True or false, it is possible that some of the conspirators did. It seems that Alexander preferred to reject such testimony without proof and gave him a last chance on the forged letter introducing some comment-extracted during interrogation, which convey only an accomplice to the plot prospered. It was a random act that could lead to tragic misunderstandings, but the only evidence that could possible appeal.
Arrian says that, unlike other monarchs, Alexander was sorry when she knew she had done wrong. We can read comments on those regrets, even on a deep shame, but no text is said to repent Parmenion's death. It was a passionate act, but a considered decision and she complied.
Alejandro just ran the risk of causing terrible riot troops Parmenion-contingency that any means could escape, he had the firm conviction that a greater danger threatened. (Not long ago, modern Europe witnessed the military rebellion that followed the dismissal of a popular general.) Alexander had to stake everything on the loyalty of troops located hundreds of miles away, troops they could not persuade or coerce when forced to choose between him and his own commander. The implications of this fact have not been evaluated thoroughly.
There was no sedition. His army took it calmly, it was unlikely that men of Macedonia, with its popular memory full of frightening stories of dynastic struggles and fully convinced of the guilt of Philotas, acquitted of his powerful father. A provisional board of censors ad hoc examined the letters sent to Macedonia in search of signs of discontent. The disaffected were isolated to a special body-apparently received no more punishment than the stain of being unreliable, and are urged redeem him by a good performance in combat. And that's what they did, even with intensity, probably after a speech of Alexander himself.
Now Alexander knew that a man who wanted him dead had been in charge of his best strike force: the Companion Cavalry. Hephaestion had proved to be a good commander and probably would have preferred Alejandro put that body on the orders of a man he trusted fully. However, it was identified with the new and controversial policies, and to the Persians was a skilled diplomat who liked, whose customs, and language-Hephaestion probably had taken the trouble to learn. To avoid a direct rebuff to conservatives in a delicate moment, Alejandro divided between Hephaestion and co Clites "the Black", the brother of his mother, the same that had saved his life in the skirmish of the Granicus. The family was related to the royal house and did not need to deal with less deference to the princes. Alejandro probably knew Clites from early childhood and through much of his stormy childhood, subconscious associations that he did not know.
Besso still controlled Bactria. Although the two years of resistance that opposed this province have been described as a national uprising is not true in the modern sense of the term. Their ties were tribal and family and never put aside old enmities.
Alexander spent the winter in the midst of a peaceful tribe to which Cyrus, supplied by her in a moment of crisis, put the name of the "benefactors". The Macedonian affection took them away. In spring, moved to unexplored areas. Throughout this phase of the campaign, the rough terrain was formed by well-defined routes, however they were inaccessible, and jalonaría passing through strategic points in these old paths, some of which came to India to China and other , whose existence had never imagined-founding another city. Modern archeology has begun to find out just how real and strong were his attempts to create centers of civilization in the midst of these barren: the garrison not only control but also served to protect, the streets were drawn correctly and had a public square, center all the Greek cities, a tutelary deity temple, a camera for advice and sometimes even a theater in Perito was a monument, a pet dog that Alexander had grown personally and whose name gave the city. Most of Alexandria was named. The settlers came from the crowd that followed them: veterans during the march had found a woman, with whom he had children, merchants and artisans attracted to the trade route or the absence of rivals, disabled ready to settle with their cousins, their booty and his plot of land rather than face the long and painful back, some prostitutes serving in garrisons and were tired of commuting. When unrest broke out later was in the garrisons, whose men had no real interest in the place and performed a monotonous job as his comrades accompanied Alexander, lived adventure and earned wealth.
The campaign against Bess was hampered by the fierce and treacherous tyrant Satibarzanes-Aria, which, after Gaugamela, continued the original plan for Bess and Nabarzanes and rebel peace sign below. Took flight in the spring of 329 BC and soon after was killed in a melee with erected, one of the childhood friends Philip exiled by virtue of their devotion to Alexander. Forever determined to settle accounts into Bactria Bess and sooner than they expected, earlier this year, Alexander crossed with his army still icy peaks of the Hindu Kush.
Historians agree that, as a feat of leadership and resistance, far exceeds the crossing of the Alps by Hannibal. To a large extent, the hardships were predictable and Alexander must have had an unshakable confidence in his men's devotion, devotion to the confirmed events. It may not take sufficient account of the height. They ran out of supplies, road transport was out and there grew only alpine herbs, eaten raw mules killed by lack of fuel for cooking, the reflection of snow blindness caused some men and some must have 3500 meters of altitude sickness. Alexander, who always looked so ateridoy hungry as any of the other, stopping occasionally to make a joke or to make a man a stiff mound of snow. Xenophon also shook apathetic to pluck soldiers from Hypothermia sleepy preceding death, a man even complained that their valiant commander slapped him. Nobody complained of Alexander.
Alejandro Bess had already assessed and was not willing to risk launching an enemy head-rested and determined. Charmed both enemies and friends. Thin and tired, was preceded by a fearsome reputation. Undecided, Bess swept the ground traversed and Alexander, skinnier but resolute, pressed on. Bess frightened. He fled across the Oxus and burned their ships. Local resistance was dismembered, Alexander rested and fed his men. Appointed satrap of Bactria at Artabazus indestructible.
It was a break between a frozen hell and the other hot. Before marching into the desert surrounding the Oxo unbearable, Alejandro scrapped away for the old and disabled veterans. They moved at night because during the day heatwave was unbearable. The soldiers quickly consumed water rations because of dry air. The depletion of the camp followers had to be extreme. Quintus Curtius Rufus that some carriers have discovered a small pond and filled a jug to give drink to their children. When they passed to Alexander, who was sweating profusely, he was offered a drink faithfully. After asking where to take water, he said it to be given to his sons, he would not drink unless you have enough for everyone. This incident recalls an even better known, both are characteristic of Alexander and, as human nature is repetitive, no doubt are true.
Finally they reached the River. After the last section, Alejandro was without rest and without food until he found that all were in the camp safe and sound. The river was wide and ferries had caught fire, but on the Danube Xenophon had taught Alexander the tradition of the Euphrates, which also served to the Oxus. Manufacturers of tents put to work and filled the skins to convert them into rafts. The crossing took them five days.
Fate tried to Bess as Darius. The defections led to the dispersal of its soldiers cam. Two chiefs came to the conclusion that Bess was a hindrance to the war. They left him on the strength of a village defended by two servers, and sent word to Alexander that was there and could pick it up. In order not to enhance the event with their presence, Ptolemy Alexander sent with orders to try to Bess as a common criminal. I wanted to show that this man was, nor ever had been, a Persian monarch. The Besso's fatal mistake was to not give up while the realist Nabarzanes, which said the amnesty before the arrival of Oxatres. Dario's brother was on the lookout for revenge that was the price of loyalty.Bess was stripped, the greatest misfortune that could suffer a Persian-and left beside the road, hands tied to a wooden yoke. Alexander stopped his car and asked him why he had betrayed and murdered his benefactor, his kinsman and king. With less dignity than they showed when all was lost Darius, Besso replied that the entire staff had agreed to do to get a salvaconducto Alexander. It was the wrong approach to a man who had forgiven and added to its ranks a group of rebels was to march to the execution with remarkable value. Bess was ordered stricken, no doubt made Oxatres witnessed, and he was moved to court chained Persian that judge.
There appeared no other suitor. Alexander marched northeast to the immemorial Jaxartes River frontier, where civilization ended and began the steppes. In this limit stood a row of old fortresses built to repel the Scythians, nomadic fierce that even Darius the Great could submit. Alexander was quick to conclude that this boundary was correctly drawn. He had the wit to see that, once overcome prejudice, two great civilizations could interpenetrate, and anyway, acknowledging the barbarism just interested to see it and keep it off. For Alexander was clear that, at the first sign of weakness, cross the river Scythians.
After replacing the horses that heat or cold had killed, retreated to the west to Samarkand. In a meeting with members of a tribe, an arrow broke his femur. Unable to ride horses, avoided the delays in moving stretcher. At first it was carried by infants, a fact that aroused the jealousy of the troopers, who demanded dismantling and share the privilege. Alexander allowed to take turns.
In this work it is not possible to scrutinize Jaxartes campaign. Occupied Samarkand, the imperial city, and reduced riparian strengths, then garrisoned. The area seemed quiet and Alexander held a council of heads of Sogdiana. They immediately assumed it was a betrayal for them was something that current-, rebelled, invaded the cities newly taken by Alexander and besiege Samarkand. Macedonian relays were isolated, the commanders were not up to the circumstances and Alexander had to break the siege in person. During operations, which, as usual, made in the vanguard, was shot down. A stone struck him larynx-threatening injuries, and lost his voice. A head injury left him a few days with clouded vision. You may proceed here a strange peculiarity of the Alexandrian legends: that was a gray eye and one black. The dilated pupil is one of the usual features of concussion; a local report on Alexander, in conditions that most people would have stayed in bed, perhaps rooted in popular memory.
On the other side of Jaxartes a horde of Scythians appeared defiant. Alejandro met a combined force, defeated the Scythians and pursued across the plains. As Darius the Great, saw how he slipped through his fingers. A more serious setback, because its effects were longer lasting, was that, because of the heat, drank water that met and suffered a paralyzing enteritis. I would definitely own and perhaps other soldiers were casualties, and that Alexander was seriously ill. The army soon learned that in the parched lowlands was the only safe drinking wine.
Oxatres Ecbatana to End returned to preside over the trial Bess by a panel of Persian nobles.They had cut the nose and earlobes, how the Persians marked the criminals. Traditionally, the execution was too barbaric, or by impalement on the cross. Oxatres sent tear the body and scatter the fragments for the wild beasts devour. Finally avenged his brother and rewarded his loyalty with his presence again certified the legitimacy of the great king, whose court returned.
The administrative body at the time Alexander was surrounded as Persian and Macedonian or Greek. Inevitably, we had to wait for an audience, inevitably, the Macedonians had to take turns with the Persians. Bagoas-added decorative cut-in was not a person who enjoyed general approval. The officials, satraps and Persian envoys drew attention more and practicing these profound reverence so offensive to the Greek tradition, with a monarch who does not reject.
Alexander then had the solid advice of Artabazus, a survivor of four kingdoms, and Bagoas, who knew the court proceedings because of its proximity to the throne. The deference accorded to a foreign king was measured according to their own sense of dignity and could not stop the Persians require a show of respect as essential as the "exhaustion". However, Alexander was very susceptible, although no one would have said, could not overlook the fact that their subjects were known the latest contemptuous glances of the Macedonians, who did not bow.
Alexander consulted Hephaestion, whose unwavering devotion was not marred by the presence of Bagoas, and assessed how to rectify the issue. It would be difficult and would have to resolve it with tact.
Herodotus, who wrote a century ago, said of the Persian customs:
When you cross the street, it is possible to know whether people are of the same rank are the following: if they are, instead of talking to each other they kiss on the lips. If one is slightly inferior to the other, the kiss is given on the cheek when the difference in status is large, the inferior person kneels on the floor.
All were below the Persian king, and mostly greatly inferior, is still a matter of debate required depth of reverence to the people who were around the court. We read Persian well enough placed to be invited to dinner by Alejandro fully prostrated before him. Keep in mind that also took the important institution of royal relatives. The Persian monarchs had been allowed entry into this privileged caste of nobles with large quantities of which were not related and thus made them "a little" their inferiors, with the right to kiss his cheek. Certainly, Alexander immediately gave this category persons, for example, the venerable and royal princes Artabazus as Oxatres and Bistanes, probably added many more, but kept it as a privilege, not as something taken for granted.
In times of Darius the Great, two Spartans sent men of the highest rank, preferred to run the risk of dying before making proskynesis to him (generously forgave them life). If some other reverential rite was halfway between the prostration and the kiss of kin, was enough to create the Macedonians the same sense of servility. Alexander had no illusions about it, as evidenced by his conduct.
The Persians were willing to bow to the monarch, but the Macedonians not. I could not humiliate any of the two races. The Macedonians could save face climbing the status of the person to whom bowed. As the king was concerned, could only go up a step. Bow down before a son of Amon, who participated in the divinity of God.
In a matter like this, the complicated mind of Alexander, which puzzled the men who shared their culture becomes inaccessible to us. Except for Egypt, where ancient approval had never had appealed to his divine prerogative. The use him in that moment was pragmatic statesman and, to some extent, highly civilized. On the other hand, was not a formality, because he believed in it. Should remember that millions of people on three continents agreed with him before many years pass.
After communicating his plan to close friends, who evidently did not object, I entrusted the most important Persian, had endured many things and deserved some compensation. Invited several to a banquet, as well as Macedonian category. Arrian, it is possible that in this case or appeal to the chamberlain Ptolemy Cares, offers the most sensible account of the event. The Sophist Anaxarchus of praise addressed to the king. (He was originally Thracian city of Abdera. The Athenian tradition called him a flatterer of Alexander. Finished beaten to death with iron bars ordered by a Cypriot king who had been rude and defiant faced his fate with courage. If flattered Alexander, he did it because he liked, we can not exclude possibility.) Anaxarchus made a list of accomplishments unparalleled correctly predicted that when he died it would offer divine honors and asked why he could not receive in life. In the cue, friends gave assent jumps and screams, ready to make the bow. Callisthenes intervened at the critical moment.
In a rather long speech, emphasized the wickedness of human rights offer divine. Most Macedonians were not prepared for the proposal and to see that support for his reticence began to applaud. With the prospect of an unpleasant scene, Alexander sent word that he would not insist. All took their seats. Here, guests Persians, who knew the true intentions of the Macedonian and were determined to accept them, joined and held the proskynesis by choice. When one became less gracefully than others, a Macedonian broke out laughing. For Alexander was the last straw. He walked around the room, pulled the man from his room and threw him down ... no doubt to the Persians was a courtly protocol innovation.
We do not know if this sudden change of mind or not matured in the minds of Callisthenes. All sources agree on the expansiveness of its official chronicle. However, Callisthenes was a product of the Lyceum and was in contact with Aristotle, who must have learned growing disgust of the honors and the charges given to the Persians, the adoption of a real dress "barbaric" and the existence of the scandalous Bagoas. It is possible that, after delays which meant moving to the private correspondence of Attica Oxo, Callisthenes was forced to take a position.
Alejandro did not relent in their efforts. We can not consider your next move arrogant because it shows sensitivity and tact. He organized a small meeting, only for Macedonians and Greeks distinguished. Hephaestion's pushed ahead and found that they knew with what would be found and would not object. Among them Callisthenes.
He organized a brief ceremony before the cup of friendship. Each guest would stand and would provide, then do the proskynesis to Alexander, would be incorporated and would be brought forward for a kiss. Thus, in exchange for a single prostration with which formally recognize their right, Alejandro accept them all within the royal relatives. The return in terms of the kiss-Persians, the greeting was peer-friend personal gesture to his friends. Hephaestion offered what was perhaps the most marked evidence of his long devotion and was the first bow.
Everything went smoothly until it was the turn of Callisthenes, when he "just happened" that he spoke with Hephaestion and Alexander "was unaware" that he was approaching the kiss without being tilted. Obviously it is impossible that has overlooked the only card doubtful. Rather, it had organized a perfect trick to save face, which allowed Callisthenes philosophical keep their pride without official knowledge. And that could arouse any hatred from others was his business.
Like many intelligent men, Alexander did not consider the stupidity of others. When approached Callisthenes the kiss, someone intervened and said that it had won. Frustrated diplomacy, the king turned away. Callisthenes social disaster topped the coarseness commenting: "So I'm out kiss." So live it must have the Cares Chamberlain, no doubt witnessed presence.
Hephaestion, who had done everything possible to calm down, then had to ensure that other guests who had agreed to bow Callisthenes. It is possible to simply change his mind, contingency provided for in vain, as no other attempts to introduce proskynesis among the Macedonians.
Alexander had been publicly snubbed by two Callisthenes, which also had foiled a major political goal. If the Macedonian tyrant had become the eastern part of the Athenian propaganda, that person would have been offensive and obstructive, without further delay fatal colic, which would have easily passed as a local violent attack of dysentery. No further evidence of Alexander's aversion to covert assassination continued Callisthenes life. He did not lose one of their privileges, even kept his post as tutor to the royal squires. Alexander was still entrusted to the naïveté.
One night tested the popularity of the philosopher to provide a statement asking panegyric of the Macedonians in the style sophist and then giving a speech of denigration. The second is that attendees considered the most alive, aroused great resentment. Alexander, who struck while the iron was still hot, said only denoted a grudge.
The issue of proskynesis was an armful of wood which threw a smoky fire. He had not yet reached the soldiers, among whom affection for Alejandro never been so deep, but the staff was deeply divided. As the ensigns of the borders of India of Kipling, the young officers could fraternize when East and West meet and enjoy as much as the other adventures that Alexander had enriched their lives. However, Philip's old guard clinging bitterly to their status as winners and see how they wore every day that passed.
It is fairer to consider an individual Alejandro original despise the old guard by his reaction. If the supposed bias bias, it could claim to be judged by results. These men had won against all odds, they fought better, had better heads and felt their traditions were superior. Macedonian limitations to royal power were valuable despite its cruelty. In their minds, the image of the East was linked with some evident truth in Herodotus, to the cruel whims of despotic power slavishly supported, which was a symbol of prostration. Alejandro's friends would have been inclined, just as Persians wore dresses that gave them, because they knew him, loved him and, in art, they understood.For men of all that was odious Philip and his conviction was clearly on the defensive to the supporters of the monarch. Although his personality kept the situation in check, led to friction factions and things went well when he moved the headquarters of the plains of the Oxus, where he had spent the winter, the delightful climate of Samarkand. Paradoxically, when the tension reached a breaking point in the tragedy, it was because Alexander had been estranged from his countrymen with the pride of a great king, but precisely the opposite.
In recent times, Artabazus had requested permission to withdraw from the satrap of Bactria because it was exhausting. That charge was raised and given to wealthy clit, commander with the same powers and a relative of Alexander Hephaestion.
Although there appeared to pay a debt of honor to him and his sister, that decision away from the high command also a moaner conservative and stubborn. Unlike in Ecbatana Parmenion over-bureaucratic work, temporary-officially, that of Clites had much prestige, and it was permanent. Clit already had military and social hierarchy is the golden retirement may not find it flattering. Anyway, soon accepted it and have put off, but the wrath of Dionysius decided it did not.
On the day dedicated to the god Macedonian, Alexander held a banquet, especially for sharing with friends a shipment of apples from Ilircania premium. For reasons that we ignore, the feast dedicated to Castor and Pollux, the twins divine warriors. Clit, who had been invited, began his own sacrifice-perhaps more orthodox deity, but he heard the trumpet blast announcing the food and interrupted the ceremony. The two sheep that was about to sacrifice followed at a trot. Alexander felt that this guard animals for sacrifice were a disturbing omen and ordered the priests to pray for the safety of clit.
Accustomed to the axiom that "water is undrinkable," surely the men had appeased their thirst with wine before arriving and the holidays always included a hearty salads ingestion of alcohol. Someone sang a satirical song about the commanders who had failed to liberate the city, it was a hoax, because the commanders had been killed, but supported by Alexander, who succeeded where others failed. The feelings overflowed and friends praised his achievements above those of Castor and Pollux, recalling perhaps the proskynesis. As we all were drunk, the debate became quarrelsome and aggressive friends forgot about the twins and addressed the issue even more explosive in the way that Alexander had surpassed his father.
Clit vigorously dissented. As for the life of Alexander, had lived near the royal family, Clites had to be very stupid not to realize, no matter how drunk he was, he was playing with fire. Would have been safe with Alexander, king of Persia, who was so bitter. Unfortunately, praised the young man angry that he had thrown a drink at the betrothal of his father.
The answer Alexander was Macedonian through and through. As discussed Clites screamed and he also discussed and screamed. Clites mocked his clothing and his Persian cult of Amon, he complained of having to seek permission from a "barbarian" to see, what caused the Granicus saying that he had saved his life. Alexander threw a block on the head and, seeing that the abuse continued, he looked for a weapon. As true Macedonians, his friends held him by force, cursing and struggling, the ingenious Ptolemy took the drunk, who protested. This bar brawl ended vulgar like many others among the vulgar. Clites came stumbled and threw another insult that he had just occurred, blind with rage, Alexander snatched a spear to the nearest guard and pierced his heart. Upon hearing its death agony, the bustle of the hall became a profound silence.
That was the murder that historians call invariably "the assassination of Clites." At present, with their equivalent of ingestion of alcohol and provocation, would receive a sentence of two or three years, with remission for good behavior.
There was no trial more severe than that of Alexander himself. As a king, responsibly, had claimed the lives of Parmenion. On this occasion killed as man unable to control themselves after drinking alcohol or restrain his anger. As king, had illegally killed a Macedonian who claimed their right to free expression. In both Greek, had killed a patron and a guest, aspects whose importance can scarcely now be evaluated. His shame was proportional to their pride for a few days it was considered undignified. Plutarch perhaps right when he argues that, with the first shock, Alexander had to hold to prevent the spear that pierced with the corpse was removed from the clit. For three days, proved not drink or snack, until he feared for his life and perhaps her sanity. Several people entered her apartment without permission, as if helpless because of serious illness. Philosophers offered reassuring words or rational. Alarmed by the desperation of Alexander into what for them must have been a fairly common accident, by choice Macedonian soldiers called a meeting, condemned as a traitor Clites and sent word to Alexander that his act was legalized. No matter how comforting it was the pardon of the soldiers, Alexander himself was forgiven and received comfort with cries of remorse.
The priest of Dionysus gave first aid more effective. Each had its own Olympic righteous vengeance weapon of Zeus wielded lightning; Poseidon, waves and earthquakes, Aphrodite, tragic passions. Dionysus was the weapon of madness. Forgotten in his day in favor of other deities, had presented himself as an uninvited fairy folk tales of those formed by the remains of the old religion, and had cast his evil spells. Alexander had committed the act at a time, literally, was not in his right mind.
Those words helped him to recover balm self-respect and gradually recovered. The hypothesis has some truth, but the spell was cast more than twenty years, in the name of God, by the devout Olympia.
Often, any short story of Alexander's life seems to leap from one drama to another. However, these events lasted a short time and spent long months and weeks in different actions, unfortunately, have not reached us in campaign and rugged wilderness that once the trails left behind the caravan, the men of his race had never trodden. After operations physically exhausting and while his men rested, the Macedonian was limited to switch tasks: attending to the usual post, applicants and messengers, ran not only the old army, but the constant influx of auxiliary troops, and foreign, whose methods and capabilities needed to know, cared for the native officers were understood by their own commanders. I wanted to see the reports of surveyors and explorers, as on the basis of that information moving along the wilderness. All important matters fell upon him. He could not delegate tasks to the institutions that built as he moved.
Founded more cities, deeply interested in them in two ways: as viable and as memorials to him. In Kandahar still an echo of his name. From site selection depended on the welfare of the settlers, even their lives. The fact that Hephaestion had carte blanche to create cities while Alexander was busy is tangible proof of his true ability.
Alexander had many occupations. The nature and terrain of the wars waged can be reconstructed from the memories of the nineteenth-century military, which found the people and customs almost intact, which, as coming from a society more sensitive to contrast, things were fewer granted. Thus we learn that Alexander destroyed the local custom of leaving the sick and elderly to alburde hyenas. He could not stick around to see if survival were offered a better fate.
The legend had begun to form in his footsteps. Two millennia later, would claim Afghan chiefs descended from him and his horse Bucephalus, by now too old to breed. The forces that had faced his officers were scattered in the hills just heard the rumor that Alexander himself was going to meet him. Espitámenes, one of the traitors Besse a "guerrilla leader" eingenioso-wild, died because of these rumors. Its officers learned that Alexander was coming and panicked, sent the head of his boss. Quintus Curtius Rufus says that his wife cut it off while sleeping and apostille that, in addition, your spouse was his mother.
The region was full of peaks and steep cliffs, fortified since ancient times, given the constant cycles of death and hatred to tribal wars. Occasionally, some really great and ingenious siege with a detailed description. Alexander was impossible to learn that a fortress was impregnable and not consider it a personal challenge. This attitude showed a keen understanding of military psychology of Sogdiana, where the courage, strength and success are inseparable from the social status and survival.
The most notorious of these puntosculminantes was the Sogdian Rock turns: high, rugged and full of caves atop well stocked with food and water. His "Chief," Oxyartes, had gone to cultivate the fields and left his family and the garrison in charge of his son. The only path leading to the summit was completely protected from above and the area was covered with snow.
Alexander offered to negotiate. Two emisariosdescendieron, mocked him and said that unless his men had wings, you'd waste time Valiano. The issue was settled. Asked for volunteers among those who were experienced climbers and brought three hundred. At night, with the help of the snow, which will undoubtedly highlight the projections, should face steeper climb and unattended. The first to reach the summit receive twelve talents, a sum that would allow him to live well the rest of his life, the next eleven and so on the first twelve to arrive. Despite having their fingers numbed by the cold, jumped using iron stakes and pins stores, in addition to using harnesses and ropes, and there was only one victim in every ten men. However, having admitted defeat in Sogdiana could have cost thousands of lives.
The chief's son was caught at dawn to find an unknown contingent watched from above and all but surrendered life. He offered a feast during which the ladies of the family danced to the conqueror. Among these was Roxana, the daughter of the boss. Alexander resigned quixotically capture-law right that no friend or enemy would have called into question, and asked for her hand.
There has been talk of political expediency, but not convincing. There is no doubt that if she had been woefully inadequate, for example, if he had been married, Alexander had mastered his feelings, but it looks like a real coup de foudre. Logical marriage for reasons of state have been the daughter of Darius, as Alexander knew, and who later was made. And any of the daughters of Artabazus would have been more appropriate than the daughter of the chief cacique. Seem to fall in love with a woman was a stimulating experience for Alexander novedosay and, without losing his role as explorer, was eager to practice without further delay.
Roxana is not likely to have predecessors. Recent archaeological studies have emphasized the refinement of the ideal yaristocrático proud admired by the Persian rulers of those regions, and Roxana was a beauty known. Maybe she reminded him of his mother, who shared some characteristics, Alexander had no time or find out. After such a childhood, astonished that his instinct was devastated heterosexual rather than merely postponed. Perhaps the grace Bagoas hermaphrodite imperceptibly influenced the sexual proclivities of Alexander.
They called the father of Roxana, who formed an alliance and gave his consent. It is possible that after the initial surprise, the Macedonians remember the succession of wives that Philip took during the campaign and deduct that time, your child choose a suitable consort. Overlooked real home, the Persians must have frowned. (The highborn family Artabazus serenity preserved, suggesting that seduction and humiliation of his daughter Barsine had not yet been set in the author's mind that released this version, in real life is not likely to assimilate such an offense. ) The Sogdian were delighted. During the wedding feast the head blond stranger handed him the piece of bread wedding ritual that had been cut with his sword ... and still surviving ancient symbol of their ability to protect and maintain it. When testing the bread, Roxana is engaged to a man who had five years of life, most of which would campaign in conditions that would only combatants. Roxana married life should be measured in months.
A few weeks later, Alexander went and began another siege of extraordinary difficulty. As his father had recently reached a peace agreement, he returned with his wife. Sources largely neglected in the vicissitudes of marriage, a fact which in itself is significant. Only an accident of history has allowed us to know that one or two months later, Alexander went back to sleep alone.
The fact that it took four years to give a child gives rise to various interpretations. It is said that Roxana gave birth to a stillborn child in India, conceived as a result, shortly after they married, do not know if this misfortune was repeated. Alejandro may be loving but infertile, maybe it was drawn intermittently, they may also be interested in Roxana stop and the premonition of his untimely death he moved to an heir. We know for a fact that was never smitten. Hephaestion loving followed with a depth at which the physical relationship becomes almost irrelevant, and years later still his eromenos Bagoas recognized. He was uninhibited, rather than vice versa, and then hit the usual Greek bisexuality.
Callisthenes should be among those most shocked by this wedding. Like his teacher, Aristotle, believed that Alexander was the mission commander of the Hellenic and, in his opinion, had long had betrayed the southern Greeks did not share the tolerance to the Macedonian royal polygamy and certainly were monstrous the idea that one day the Greek lands were ruled by a scion of noble savage. Callisthenes austerity adopted a flamboyant life, protest that attracted the admiration of the disaffected. Alejandro just listened. In the spring of Sogdiana had moved to Bactria to consolidate their gains and India occupied the foreground of his thoughts. With these aspirations and his new wife, I had enough for meditation and did not want to take the boring scholar, followed by instructing the squires and no one bothered him.
One day his most receptive, a young man named Hermolao, helped Alexander during a boar hunt when, for reasons that are unclear pierced with a lance to a copy that the king had been brought as a prisoner of its own. He received an exemplary punishment: to beat their peers and the loss of the right to ride a horse. Since the officers, in a fit of bad temper, excessive punishment did not enjoy the same esteem that the troops showed to Alexander, it seems clear that Hermolao had accumulated a negative history. We do not know enough about the protocol of the royal hunts to deduce if Alexander was severe for something that he later would have missed, or if his crime was rampant. Hermolao was very resentful and, according to later statements, he complained to Callisthenes, I speak on behalf of tyrannicide. Anyway, Hermolao developed a plan with five squires plus-one of whom was her lover to kill Alexander in his sleep. The Night Watch was up to six squires, therefore, had to enter quietly, one by one, the same turn.
The ease with which they did would have surprised any Greek tyrant, on whose fascinating stories there are precautions. Squires took a month to get everything ready. As the night shift one night only met within a certain period, that were supposed to act the night they deserved or wait nearly a fortnight to the next turn. In their plans did not take into account Roxana or their assistants antechamber. Roxana was confined to the harem and it was evident that the murderers were not afraid that her husband slept there.
The absence of evidence about the actual relationship between Roxana and Alexander opened a significant gap in our knowledge of Macedonian. However, it is clear that the intimate and affectionate communication had been an inseparable part of the other loves of Alexander. Hephaestion deposited confident and encouraged to Bagoas to remember his previous life. Roxana did not know Greek and sources are silent on the fluidity of Alexander in Persian. More than a few kind words Bagoas learned, it is likely that his mastery of this language was elementary. Perhaps the beauty of Roxana was not enough, however dazzling that would result in the beginning.
The night the conspirators set for murder, Alexander was at a party. The squire waited hoping he was drunk. Later he was about to retire and a little crazy-Syrian one which respected seer because he had made several correct predictions, approached him and prevented him from going to bed. Alexander allowed the Syrian mother figure, the third of his life to stay in their rooms. Ptolemy, very likely to decline less respectable relations of Alexander, not acceptable as it does Aristobulus, who told women to go to bed before dawn would bring bad luck. As Alexander was born a night owl, he returned to revive the party and went to bed when clearly the day. He reached over and through some pretext anguished conspirators remained at their posts, hoping against all odds that they had the chance. Alexander was sober enough to thank you kindly have expected the courtesy and give them a reward before retiring. Hermolao was willing to wait until it was again the turn, but another squire felt sufficiently uncomfortable with the situation and trust your lover, whom he had kept the secret. The boy was sent immediately to tell all, the grip of a great sorrow spoke with Ptolemy, whom he found in the actual store. When, after great effort was awakened, Alexander forgave the boy and ordered the others were arrested. Quintus Curtius Rufus Callisthenes includes, in the writings of Arrian is charged only after the interrogation that he underwent the squires, and in this case Ptolemy did not hesitate to speak of torture.
As a Macedonian, were tried by the assembly. It is said that the defense was to criticize Hermolao Alexander; is perfectly possible that a fan had nothing left to lose and not care about their peers. They were sentenced to stoning unanimously condemned the assembly met. Callisthenes, which was not Macedonian, had no right to trial and was not tried. According to Ptolemy, the philosopher was tortured, probably to see if the plot had its origins in Athens, and hanged. To contribute or not to plan the murder, the truth is that had created the moral climate. Alejandro logic made no distinction between the murderer and the theoretical knife-wielding man. If I had spent more time in Athens, Alexander probably would have known what this act would cost and would have reconsidered. Had awakened the resentment of all the most influential opinion-makers of their world. At that time, members of the Academy and the Lyceum, who were already anti-Macedonian and anti-monarchists, ignored his rivals to abhor in unison the martyrdom of the philosopher. He scoffed at the marriage of Alexander with a barbarous desalmadosrumores naively believing in sexual perversion; atrocities became military operations. Macedonian letters abounded blatantly falsified. In one of these letters stated that the squires had not implicated Callisthenes, the logical not even put into question the absurdity of the philosopher Alexander forgive when in fact he had just ordered, a fact that would have been an ideological heresy. Since then the Athenian Alexander passed through Rome, has had a damn story.
His death was planned so cunning and cowardly, that Alexander hated features and exceeding your understanding. Anyway, kill Callisthenes was the only major strategic mistake of his career. Did not live long enough to know its most serious consequences.
In 327 BC Alexander moved his army more numerous, with increased quotas for all new domains to his departure for India. You may have reached 120,000 men.
That campaign had the alicientesa which was so fond. Darius the Great was unable to keep satrapies of Punjab and now had the opportunity to overcome it. Heracles, one of the great exemplars of Alexander, had been in those lands, the same could be said of Dionysus, the god of birth half-human, which roamed there in the midst of divine madness. (The spontaneous genius always prevented Alexander suppress Dionysian aspect of his nature: that way would have reached the true insanity.) India also attracted the explorer who lived inside. Not only were legendary its wonders, but its far side was believed by all the Greeks, the end of the earth.
Surely by now had crossed caravan routes that came to China. You may see and touch their silks. However, trade items changed hands along the way, often almost imperceptible signs of barter, and the Persians did not know much more than him. Pointed Macedonian Geographers could collect as much information, no data was shattered his belief that the infinite ocean of the world belt was a few months of running. I had not the faintest idea of the extension to the south of the Indian subcontinent and assumed that from the eastern shore would not have to undertake a great journey to reach the Euphrates. When he learned that there were crocodiles in the Indus, for a time believed that flowed into the Nile
In Sogdiana had his first contact with the legendary land: the solemn visit of the king of Taxila in the Punjab was a former satrap whose current ruling did not want to lose it. The king offered him lavish gifts and exotic, "As the most valued by Indians," which certainly included gifts pearls and rubies. His herd of twenty elephants painted and decorated quite an impression, with great cunning and as a last gesture prodigal, the king of Taxila crossed the mountain passes with the elephants, which made Alexander's return to camp before moving on to their kingdom. This experience emphasized the interest of Alexander by the discovery, and of course the men of their loot. At this time the quality is evident in history that Alexander placed under his orders of Perdiccas and more than half the army, which of course included most of the new recruits, so it was a delicate task . A charge of non-combatants were among those who should be counted Roxana. You can not take her to the Alexander site that he was going, it was proposed to control the sides of the door you enter immemorial by all others.
Sir Robert Warburton, who played a similar role in the décadade the eighties of the nineteenth century, writes in his memoirs: "Those who do not know that I have to explain that road, thanks to the disputes and the Afridi exaccionesde, above the Khyber Pass was always closed to the caravan trade and travelers, except in cases where a man was strong and forced them to keep it open for a period, when the strong man had crossed or whim was wrong, step back to close. " When Alexander went, the fact was remembered for two millennia.
The campaign began in the fall. In describing the winter operations, Sir Robert said: "It was so cold that froze the rushing water on the legs and the flanks of Chaos wherever it touched." Alexander fought many fierce battles on the strengths of the hills, where tribesmen took cover to see what was coming and were preparing to attack from behind. Although they rejected the demands of surrender, were not used to the complex techniques of siege and most attacks were brief. Alejandro suffered two arrow wounds in the shoulder and ankle, though not serious, the men reacted violently, as to everything that threatened the integrity of Alexander. Barely escaped when the bridge tended to assault Massage walls collapsed under the weight of the men who struggled to fight alongside them, fortunately, was not excessive height. When killed the tribal leader, others surrendered, including a contingent of about 7,000 mercenaries from another region. Alexander agreed to a truce and negotiated with them joining their ranks, a proposal accepted. However, the evening began to desert. Alexander came to the conclusion that he could not expose his men to the risk of being betrayed, so they surrounded the Indians and shot down. Had to be a rather nasty episode, but does not deserve propagandist version given by Diodorus, who, ignoring the eyewitness who mentions Ptolemy, makes it a premeditated act of revenge.
In order to defend the members of the tribe of absolute cruelty charge, the brave and inspiring Sir Robert writes:
From earliest childhood, the circumstances of his existence and life teach the young Afridi to distrust all mankind, all too often their close relatives, heirs of his small plot by right of transmission, are their worst enemies. So, distrust all mankind, and the willingness to take the first blow for the safety of their own lives have become the maxims of the Afridi ... Took me years to get through this thick crust of suspicion.
Many have participated in wilderness campaigns agree that the fate of prisoners was appalling:
When you get hurt and you're lying on the plains of Afghanistan and the women go in search of the spoils, you'd better roll up the gun and blow your brains out ...
This resource last soldier Kipling was not available from Alexander. Although it is possible that the mercenaries only intends to return to their homes, as Ptolemy-supported, it is understandable that the Macedonian did not want to take risks.
The famous feat of Alexander during the campaign was making AORN, the "rock without birds," a clump of 2130 meters situated in a bend of the Indus, whose cliffs carved by the floods were primitive. The feat Sir Aurel Stein amazed that the rediscovered. It was impossible to lay siege to the AORN, which provided natural springs and room for farmland. Alexander could not go around because it was full of soldiers who have risked their communications. There was only one option: take it by assault. Guided by the defenders hostile natives, Ptolemy took possession of a buttress outside. Alexander came up with its numbers, but a wide gully cut him off. He ordered his men to chop down the pine trees next accumulated layers on which they cast earth, thanks to the mound, the catapults could fire against the walls while filling the ravine. When the missiles hit the defenders escaped at night, Alexander allowed to leave, happy that the assault was less hard for their men, and was the first to make the steep ascent to the summit. Capturaronmuchos prisoners. There was an Indian legend that 'Heracles "(probably the mighty archer Rama with his monkey bridge builders) had tried unsuccessfully to crown the AORN.
The effort and the victory must have a trace. Nysa's ruler and his nobles, desperately seeking peace mind, went to the store and found Alexander in armor, dusty because of the ride and, with the spear. "Seeing him stunned, threw to the ground and remained silent a long time." Alejandro asked them to incorporate and relaxed. No doubt encouraged by a wily Greek trader or settler many had preceded the Macedonian, begged him to save his city because he had founded Dionisio, hence the abundance of ivy, a plant rare in these parts. His good will was the stronger recommendation, however, Alexander and colleagues took a nice walk in the park sacred local Indian god, Dionysus cheered crowns of ivy.
Meanwhile, the experienced Hephaestion had built a pontoon bridge that crossed the Indus was a remarkable achievement, it would move the army across the wide river and streams. Reunited with her lover (though not for long) with his wife, Alexander was welcomed by the king of Taxila Omfis so huge with a stop-including war elephants, cavalry, drums and gongs, which avoided a dreadful mistake just time when Omfis appeared unarmed at the forefront. Alexander responded in the same manner and friendly enough signs to the arrival of interpreters.
Nearco, admiral of the fleet of Alexander and one of his childhood friends in exile, wrote a paper on India, which shows that the Macedonians were contacted primarily, and perhaps only, with the northern Aryan conquerors, still maintained its ancient traditions of nomadic life. The Nysa was so blond it seemed that they were not Indians and Punjab are described as very tall men. However, the community of race had not prevented chronic wars between the kingdoms of the Punjab, as well as among the Greek states, a fact that Alexander knew and he took advantage. The alliance led to the enmity Omfis Poros, its powerful neighbor, whose lands extended east branch of the river follows: the Hydaspes. After organizing an impressive parade, Alexander got ready for battle.
Gala had to visit the local ascetics naked philosophers, as they called their troops. Buddhism was already two centuries and, although its sphere of influence was further east, it is possible that their influence to these Hindus bow to the "middle way", but not crippling mortifications practiced, lived without possessions, fed by community and away from the property. Arrian (which generally uses descriptive NEARCO for fragments over India and Ptolemy for war) says that as a criticism of the ambition of Alexander the ascetics hit the floor with your feet, meaning that only the land that was in contact with the soles of their feet could be yours for very impatient he was. Alexander admired the independence of these philosophers and convinced one of them to be united to his court, despite the recriminations of others. Known by the name of Macedonians Calano, was around the sixties, Strabo says that in his twenties had taken an oath of forty years had expired and he was free to do whatever he wanted. It's a shame not to know what they talked about Calano and Alexander. The strange friendship endured, as evidenced by its dramatic end.
The formal request of allegiance to the challenge caused Poros expected. Alexander Omfis mobilized and paid little attention to the entrance of an enemy more insidious: the monsoon rains.
Alexander was realistic about human enemies, and unlike Demosthenes, never underestimated. But this sense failed him more than once in relation to meteorological factors. The rigorous training that Leonidas childhood submitted it must have been conditioned to think in terms of climate hardships she had to endure more than a real strategic threat. Someone had to inform you that the rain would be very long and heavy, probably said that sometimes soldiers get wet and everyone knew that Alexander would be drenched like them. They had rested after the fierce fighting in the hills (the army had fought Hephaestion also heavy fighting, a fact that was almost overlooked by Ptolemy, who generously elaborated on his own exploits). Any delay would have seemed a sign of weakness. Alexander led his men to the Hydaspes amid increasingly intense downpour. The river had begun to grow. Hephaestion had to transfer drive from the Indo their pontoons, but it was too late to use them, except as rafts. On the opposite shore, at the crossing easier, waiting for the king Poros and his troops, along with two hundred elephants.
Alexander had fought for months with infants, but for a pitched battle and needed the cavalry horses were terrified of the elephants. On the battlefield they could face, the point of greatest danger was the time of landfall. If the elephants were on the edge, terrified horses and throw the rafts would be washed away.
No operation shows more clearly the multifaceted military genius of Alexander the battle of Hydaspes: psychology of war, well tempered nerves, quick reactions to emergencies, resourcefulness, organization and leadership that inspires absolute confidence. Day after day, torrential rain and storms, while the river rose steadily, Alexander played a sublime game of bluff. Large movements of troops ordered to possible crossings and boats and rafts bounced provocatively. Ostentatious built ammunition depots and sent word that he intended to wait for the winter time menguarían precipitation. He managed to not only be amazed Poros their plans, but their quality.Showed all possible signs of indecision. At night his army was marching along the shore, sounding the trumpets and shout for war until Poros and all the elephants came to meet him, then withdrew and let the enemy waiting in the middle of the moisture to dawn. He repeated the maneuver night after night. Poros, a warrior of colossal stature, deep contempt eventually stopped Alexander and the elephants move every time the noise was Macedonian. Alejandro was already in position to act.
He chose a bend located upstream to be protected by a rocky and wooded island. Rafts moved silently to the ground. Craterus stayed in the camp, with a large contingent, ready to cross the elephants as they were busy elsewhere. Alexander came to cross under a powerful storm. Hephaestion and Perdiccas addition, among his officers included Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Seleucus, three future monarchs. They crossed the river with the horses on the rafts. What went wrong to find that the bank was interrupted by a channel of the flood, but were able to cross. At this point revealed a fascinating detail the average height of the Greek war horse, the men were submerged up to his chest and horses just sticking your head. The elephants did not appear.
Poros alerted scouts too late. He sent one of his sons with a column of cars and light horsemen. Were destroyed, a loss that could not afford. Their superiority in infantry was huge, about 30,000 men of Alexander's 6,000, but many had no cavalry, had lost half (his son also was killed) and 2,000 for the 5,000 were Macedonians. Deployed his heavy boots on the ground more solid than found with the cavalry on the flanks, infantry in the center and the wall ahead of elephants, separated by a distance of 30 meters.
Alexander was never a repeat of the last general war tactics. Did not even try to shadow the achievements of Gaugamela. His usual right wing position suited to his plans, but when his weary infantry trudged through the mud, made them rest till it was time for the decisive attack. Seeing the wonderful row of elephants, with arms full of chairs, planned how to make them fight on their behalf.
At first it did not get involved with them. He asked the mounted archers (mostly Thracian) to harass and confuse the left wing of the cavalry, which was then attacked with his own wing of cavalry. Were attacked from behind by Coen, a commander of confidence will be back to refer. Alexander insisted the attack. The cavalry retreated amid infants, behind the elephants. Then the mounted archers, struck down the mahouts and directed their barbs at the bewildered beasts, when elephants began to walk away, it came the phalanx, which pounced on them with javelins and saris. (The sufferings of this intelligent and loyal to the service of man's aggression is one of the shameful tragedies of history.) Pain, panic and stripped of his guides and friends, the elephant shook and crushed the soldiers who Macedonians around while roped in a shrinking field to the crowd confused and desperate. The Indians had just opened a gap and out of there when craters, which in the meantime had crossed the river that no one defended, appeared rested and troops blocked their way. The scene is puzzling: the vast horde of men and animals, the storm tamborileante, the neighing, the barritosy shouts, horns and gongs opposing war of thunder, and the growing quagmire reeking of blood, footprints of elephants and river mud, their faces dark and clear the mud and the rain became inhuman.If we consider a regular license that usually take the chroniclers, Indian casualties were appalling and little fruit salads. It was the last battle of Alexander and, as he had wished, his masterpiece.
The king was Darius Poros. Fought on the backs of his courageous elephant when others fled until, wounded through the arm opening of the chain mail, turned slowly and joined the stampede in the rear. Alexander felt admiration for him and finally sent an ambassador real, unwisely, choose the hated Omfis, which Poros immediately set out to kill. Alejandro Poros sought another emissary and surrendered. The giant looked real winner from above the enemy, who, at his side, looked like a short kid. The interpreter asked how muddy boy wanted to be treated. "I just want to be treated like a king," replied Poros. "It's what I'll do for my own good. Asks for something for yours, "added Alexander. After measuring both the inner and outer height, Poros said they had already said what needed. As paid allegiance, his kingdom was restored and returned to the throne. His loyalty lasted a lifetime. It seems that Alexander, that paid tribute to the brave, even forgot his elephant. Philostratus repeated anecdote that a "temple of the sun" Taxila was a very old elephant, which had previously belonged to King Poros, consecrated by Alexander, who was baptized with the Homeric name of Ajax, the village used to anoint with myrrh and decorate with ribbons that retired hero.
In Taxila, Alexander took care of the funeral rites of another veteran most loved by him.
Alexander founded cities in the plains where the battle was fought on the site which started across the Hydaspes. He placed first the name of Nicea by their victory over the Indians called it the other Bucefalia in memory of his horse Bucephalus, who died there, not because of an injury, but fatigue and aging. The horse was about thirty years and was a victim of exhaustion, until then Alexander had shared with many missions and dangers and never mounted Bucephalus person because another rider could not stand. He was tall in stature and courageous heart.
Romance writers are indebted to Bucephalus considered and provided him a heroic death on the battlefield, both his humanity and the survival instinct would have prevented such Alejandro went into battle with a horse of thirty-one years, probably Ptolemy his lifelong companion, is the source of Arrian in this case. Bucephalus had come a long way from the pastures of Thessaly. Archaeologists are still searching for fragments of his tomb by the shifting channel of the Jhelum.
The wound did not require Poros to bed. Convinced him to sign peace with Omfis and soon left his campaign with new monarch. Alexander was ready to move to the east, toward the sacred Ganges flows into the ocean end, his enthusiasm was heightened by the wonders of real and fantasized Indian: the banyan trees that formed a forest with one tree, the clever elephant tiger skins, pearls, sapphires and rubies, shining fabric dyes, mustaches, beards and rear of the monkeys, fish ponds and shrines.
Not all were successful wonders for their soldiers. Although the Greeks believed that the woman was an imperfect form of man, it seemed too burned alive on the funeral pyre of her husband. Pythons evicted from their burrows by flooding were huge and unattractive. Worse were the poisonous snakes of all sizes to the tiny and lethalkrait, capable of stalking in a shoe or around a door knob. Alexander gathered the best Indian snake charmers and used his medicine, but many men died as victims of appalling suffering. And, as usual, it rained every day.
Alexander was not willing to let the rain this time forced him to miss time. Marched north against an old enemy of Poros who, upon learning of the rehabilitation of rajah, declared war on them both. Alejandro reduced its territory and gave it as a gift to Poros, and thereafter, during the same season, was released to take care of it. Hephaestion went to Poros in order to consolidate the conquest, founding new towns and establish garrisons. No other mission most clearly demonstrated his diplomatic skills and organizational, management had to create the subject recently of a province, to confer with an ancient and powerful opponent, and also assume responsibility for communications vital Alexander. If it was not only the beloved confidante, Macedonian would have brought with them for he had seen the ocean. Indeed, in view of the results, he must throw deeply missed.
Alexander continued the march towards the foothills of Kashmir and its beauty overlooked, concerned only way toward the east. He had been reported (correctly) that the monarch whose retirement bordering the Ganges was a usurper of low caste to which the divided people despised. Their lands were rich and populous and unusually large elephant. Alexander was anxious to move forward. Quickly crossed two rivers, one in full flood, organized a surprise attack on the city of Sangala (exceptionally defended by a wall of wagons), defeated the hostile tribesmen and arranged the affairs of those who recognized its dominance. I was too busy to learn that, under an appearance perfectly disciplined, the morale of his men had been crumbling.
At that point, presumably the soldiers had come to the conclusion that in India it rained nine or ten months a year. In the misfortunes of constant soaking of clothes were added the not adequate. Easily could afford good wool or heavy thread to which they were accustomed, but when they managed to spend only thin cotton of poor quality, without resistance, without protection from the friction of the armature and that just tore touch , a thorn, called this cloth "rags Indians." They were tired of avanzarcon soaked boots through the mud stirred by the column of lame horses, with ranillas shabby and worn the shoes, to pull the wheels of bullock carts that were stuck in the mud of the moldy food, hides wet and daily cleaning of all metal parts to avoid rust. Not keen on the idea of seeing even larger elephants, finding new tribes of warriors to march half a month through the desert that they had been told, separated from the ocean. Still had to cross a river in Punjab Beas. When camped on its banks, met to talk, and a significant number of troops decided not to cross it.
As he learned of the prevailing discontent, Alexander took it seriously. Understood his discomfort and he sympathized with them, but had faced that situation, I always had lifted spirits and had convinced them to follow him. This time not afraid to fail. He called a meeting with officers of the regiments, their speech, which Arrian gives us shows that he knew that these were also lower morale.Alejandro evoked exploits and victories of the past and its rich rewards, he reminded them that he had always shared the hardships and had left them share the spoils. "It's wonderful to live with courage and to die leaving behind everlasting fame," he said. When you reach the infinite ocean, which so wished could go home, then it would be easy, they said with passionate conviction that all was known that the ocean flowed into the Caspian Sea. He reminded them that Heracles attained divinity through their work.
It was probably one of his best speeches, but in this case did not work. The fiercely loyal Coen undecided broke silence. With deep respect and courtesy officers said they had no reason to complain, that the generosity of Alexander did not give rise to it, they were already more than well paid, even for future hardships. And try to speak for the soldiers. Arrian, who was a soldier, it gives a commendable candor and simplicity. Coen spoke of his fatigue (eight years had passed since they left with Alexander), the nostalgia of the wives and children left behind, the many dead. "Most died of disease." In an era without antibiotics, poor water and tropical diseases killed more soldiers than the enemies they never turned them back. Almost certainly old enough to be the father of Alexander and insisted to let his mother see. Authorize him to lead the veterans back home with the spoils that would allow them to live like gentlemen in their homeland, and then driving to young people who would follow in pursuit of new conquests. When Coen completed, the other did not applaud, they began to mourn.
Alexander had no illusions: he had finally stumbled upon a rock. Without despair, sharply up the session with the hope that they reconsider. Nothing happened. Reconvened, told they could leave whenever they wanted and let it move forward with the auxiliary troops, then went to his shop and did not allow anyone to enter. Intellectually, this attitude must have seemed like the angry withdrawal of Achilles, emotionally, given the extraordinary bond that united them, had something feminine, an appeal to the concern of his men for their injuries and illnesses, even for your pain, real as had been, at the death of clit. This time the army was not moved. Alexander held the same position for two days and his men responded in kind: the sulking. On the third day he ordered the sacrificial omens prepare to cross the River. Were guided by Amon or his son, the truth is they were all events. Alexander decided he had to start over.
The anger of the troops were gone. Be returned to his men. They screamed and cried for joy. Many came to his tent, covering it with blessings and said that this, his only defeat was the victory of his kindness. Although the word defeat must have hurt, Alexander kept his style to the Final. The celebration became a celebrated games and horse races, gave the army the twelve Olympian gods and each altar erected a height of a tower (it has been impossible to discover, perhaps had only adobe), which marked the limit your business. He then returned to the new cities of Hephaestion, which could vent to the only man capable of understanding.
The bitterness that accompanied it probably experienced the rest of his days. It is likely that could have crossed the Bay of Bengal, for his information on the route was just right. However, it is impossible to know whether the trip would have provided new insights into the vast land masses of the Far East, which were definitely out of reach, or a feeling of smallness would have shaken his soul. Perhaps the gods were more benevolent than that Alexander meant.
PROGRESS TO BABYLON
The Macedonian Alexander had not counted if they expected an easy march through the Khyber and the peaceful Sogdiana, Alexander said dryly that at least allowed him to leave India instead of escaping it. He had just received reliable information according to which the Indo not flowed into the Nile, but in the infinite ocean. Frustrated in its efforts to reach the sea in the east, it was impossible to prevent it reached the west. That attitude contained more than the thirst of the browser, as most of the "desires" of Alexander, had a practical element. He had been told at the mouth of the Indus opened a sea route leading directly to Persia. In its time it was said that "the sea unites and separates the earth"; wherever there is water, shifts were faster and often less hazardous. There was the possibility of a great trade route that shorten the long and difficult road of the caravans, plagued by bandits, said the coastal road was difficult and the most plausible was the sea. Some western states of Punjab had not yet given allegiance, therefore, would travel down the river to find resistance, crush, reach the ocean and the fleet sent to Persia as he marched at his side to feed it from the ground, looking for future locations of anchorages. He appointed his friend Admiral Nearchus, born in the seafaring island of Crete.
During the journey across the Indo medium Hephaestion march along the left bank, commanding nearly the whole army, elephants and the huge turnout of non-combatants, which was probably Roxana, after another brief encounter. It is unlikely that her husband take her to Beas, through swollen streams and rain and now also the lead in a war galley, a crocodile-infested river in which were known to be dangerous rapids. For nearly a year, Roxana had to spend more time in the custody of Hephaestion with Alexander. Craterus lead an army numerically inferior to the right bank. Hephaestion and Craterus had the same range; rivalries had emerged and exploded a kind of friction, Alexander paved with a mixture of firmness and tact. The separation gave them time to calm things down and we do not hear anything more friction between them.
While the fleet was preparing another name was added to the long list of deaths from disease that he had spoken Coen: himself. No doubt by then was so endemic cholera in India and in our days. Coen had merely echo the discomfort of the troops, but not its instigator, and Alexander was offered a funeral with full honors.
The boarding was a show that was recorded in the memory of Nearco. Were solemnly dismissed Poros, whom Alexander had not conceded a single satrapy, but a monarchy tax on all gains from Taxila and the Beas. Although there were about 80 warships, the entire fleet of 2,000 gathered miscellaneous ships. The horses traveled on rafts, pontoons probably Hephaestion, decked out, for the Indians, who had never seen a horse on board, was a prodigy. Nearco mentions the names of the patriarch, commanders of the ships processional fees (coxswains were the true masters) and enjoyed the privilege of adorning: the majority of Macedonians was of high rank, including Hephaestion, who had to meet later with his contingent, and Ptolemy. In addition to several Greeks, there was, perhaps significantly, a certain Bagoas, "son of Farnuces" (as he writes NEARCO) was not the young favorite, but a Persian prince. Farnuces, brother of the wife of Darius and brother of Estateira, had fallen into the Granicus. This met the cousin of the bride of Alexander, the only Persian who was honored in this manner, demonstrates that perhaps he had already begun to forge their dynastic plans.
Before boarding the morning, Alexander made libations to the spirits of the river, Heracles and the gods used to honor. At first light sounded the trumpets and singers salomasorganizaron the rowers, and the high river banks returned the cadence and the Indians who were clustered on the shore, fascinated by the show, followed the ships for miles, still singing.
Alejandro made high on the way to receive tributes from various cities that have already promised. Finally came the dreaded confluence of the Aquesines Hydaspes, which was deep and narrow gorge. "Even from the distance is seen the tumult of the waves." Startled halted rowers and coxswains who remaran shouted as never before to prevent the rapid dragged them through. They managed to overcome them (probably landed on the horses) at the cost of several broken oars and of a collision, which saved part of the crews. Alexander set up camp, ordered the ships to continue moving forward and brought the troops stationed on both sides. Further spread of the stubborn land mali, who had challenged their emissaries. As I was not able to be delayed, declined to offer second business. Crater left by the river, by the base and non-combatants, and advanced in a pincer movement, sending five days before and Hephaestion Ptolemy asking that linger three days. Alexander and his men prevented the beaten path and launched a short and painful race through the desert, the sector in which they least expected. The cavalry surprised the men of the first city in Mali are working the fields and razed. Alexander was as eager as their men to leave India.
If at any time, hoped that the example would end the severe resistance, was wrong. All I did was to become even more combative. He was in the territory of the Brahmins and religious hostilities grew.
A new and savage campaign was the last thing his men waited. At this point the withdrawal would have been tantamount to suicide, however, as troops took by assault the walled city after another, Alexander noted that lost enthusiasm. From their perspective, there was only one answer to that attitude: an example. When the soldiers retreated to a gap, and only saved Alejandro resisted until his men were embarrassed and fought at his side. Once the gap forced many Indians were burned in their homes. Those who fled were destroyed by Ptolemy and Hephaestion, although many took refuge in the main city, which stood on the site of modern Multan.
Advance with the cavalry, Alexander managed to contain a much higher quota intercepted him until he reached the phalanx and completed the rout. Then about the city. Since this was the last pocket of resistance, sent back to the base and Ptolemy Hephaestion. The second head of Alexander was Perdiccas and in this case divided the forces with him to assault the city on two sides. (Though absent, Ptolemy continues to point out that his hated rival was late for the mission.) When Alexander was able to open a door of the outer wall, the mali fled to the inner citadel. Chased through the streets to get to the climbing walls and ordered immediately.
Although the soldiers took the scales, Alexander had the impression that placed them without enthusiasm. He took one of them, leaned against the wall and ran, protecting the head shield and without stopping to see if his troops were. When you reach the battlements, used the shield to shoot down the men who were over, climbed the wall and cleared an area with the sword.Three officers went running to his aid Peucestas, Leonato and opens, a hero whose deeds rather than tested were recognized with double pay. Seeing them on the wall, become targets of all projectile weapons, the soldiers crowded into the scale. The magic of Alexander returned to work, although in this case too much power: the scale is overloaded broke before someone managed to upload. The quartet was helpless and the enemy had already recognized Alexander, "not only by the splendor of their arms, but superhuman courage." The sector of the wall on which were within the reach of missiles from the towers and adjacent bottom, then stood inside a mound. Alexander jumped solo out to the mound, the very heart of the enemy.
Arian giving its reasons, so typical that it is possible that he transmitted it to Ptolemy or Nearco. "He felt that staying where I was at serious risk without winning anything worthy of fame, if jumping into the wall, perhaps frighten the Indians and had better be at risk his life collecting face, after doing great deeds worthy of be heard by the men of the future. "certainly scared the Indians, who moved away after it killed several in combat, from the Indians threw away arms and could only restore Alejandro stones. In the meantime the brave fellow jumped up and stood beside her. Peucestas carried the shield of Homeric Troy, that was obviously their usual function, although it is the first time we hear it. At the time managed to cover the shield to Alexander, he protected a man who was near death. The mali was bulky and used powerful bows, a one meter arrow had pierced his corselet of Alexander and had been stuck in the lung.
Still continued to fight and kept up clinging to a tree that had been used to cover himself. The moves triggered a heavy bleeding and pneumothorax, lung collapse drilled, when he fell unconscious. "The cut air mixed with blood flowing," says Arrian, it is a wise observation about the bloody bubbles are seen in this type of injury, which is usually fatal even if no efforts are made later. The brave Abrea died of another "crush certain" that pierced his skull.
Meanwhile, Macedonian frantically climbed on the shoulders of his colleagues rely on what they found. At the top the wall they saw the lifeless body and threw it groans and shrieks became ardent battle cries. Blackness of anger, pain and shame, which razed the citadel an apocalyptic plague, killing all those found, including children.
With the tongue of the arrow still stuck in the lung, Alexander was removed from the heat of battle. Quintus Curtius Rufus The cultivated granted a brief and lucid speech which encourages its friends to have surgery. The doubts of these had to be real, it was necessary to open the wound to remove the tongue, and was more than likely kill him extraction on the spot. Alejandro was covered with the thorax. He drew his knife and feebly waved sawed since the barbed shaft of the arrow would not pass through the hole in the shell. He obeyed, later said Perdiccas was he who, at the request of Alexander, opened one side of the body. Someone (probably Ptolemy!) Said that a doctor performed the operation, but the most likely Peucestas hero. Extracted the tab and inevitably produced a new hemorrhage, the blood loss, pain and shock caused a natural anesthetic and Alexander again lost consciousness.
When returning from the carnage they heard that Alexander was still alive, the soldiers stood guard around his store day and night until they were informed that he was sleeping. For now, its amazing constitution had triumphed and, like Achilles, he paid with his life the price of glory. Almost certainly, had a chipped rib, it was clear that had punctured lung, punctured the pleura on both walls, and lacerated intercostal muscles. As you heal, those damaged layers, a mobile typically be covered with hard scar tissue adhesions and irregular. Arian, which in this case is the only source of reliable, does not say which side was wounded Alexander. Anyway, since then notice the wound with each movement of the arm and with each deep breath, three years after injury that would kill him.
Meanwhile, as the camp's hopes were reborn, the army of the base received the news of his death. Although sent reassurances, no one believed them, the soldiers assumed that the high command conceal dreadful news. Not only waited a widespread Indian uprising but, as they were Macedonians, explode immediately assumed that mutual annihilation struggles to seize power. Anyway, we know not stoked rivalries between craters and Hephaestion, it must have been too distressed to worry about it. It was impossible to hide the situation to Alejandro, who immediately decided that the army would have to see if anything except their physical presence, convinced him he was still alive. With an injury to the lung than a week still not healed, it was moved to the river, about fifteen kilometers to make the trip by water. By moving upstream movement of the oars had to disengage, but arrived a few days later. Nearco describes the scene:
As the ship that carried the king approached the camp, he ordered them to remove the poop from the stern for all to see. Even then the men hesitated and thought the ship was carrying the corpse of Alexander until the end, when anchored [the sense of representation had left], Alexander raised his hand to the crowd present cheered and some raised their hands skyward while others headed in the direction of Alexander, in his astonished joy wept uncontrollably. Some members of the royal guard approached a stretcher as he landed, but Alexander ordered that he be given a horse. When mounted and everyone saw the army in full clapped incessantly and clear the banks and adjacent to the river echoed the cheers. Alexander dismounted near the store so that the army saw him walking. All the men crowded around her and touched her hands some other knee and a third group the clothes, others just stared at him from close range and blessed in its wake, some threw garlands of flowers Indian at the time were in bloom.
Physically, this gesture had to leave exhausted, emotionally had to be a supreme enjoyment. Anyway, I had the shock of his life and, in some sense, officials blame him. He defended a rustic Boeotian lieutenant, in the crude language of his people, he said that the actions are the measure of man. Alexander expressed his gratitude. But the unconditional surrender of all the mali was more solid comfort, out of respect for his courage or his troops terror. He also surrendered his powerful neighbors, oxidracos, against whom Alexander had not struck a single blow. Certainly impressive given hearings, sitting, envoys who were unaware that he was weak as a child and was spitting blood at the slightest effort. The cold winter relative contributed to their prolonged convalescence. At no time left the command of the campaign. As he was able to move, continued to move downstream and along the way received embassies of their new territories, colorful gifts offered princely pearl tigers bred and domesticated all mime.
He also received the visit of Oxyartes, his stepfather. Some soldiers nostalgic Bactrian Alexandria had tried to desert when they came rumors that the king was dead. Probably the real reason for the visit was to see whether Oxyartes her daughter was pregnant. Since his departure from Taxila, except for a brief interlude, Alexander had been at war in conditions that would allow him to take his wife and had suffered an injury so recently that was not yet able to take an active sex life. Oxyartes satrapy expanded to the limit of the Hindu Kush, with nominal control of the territories not yet submitted that were downstream. Obviously, the fittings would be commanded by Macedonians. It was not possible to install it far beyond the court. It is likely that Alexander was already considering a second marriage even more regal.
He reorganized his troops while recovering at a camp below the confluence of Indus and Chenab. Despite the injury-despite-indeed because of the warnings about a dangerous route, was chosen to lead the march coastal fleet NEARCO supported. It offered an irresistible combination of value, challenge and adventure. It was said that Cyrus the Great and Semiramis, the warrior queen of Assyria, there were serious setbacks which left barely alive. As Alexander had laid their plans carefully, he hoped that his expedition succeed and pass the river safely. Anyway, must be light and mobile and columns would be supplied by supplies sent from the base.
It was impossible to move the main army with its elephants, its masses of heavy transport, veterans exhausted by the passage of time, the wounded able to walk and all kinds of non-combatants. In addition to the harsh conditions, there was no chance of feeding them. A mission Craterus it fell back to Persia with the bulk of the army and seek to minimize suffering. Roxana once again came under the custody of a commander, only women of the privates, able to endure the unspeakable, his men would follow along the coast. Arrian says that the whole contingent was transported on rafts up the left bank of the river-operation that have lasted weeks, because on that side of the march was less difficult and more peaceful tribes. This maneuver clearly demonstrates that wanted to go to the side of the river to Taxila, where they can collect the necessary supplies before boarding the Khyber, the main route that Alexander had worked so hard to secure. However, it is assumed that the Macedonian forces launched this huge, slow and very vulnerable advance directly to the north (away from the river), into territory never trod by his troops, without maps, mountainous and partly desert: the path through the steps fine and Bolan to Kandahar, where-as recently as the eighteenth century, the Persian army went serious trouble. The "land of the arachotianos"-which, according to Arrian, Craterus crossed-is poorly defined and probably came to the Indus. Craterus and his forces arrived late for the appointment Persian, but in excellent condition, as witnessed by an indirect route and less bleak. After his departure along the river, Hephaestion remained the second undisputed head of Alexander, a category that continued for the remainder of his life.
The last obstacle that stood between Alexander and the sea was lower Indus region and its ancient delta, which has now been displaced. One of the rajas, Musicano, had been reluctant to submit, but he did as Alexander arrived, the second Rajah showed resistance only, the third Sambo of Sindh, had given allegiance in advance, hoping to see destroyed Musicano , his hated enemy.Angered and alarmed to find that saving the life Musicano, and spurred by the Brahmins, Sambo rebelled, took fright and fled. His family gave up and blamed the Brahmins, whom he hanged Alejandro. In the midst of these operations, Musicano violated the treaty and took up arms, it is likely that Brahmins have their own declared a holy war. As always after a betrayal, Alexander attacked àoutrance: they took by assault the cities, killed the men and enslaved women. The use of poisoned weapons by the Indians worsened the conflict. These territories were vital to the ongoing communications coastal and Alexander was determined to secure them. (He was unsuccessful.) Although the country did not know that in these battles take place any personnel feat. He must first experience the loss of that boundless energy that all life had taken for granted. Over the following months would need all the energy he had left. Craterus the infirm that led back home, many had to be in better condition than the monarch.
Once subjected the country to convert Hephaestion took Pattala-mainly in the city a fortified port. No doubt he met with Alexander for his long-awaited visit to the ocean. It is likely that the young Bagoas do the same, because Alexander did not escort him away with craters. Dancer who never stopped practicing, Bagoas had a physical resistance would be very helpful in the journey.
The real flotilla sailed by the northern branch of the delta, but the monsoon blowing again and ran into a gale. The ships ran aground and wrecked several, the natives fled, and at first it was impossible to find native guides. As expected, there was a marvel even more frightening than the storm: the waters retreated. As I had only known inland seas, did not know that for the first time in their lives attending the ebb tide. Since Greece is a seismic zone, surely some had heard of the grim retreat preceding the tsunami. After several hours of trouble the waters returned and remained within the above limits. Though the gods were kind, no one knew enough to moor the ships aground, who suffered severe shock. In the end, found helmsmen and repairs are completed, Alexander went to an island off the coast, where he made a sacrifice to the gods, he said, had ordered him to Amon. Finally went to sea. They killed two bulls and thrown into the water in honor of Poseidon, along with the libations, Alexander offered up the golden bowls in which he served.
However, only half of the event was that Alexander hoped to hold. It should have been the eastern ocean and the shore end of the world-the best reward of shortness of breath and chronic pain on one side of the body. Those were the days of his birthday: he had turned thirty-one years.
As Alexander had planned the march due to the sea route, the interests of the fleet were a priority. The Greek ships avoid traveling at night, even in waters known, in these, where even the stars were unknown, sailing was unthinkable. We have already mentioned their inability to move food for a period longer than a few days, hence the need to stock up from earth and protect them when they had run aground. The march was forced to follow the coast instead of looking inside most direct route. While blowing, the monsoon would be adverse to the ships and, consequently, the march was to begin in early fall. Although Alexander had warned about the desert conditions, probably his Indian experience led him to expect much relief this season than they really enjoy: days and cooler water that filled the snowy mountain torrents, as yet supplied the rivers of Punjab.He held the rest of the summer in operations against the tribes north of the old mouth of the Indus and the site of its current drain to ensure the new ports. This village-the-oreitianos came under the command of a Macedonian satrap, also responsible for preparing a train of supplies for the expedition. As it departed, a rebellion broke out and the tyrant was assassinated. No doubt the provisions oreitianos sacked because Alexander did not receive anything and only later gave an explanation of what happened.
The members of the fleet, which takes us through uncharted waters, were encouraged to learn that Nearchus, one of the best monarch friends ventured to commands ... thanks to its impatient insistence, as he himself wrote. As events unfolded, the fleet was the best thing happened. Their hardships were terrible and great dangers, Alexander did not get the food that was intended to send or wells that had been proposed to open. To survive, the sailors became pirates raided the modest dwellings of the aboriginal Paleolithic to seize their food scarce, the trip ended up sunburned, emaciated, covered in salt and turned into unrecognizable gross, but almost all survived . A healthy twelve NEARCO his remaining years. Arrian says that, from all sources, only NEARCO said that Alexander did not know all the difficulties of the journey. And who better Nearco was must have known: he was the co-command of Alexander, who had planned the expedition, the arrangements for food storage, water stations, beacons and meeting points. Nearco almost certainly right: if Alexander had foreseen the horrors that awaited him, would not have allowed the camp followers would join the march, let alone women and children of soldiers. Both the nearest Asia as the most distant and should be planted in the unmarked graves of these poor victims, not all of whom had chosen his fate, many urban women declines were led by men of alien races who did not speak a single word of their language and gave birth to their children after the first bush to die or move forward with difficulty. However, neither frost nor Bactrian Indian fevers had inflicted losses they would suffer.
The army launched with trumpet blasts. Phoenician traders followed him because they had heard rumors about the existence of spices, one of his most prized commodities. At first they were rewarded with lots of myrrh and nard, which perfumed the air with the touch of the feet of the soldiers. Had already been interned by inhospitable terrain, which were as sharp thorns that could remove a man. It soon became and remained true desert without food convoys appear. As was agreed, Alexander sent detachments in search of ports, water and fodder. What they found would only have served the unborn science of anthropology, as subsequently agreed Nearchus, coastal residents were "more beasts than men", not only had the head but the body covered with hair, rather than tools using stones, ate raw fish and drinking wells digging ferns with fingernails like claws: it was probably an isolated group of Neanderthals. When they found inland a few provisions, Alejandro fulfilled the promises made to the fleet and sent to shore a cargo that was to be marked by a beacon, during the journey the convoy troops opened hungry seals and ate every last crumb . The officers reported on the needs of the soldiers, Alexander accepted the explanation and did not punish anyone. It became increasingly clear that the ships would have to fend for themselves, the Macedonian had enough problems with those who were in charge. Sixty days passed thus: the most frightening of his life.
They came to a wealth of soft sand hills and accumulated by the wind, "in which they sank as if stepped on wet mud or deep snow." Horses and mules sank more than men and spent even more difficulty because they had to climb down the furrows under a blazing sun. The fall did not result in cooler temperatures. Water was very distant intervals, the scouts announced the distance of each place, although advancing at night, often before dawn arrived and had to go and out or die. The mules and horses that fell from exhaustion were devoured on the spot and soon after the slaughter began to feed. Although it was reported, Alexander turned a blind eye. The criticisms that are made manifest itself in his conduct. Like after the murder of clit, she could not afford the luxury of isolation.
The loss of the beasts of burden and useless cars had a painful consequence: there was no transportation for the sick or for sunstroke. It was impossible for men to carry them were barely able to walk. Once fallen, merely waiting for death "most sank into the sand as men lost at sea. Many were killed by drinking wildly when given with water, solace and defiled. Later, Alexander chose to camp at some distance from water sources, although not until after the worst disaster occurred on the march. They found the bed of a broad river running by the summer a trickle of water and camped on the sands. The rain that fell in the distant hills caused a sudden flood. Instead of producing adequate relief, proved lethal. Alexander had declared that it would take a night off, women and children survivors had gone to sleep near the river bed, without warning, the wall of water swept over the middle. They spent the next day under a scorching heat to the task of searching for drowning in order to provide a minimum funeral rite. Alexander may also have drowned if it had not been awake when tired, his store was washed away and lost everything he owned, so he had to rely on their friends to for a change of clothes. Definitely needed the small comforts that faded, very soon start to affect deprivation. Although he could be certain that he had a good mount, under these conditions could not take a ride all night and all the responsibilities fell on him. Luckily, had led to Hephaestion. I wish he had lived and written his memoirs! The value of your support, the opposition never recognized him, is evident in the honors which Alexander granted later.
The column continued to advance with difficulty, were falling and dying, screaming their names if there was a close friend who could hear them before the vultures descend. Despair killed as much as a plague. Until then, Alexander had ridden a horse and at that moment must have seemed more than enough. He did what his personality forced him to do: he dismounted and led the way on foot.
According to Arrian, he did "with great difficulty and as best he could." This act places the incident in history, as it is unlikely that this observation was made in earlier times. Arrian adds that the troops dismounted to more easily support the effort to see that everyone shared in short: he removed all the officers and was not willing to be the exception to the rule. During one of the long walks that lasted well into the heat of the day, he was "very distressed by thirst," as expected: the man who breathing panting can not close the mouth to prevent the dust.It should also be severely affected by pain, but neither mentioned it. His plight was evident when some shooters found a tiny pond in the middle of a rocky ground, the liquid collected in a helmet and quickly offered it to Alexander. It was an act of devotion to the Macedonian responded in kind: he thanked them and pulled the water. Arrian says it was a positive gesture and share it for all who witnessed it. The story is detailed and factual, both Ptolemy and Aristobulus were part of the expedition and received the information below Nearco. Among the biographers there the strange tendency to assume that this is a story passed on by the fact that crossing the Oxus a similar incident occurred. Rather one could say that the second supports the first. Oxo's incident had to do, basically, with his usual attitude. It has been repeated ad infinitum, once overcome rivals, Alexander was still his own enemy, and the Makran desert was almost forced to. Oxo In the overall situation is less extreme and temporary hardships, not because it sheds water very soon there will be enough for everyone, but sends it to the children it was intended, it's about a young man who behaves as as a good officer. In Makran remained standing half-dead, and breathing meant a real condition, could not hide the fact that those who saw it. Soldiers die as cattle, can be said that because of their miscalculation, they see you do not want to accept privileges that might have saved the lives of his men to kill him but the situation can not fail to live up to its legend . It is the typical attitude of Alexander. If there is something indisputable about him is that he valued his pride more than his life.
Fortunately, in addition maintained the sense of pride. Sort officers to dismount, a fact that made him feel compelled to walk, was much more than a gesture. Guided mounted instead of a few horses are kept fit and able to work in emergencies. The expedition owed its survival to this provision. A violent dust storm changed the contours of the area and annulled the landmarks by which the guidelines were aimed. They knew not guided by the stars and concluded they were lost. In that moment of desperation, Alejandro clearly knew that if they were doomed laps. The sea was left and could reach it guided by the sun. Personally led the reconnaissance team with the last horses in condition. Man after man was dropping frames when strength failed them in the heat of midday. Alexander came to sea with the last five. Near the beach there was a patch green dug and found fresh water. They conveyed the news to the army, whose ordeal came to an end. From there, the guides knew the way and soon arrived in occupied territory.
Alexander had improved the annals of disastrous Cyrus and Semiramis, who, according to the reports of Nearchus, had the ambition to overcome, and anyway, not surpassed by much. Although he managed to reach more survivors, no longer a disaster. What were two factors: inadequate information about the route, a fact referred Nearchus, and disruption of supplies. The Macedonian satrap in charge of the food had died, contingency when he learned that Alexander had him arrested. No more scapegoats sought for the rest of the disaster, both during and after the march bore all the problems. Not even blamed the gods.
Finally got around abundant supplies and once in Carmania saw to it that his men were entertained, amused and to rest.All sources speak of a Dionysian advance toward the capital, with free drinks at every stop, also argue that Alexander went with his friends on a stage decorated in purple and pulled by two trucks. Apostille Arian Ptolemy and Aristobulus omitted this last fact, however, would be typical of Alexander thus concealing the fact that he barely had the strength to ride a horse. If the arrow had left malia some hope to grow old, the truth is that the shot, as water on the sands of Makran.
The only respite he had was purely physical. Soon learned that while some loyal satraps gathered or prudent horses, camels and provisions for it, others were convinced he would not return and outrageously abused their powers. Alexander heard the witnesses and was ready to dispense justice, while maintaining the holidays and found time to participate. To this fact we owe the extraordinary testimony to the popularity he had gained through their behavior in the desert, despite how much his men had suffered. Plutarch (supported by the narrator of anecdotes Ateneo) states that he attended a dance competition in which Bagoas-that should get in shape quickly, won the prize. With the ball gown still set, Bagoas crossed the stage towards Alexander, who had him sit at his side. "To which the Macedonians clapped loudly and asked to kiss, until finally in his arms and kissed him affectionately." This story speaks well of Bagoas, which certainly should steer clear of anything that arouses hatred to the royal favorites, and is even more explicit about the deep affection felt for Alexander and his indulgence in this regard included values, even his eunuch "barbaric".
Around the same time was presented with his army Craterus multiracial, elephants, Roxana and several rebel satraps or despotic stopped en route. For serious injustices to his people, Alexander condemned to death a Persian and a Macedonian-its standards passed the difficult test of equal treatment. Arrian says that the main reason that his government was accepted by the various conquered peoples responded to "never let those who entrusted the task of governing mistreated."
These precautions were trivial compared with its concern for the fleet, which was still missing. That march was undertaken to provide it and protect it and had failed to neither one nor the other was obsessed by the idea that all those lives, among whom was that of an old and intimate friend, to join the computation of victims. Finally, a local ruler came running to give the news that the fleet was beached, but in his eagerness to be the first to arrive and collect the reward, the governor not to render aid or transport, so that no one appeared. Angered by these false hopes, Alexander made to arrest the governor. Nearco and a few friends moved as best they could and were aided by some explorers sent to expect that at first mistook them ragged tramps. He came forward and were brought before Alexander, who embraced and began to NEARCO mourn, convinced they were the only survivors. When he learned that the entire fleet was safely returned to mourn with joy and said that since his downfall have annulled his previous good fortune for him that news was more valuable than the conquest of all Asia. Few Greeks cultivated the Roman gravitas and Alexander was not among them, however, the scene suggests the nervous discharge of a weakened system that has stood almost unbearable tension.
He held a thanksgiving feast with a procession. Hailed as a champion and covered with garlands, Nearco rode in the front row next to the king. Among the awards and promotions, Multan Peucestas-that Alexander had protected with the shield of Troy received a small but important post of royal guard until he could give his real reward: the satrap of Persia, in the hands of a usurper Alexander still had to face. With most of the army, Hephaestion was sent to Susa by the pleasant coastal route to provide a break even more to the men of the desert. If any, the rest of Alexander was over. He rode into the real of Persia: The Pasargadae of Cyrus the Great, Persepolis, Darius the Great. The sources did not specify whether or not carried Roxana. He was accompanied by Indian philosopher Bagoas and Calano, in their own way, each had to show his worth to the desert ordeal. In Pasargadae, the satrap of Media brought before such a Baraxis Alexander, perhaps a relative of the royal house, in the absence of Macedonia was proclaimed king. Alexander did hanged and executed several governors who had mistreated his subjects. Its severity did not influence the popular tradition, in the Persian romance qualifies with the epithet of "injunctive relief repairman." However, this approach was used by propagandists Athenians and once again the gullible Quintus Curtius Rufus, collated the evidence first hand, shows to what lengths they were willing to go.
In his memoirs, the architect Aristobulus tells Alejandro how impatient he was to visit the tomb of Cyrus just conquer Asia. It was probably done while in the nearby Persepolis, as mandated Aristobulus the inventory of its contents: it was a typical Achaemenid royal burial, with a golden sarcophagus mounted on a platform and surrounded by rich offerings burial, jewelry, weapons and sumptuous costumes. Alexander continued to practice the traditional sacrifice of a horse per month to the spirit of the hero. Most of the mausoleum is still standing and bears witness to the accurate description given by Aristobulus. As a precaution against grave robbers, the builders shook inning after entering the sarcophagus. On his return Alexander found raped and pillaged, and even pulled the sarcophagus fragments to make it happen and scattered bones of Cyrus. Alexander would have honored even as the enemy (probably would have preferred to Darius), this grave insult to their ideal hero (and that of Xenophon) infuriated him. The guardians of the sanctuary magicians claimed to know nothing, nor any data were extracted under torture. (Some time after the crime was traced to a Macedonian.) Aristobulus describes in detail the instructions he received to put everything the same as it had been the first time including narrow that adorned the stage, and then board up the entrance. A later generation of thieves had to dig under the threshold.
Alexander went on to Persepolis, which led to his presence at the tyrant usurper Orxines. He had taken over the death of the tyrant and his subjects legitimate to Alexander accused him of "kill many Persians without cause" and to plunder temples and royal tombs, the tombs of Persepolis probably carved in the rock. Orxines was convicted and hanged; Peucestas happened, I was totally Persianized, spoke fluent Persian and enjoyed high esteem.
Clearly, Quintus Curtius Rufus' version was hatched at a lot away from Persia. However, slander is often based on a fragment of truth and may be true that Bagoas participated in the trial of Orxines, had met and was able to identify the treasure palace of Darius III, some of which contained perhaps among the goods looted from the tombs.The story of Quintus Curtius Rufus runs along the following path: Orxines, satrap noble and virtuous, endowed with the spirit of public good, takes care of Persia during the absence of Alexander, when he returns, Orxines introduces himself and pays homage to a succession of great gifts for him and his entourage ... except Bagoas, who sends a message that says that does not honor the sexual perverts. Following this approach a typical oriental royal favorite, the naive and trusting Orxines expect a reward for his honesty. Shortly after opening the tomb of Cyrus (the text is assumed that for the first time) and, following the best traditions of Sparta or republican Rome, we find that the deceased king was buried with only his old scimitar, bow and arrows. Captivated by Bagoas, Alexander believes the lie by which Darius had told him that the tomb was filled with gold, gold itself which is the source of the wealth of Orxines. Convicted on this evidence, when they take it, Bagoas approaches him, and said contemptuously Orxines in Persia is a novelty that a eunuch rule. In the same court in which less than two decades ago, a grand vizier eunuch had held the supreme power and killed two monarchs! It is not easy to trace in such detail the process of labeling of Alexander.
In Persepolis, Alexander expressed his regret to see the palace ruins blackened by fire. No longer must have seemed the height ideal for a celebration of success. Getting off to Susa was waiting another incineration. Calano, that in India there was never ill, suffered a serious internal disease, perhaps cancer. Impatient with a long-delayed final which disturbed his composure, he called Alexander who might die by his own choice. The Macedonian tried to convince him otherwise, but it was impossible, knowing that if he refused, they ENGINEERING Calano to achieve this, Alexander decided to make it big. Upon reaching Susa Ptolemy commissioned to erect a magnificent pile. They marched the cavalry and royal elephants. Calano, who was too weak to ride the horse that gave him, he was transferred on stretchers, while singing hymns to their gods. Alexander had given him would burn rich funeral offerings to him, but Calano distributed them among friends and disciples, for in death no longer needed possessions in life. He told those present to rejoice rather than weep and lay on the pyre. When lit, Alexander ordered the sounding of trumpets and sang the trumpeting elephants real, but it was necessary to drown out any scream, it burned Calano undeterred. Arrian says that Alexander was troubled by virtue of friendship and the others "did not experience anything but a big shock." Anyway, back drunkenness suggests a strong reaction. As usual, Alexander was able to go to bed on their own feet (or even more hostile sources say they had to take it), although more than thirty men were killed "in cold", probably because they ended up lying on the tables in a winter night.
Both Arrian and Plutarch refer to an anecdote which friends came to say goodbye to Calano when he approached the pyre. The Indian did not want to say goodbye to Alexander and said they would meet again in Babylon.
Nearco and reuniting with the fleet, which arrived by river, was a happy celebration, the members of that odyssey full of suffering merited a festival. They handed out awards to the value in India and Hephaestion was elevated above the so valued and named chiliarco Craterus boss in terms Persians, Grand Vizier. Until then, no charges carry absolute precedence after Alexander, the Macedonian had saved the previous rivalries Craterus saying that King was a friend of Alexander and Hephaestion.However, the shared ordeal leaves traces in any human relationship and this tribute no doubt echoed the sentiments of Alexander after the march through the desert. The fact that craters accept it without resentment is reflected in the absolute confidence that Alexander had dispensed to the end of his days.
In Susa satraps fired several more that were not trusted, when he found that those executed had committed crimes or were too dangerous. Overall, the replacements were more often instead of Persians Macedonians, men who had demonstrated the ability to command. Although the elections were correct, soon disappeared Greek hopes that Alexander discard the "barbaric customs." Powered by a kind of creative urge, like many men of genius short-lived, Alexander was thinking of a new generation in which such distinctions disappear.
Before leaving for the east, had left the palace of Susa to Sisigambis, the queen mother, and her grandchildren. The boy, who at that time was about fourteen years, no longer appears in history, surely he joined the Iranian nobility during the wars of succession. His two sisters were of marriageable age. Alexander married in a ceremony the largest such that thereafter it could only be regarded as his principal wife. The ceremony was much more than a wedding, unlike the burning of Persepolis, was a real proclamation. Other eighty pairs shared the celebration key officials and friends who gave generous gifts addition, girls from families of more lineage of Persia.
Roxana undoubtedly was in town. It is not known what he said but after the death of Alexander, wrote his thoughts with blood. Bide his time. Neither the couple's relatives chosen or elected brides objected: enough with the will of Alexander. His own girlfriend was called Estateira (name that came from the mother) or Barsine, sources differ. Her sister was given to Dripetis Hephaestion, Alexander wanted to exist between family ties through their children. Craterus married a niece of Darius, Ptolemy, a daughter of Artabazus; Nearchus, having a granddaughter of the union between the Greek general Memnon and the other Barsine, alleged (though unlikely given his age) mother of doubtful pretender . This list shows that at all times the children of Espitámenes-dead guerrilla leader lived under the protection of Alexander. Espitámenes's daughter was given to Seleucus, who, unlike most others, did not leave Alexander's death or a marriage rule for more convenient, this woman became queen and the mother of a dynasty.
Cares, the chamberlain of the court, wrote a book of stories entitled Tales of Alexander among the surviving fragments containing the story of the wedding banquet. On the large stage in front of the palace had erected a pavilion of 800 meters in diameter. The columns were 20 cubits high (as the elbow was variable, columns probably stood about nine feet) and were jeweled and golden. Sustained gold bars side curtains with pictures. There were one hundred couches with silver feet for the main guests, the carpet was purple, scarlet and gold. Arrian states that the betrothal took place in the manner Persian chairs for the couple set up according to rank, after the toasts, the bride came and each took a seat next to her boyfriend who took her hand and kissed, the first being Alexander. The army and less important guests were entertained on the outdoor patio. Alejandro even provided the bridal chamber, to bed frames of silver plated (the real golden age).According Cares, the banquet lasted five days and performed the most famous exponents of the arts. Alexander returned to honor the actor Zetalo, who once had run such risks for him in Caria. The subjects allies sent gold crowns to the tune of 15,000 talents, probably those masterpieces were cast to deal with a massive spending even more.
Aristobulus says that Alexander was also associated with the oldest royal line of Oco to marry his daughter Parisatis. If so, it is unlikely that the wedding was held at the same time unless the held the day after the feast. Alejandro was sensitive to ridicule and the only real precedent for simultaneous bigamy had sat Dionysius of Syracuse, and often unpopular tyrant lampooned. Ptolemy, who was part of the bridal group, does not say a word about such engagement. Anyway, do not understand why he invented Aristobulus.
The proclamation of the wedding was at full scale. Alejandro marriage regularized and he gave all the soldiers who took concubines Persian: about 10,000. A few were married in Macedonia, either way, legitimized the children of such unions, which felt under his protection.
His relationship with Barsine-Estateira even less is known than that held by Roxana. The only established fact is that the next year, when Alexander died in Babylon, Roxana was there while he was in Susa Estateira. Recalling his small stature, it should be noted that Darius, very tall man, had married his sister, therefore it is likely that family trait is transmitted. Roxana's name means "little star".
Among the childhood friends of Alexander rewarded with brides of more lineage was absent a face: Harpalus had fled. During the absence of Alexander, had traveled to Babylon with the huge collection of treasures and had taken over the mint. It was an esthetician and discovered inside a love for the abundance similar to that of Alexander, the difference in the possession of money must have seemed trivial considering that there was so much. Rather than oppressing them, had annoyed the people, who resented having to pay semi-divine honors to two Athenian courtesans which put forth Harpalus like royals. We do not know if she was Alexander's death or, simply, with your indulgence. They had been close friends, and Harpalus remained at his side during his disgrace and exile, an attitude that Alexander never forgot. Despite his huge embezzlement, through confession and charm, the sinner would probably only suffered a mild punishment if they had kept their senses. Lost its way when he learned of the purge of the satraps unfair and fled to Greece with 6,000 talents in cash, 30 boats, most likely purchased in Asia Minor and 6,000 Greek mercenaries from the same source. He had previously sent ships with grain to Athens to alleviate the shortage and that would have to rely on the goodwill of the city, had developed a crazy plan to fund a rebellion. He spent more than 300 talents in bribes to politicians (Demosthenes stayed with the majority, which led to his subsequent fall). After complicated intrigues, the Athenians were opposed to the rebellion but kept the money. Olympia, more formidable enemy than Alexander himself, ordered the arrest of Harpalus, who fled by boat with his men, one of which killed him in Crete, probably to keep the gold. If Alexander had made the slightest effort, it probably would have stopped and the trial of Harpalus not have been more than a formality, despite the disappointment, no doubt still lingered from the old gratitude. However, the offering ofAgen, a satirical farce Harpalus and his Kingdom of God, with a twist to the Athenians and Alexander as deus ex machina, by a playwright of the court was not unwelcome, because some fragments still survive.
After the sharing of gifts, money was plentiful in Susa and traders living of the soldiers saw fit to pay their ruinous debts. The troops had been with the wealth and recklessness of the buccaneers. Now they had problems and one of his magnanimous gestures saldaría Alexander announced that all debts. They accepted it with new suspicion. Alexander had acquired not only a wife but Persian Susa, automatically, a Persian court, in addition, had introduced Persian soldiers in the finest regiments. The Macedonians felt slighted. His boss was and should remain their Alejandro, not the great king of the barbarians. It was rumored that he had made that offer to find out, for disciplinary purposes, which soldiers were spending more than they earned. The names soon appeared. When Alexander knew the reasons, he was wounded in his feelings and his pride. Said with great dignity that the monarch should never lie and that his subjects should not assume that I would. It was a feeling that might have emanated Persian Cyrus. Anyway, Alexander supported with evidence. Entries were deleted tables and paid money to anyone who presented a certificate of debtor, knowing that nothing would be recorded. A cost him 10,000 talents Alexander, demanded of them with false documents, and suddenly regained the confidence of his soldiers. Anyway, the pride of the troops would soon return to receive a surprise.
Five years earlier, during his stay in Bactria, Alexander had developed a project then matured: in the provinces 30,000 boys enrolled Persians, trained in the use of Macedonian weapons (in which apparently included the teaching of Greek) and Macedonian clothing were provided. That army was ripe budding and moved to Susa for Alexander to give him approval. The boys, who were around the age of eighteen were chosen one by one by his demeanor and physique. When Alexander marched past with their beautiful outfits, Macedonian was so pleased with its pageantry and spirit in an unguarded moment he called his successors.
How many of these young men, half a century later, told his grandchildren that in his youth, in the distant Susa, Sikandar beheld with their own eyes? That's how legends are born. Weather-tattered, exhausted and covered with scars, India veterans looked bitterly watched parade. Persians were already too many in the military. The wife had been very good campaign in Bactria, but a Persian royal wedding was very different. They hated to see Macedonia as a good soldier cheerfully Peucestas was installed in the court of a tyrant with the approval of the monarch, as the natives spoke Persian and had the gall to walk around in shorts. They had made them angry when a mixed regiment Macedonians who had remained under the command of Persian officials. And now appeared a body of Hellenized Persians, who flaunted his clothes and dress to show off with their weapons. There were not the successors of Alexander, but to the individuals, the monarch "conceived all possible means to do so without Macedonians" and "was totally barbarized." Although the old grievances and new blended angrily, discipline was maintained.
As it happened, at that time Alexander was busy with the Greeks as a Greek more. He had sent emissaries to the cities of the League of Corinth, the states that originally appointed him military chief to demand that divine honors him.
In the story are rooted misconceptions that truth can not be corrected. There will always be those who believe that Canute was serious when he ordered the tide to turn, even though his contemporaries knew very well that it was a moral lesson, and who follow the assumption that the request of Alexander marks the beginning of his megalomania. Such honors not only went willingly offered years ago by several liberated cities of Asiatic Greece, but which often were granted to men with less merit. Less than a century, the oligarchs were awarded Samos Lysander, the Spartan general brutal, for maintaining his tyranny. In a moment of sentimentality, Harpalus posthumous cult even organized its first hetaira as Aphrodite, and they laughed at him instead of stoning for blasphemy. For most solemnly that they were granted, not assumed divine honors immunities or specific rights. For the rationalist intellectuals of the time were an important distinction, as the Nobel Prize, for the multitudes for whom religion still had meaning, meant that the recipient had risen above the normal limitations of humanity, to the extent that the gods had had any involvement. The legends about the birth, after his death so quickly attributed to Alexander, were not propaganda but hagiography.
As so often used to do, Macedonian thought simultaneously at two levels. At its heart felt the divine spark kindled by Ammon. In the end, needed for strictly political reasons the position that such recognition would provide. You did not claim divine honors in Persia or Macedonia, places where, for various reasons, they would have understood, in Egypt already had them and wanted in Greece, where it would be helpful. The obtained without difficulty, not because of that Hellas had the least inspired reverence, but because the Greeks were deeply cynical politicians. They respected the power. So Demosthenes downplayed the issue saying, "Let Alejandro is the son of Zeus. And, if you like, also of Poseidon. " Was organized for next spring's departure taxes embassies religious rituals. Alejandro not wait and went immediately to his true purpose. Despite its unconstitutionality, command that cities accept the return of their exiled.
No one else could have. The exiles were the result of the deadly enmity. The partisan bickering in the Greek city-states went back to the period prior to the tyrants of the sixth century BC, which had been installed in power. After each coup V century BC, the ousted party leaders were banished for fear of their enemies retaliated. The same was true, often with powerful rivals, some had retaliated retaliating for his country, as the unfortunate Alcibiades. Others were welcomed with open arms to foreign invaders in exchange for support. The fighting had continued throughout the fourth century BC and Greek Asia was full of exiles. The 50,000 mercenaries of Darius were composed partly of exiles. Even if I wanted out of her mind that problem, Alejandro had lately learned that Harpalus had gathered no less than 6,000 exiles desperate for their misguided project. And there were still some 20,000 stranded, easy prey for any adventurer in a position to feed them. The demand for return of Alexander meant, quite simply, the return to immunity, the common murderers and ghouls of temples were excluded. When the herald news spread in the next Olympic games, the cheers were deafening.Worked together, which prevented many misfortunes. But in the cities there were some disturbances. In this individualistic society meant to recover the personal enemy, he knew exactly who had caused his fall, the man waited for the right moment and with it, their children. In some cases led to the unwelcome return of their lands. Finally, and most importantly, it undermined the policy of Antipater in the southern states. He had secured his subordination to Macedonia to support many severe oligarchic governments, which had driven large numbers of exiles. After a long and busy absence, Alexander was put in contact with the West, he firmly but politely know he did not agree with everything he had done in his name.
In the spring of 324 BC, after several months devoted to these activities, set sail for the beautiful palace in the hills of Ecbatana, the summer residence of the Persian monarchs. Probably felt the need to rest. Anyway, experienced one of its aspirations: to explore the Tigris, would ship the first stage while the army marched under the command of Hephaestion. Opis would be in before heading to the hills. This waterfront city is the royal road to reach the Mediterranean and there Alexander proposed licensing of older veterans with high bonuses for long service rendered. Although forced him to deviate much, he considered unthinkable that another person fired.
After a couple of weeks almost unprecedented leisure, weeks in which his activity consisted in dealing with clean up waterways, Alexander arrived at Opis and organized the parade. During his brief absence, the Macedonians who marched had time to prepare their complaints. Freed from the unpleasant prospect of the Ganges and the campaign rested easy after the return to the west within the quota, veterans with seven decades of life on the backs did not have any desire to be licensed, considered it an insult due to Alejandro barbaric tendencies and sought the solidarity of their colleagues. Confident, Alejandro climbed onto the stage of the enclosure of the parade and thanked him for his loyal service. Just promised bonuses that would become the envy of your neighbors when his head on the storm broke. His voice was lost amid the furious shouts of the troops, who screamed: "You can license all!" And "Get out of season with your father."
It was the same type of situation in which the Roman emperors killed or died as boars, if you were strong enough, restored power in a bloodbath on the basis of tithes, beheadings and beatings to death. Alexander was limited to the stage and jump into the midst of the howling mob.
The generals jumped after him. (Hephaestion had to be first because he was standing at his side.) If they had surrounded, the generals could not have done anything but die with Alexander. But nobody touched it. Went from one side to another, said the leaders (or so says Arrian, and Ptolemy must have been in the crowd) and ordered his arrest. When taken away, nobody demurred. He returned to the dais and delivered a speech. The army heard. We do not know if the little time he had to live thought this episode most outstanding making the rock without birds. It is possible that, purely and simply assumed it would happen.
It would be strange that this speech is not recorded to the memory of old Ptolemy. It is extraordinary, with a natural momentum very different from the cold and Baroque features the compositions of Quintus Curtius Rufus, well worth reading in full Arian.He told the soldiers that if they wanted, they could graduate, but before fitting to recall that Philip and Alexander had torn the poverty ridden mountain shepherds nearby enemies ("that you were a panic fear") to become masters of world. It was a succession of resounding victories. Challenged them as to any wealth or deprivation that had not shared with them. ("Look ... If any of you have scars that show and I'll show you mine. There is no single part of my body without signs ahead ... at least.") He reminded them that while no one took died in full flight. After a resounding peroration, proposed them to return to Macedonia and boasted of having left between the races which together had conquered. "When you may tell, you will become famous among men and you will be a pleasure for the gods. "Gone for a good time!" He left the stage, returned to the royal apartments and slammed the door.
He had made an impact. Not knowing what to do, wandered in the Macedonian camp. Nobody left. Alexander did not appear in two days. Then came the soldiers saw that Persians. They ran the rumors. Alexander had heeded the words of his troops and prepared to replace them. Along with the great Macedonian regiments traditional peer-infants, silver crowns, fellow cavalry Persian bodies would be created would carry these designations. They only had the right to give the kiss of greeting those who were related to him (the real family and fellow Persian weddings). At that time the Macedonian soldiers, many of whom had joined the screaming mob dragged along by the enthusiasm, they imagined that, before they had time to reach the sea, young successors march under their old banners.
Then broke the highlight of this extraordinary episode. As a single man, ran to the terrace Macedonian real. They dropped their weapons and shields in surrender on the battlefield. Turned into pleading unarmed crowded to the door and begged to be left inside. They committed themselves to condemn the instigators, vowed to remain there day and night until Alexander pity on them. The king came out a while later. By then, Alexander's army could not cry and tears. He stepped forward and was speechless. Callinan, a cavalry officer, was the first to speak. He said it hurt that the Persians had become in their relatives, with the right to kiss him, that no Macedonian privilege enjoyed it.
Alexander replied: "Well, I convert all of my relatives and from now and call you." As I said, callin approached and kissed him and so did everyone who wanted it. The soldiers returned to pick up their weapons and returned to camp cheering and singing hymns of triumph.
As they had agreed, was sentenced to death for instigating the riot. Arrian says that Alexander ordered his arrest, "because by then his mood had worsened," and this sheds light on your tolerance amazing before, although probably true, the increased fatigue and pain contribute to irritability repeated. In The Mint, TE Lawrence said: "After the fall of Rome Handley, the X-ray showed a rib hairy like the teeth of a toothbrush against the chest wall and lung shocks threw on my heart the pain of that thin dagger. " The chest wall was pierced Alexander is more likely that his rib had barbed nails in place and certainly would have left the X-ray surprised specialist in thoracic surgery.Whatever its recent cholera, the aftermath was deeply moved by his romantic side. He had made peace as if it were a dispute between lovers, but it took an even bigger gesture. With his usual mix of drama and practical spirit, offered a public thanksgiving celebrated by Greek and Persian Magi blind, followed by a huge feast of reconciliation that took place outdoors. All Macedonians (Arrian undoubtedly refers to the officers) sat around and then there were the Persians and foreign auxiliary troops, who occupied places of preference as his military record. Alexander and his comrades drank from the same cup of friendship. "He prayed for all sorts of benefits and in favor of harmony, especially between Greeks and Persians in their common ground. It is said that nine thousand people shared the feast. "
Then, 10,000 mercenaries in years were laid off were paid fondly the time the trip lasted and were given a prize of a talent apiece. Alexander assumed the protection of children from their wives campaign, knowing what their lives would in Macedonia while foreign bastards and pledged to raise as Macedonian men and good soldiers. They are presented to their parents when they were adults. And why not? He was only thirty-two years.
The departure of the veterans contain an act of great political significance. They were under the command of craters, it was said he was sick (maybe it was really because he was provided a substitute in case he was incapacitated), but actually had the task of assuming the regency of Macedonia.
Antipater had held that role since childhood of Alexander, in the absences of two successive monarchs, except in cases where he held Alexander. For ten years he had been the virtual master of Greece. At that time ordered to leave Macedonia with the detachment of new troops. We do not know what Alexander had plans for him because he met. Maybe Alexander just wanted to separate him from Olympia, just as on another occasion had isolated transiently Craterus and Hephaestion. The constant friction between the queen and the regent were old history and new problems had accumulated. Had to take into account the reintegration of exiles driven out by the puppet regimes of Antipater, as well as their constant close friendship with Aristotle, of which Alexander had departed from the conspiracy of the squires. Although perverse, Olympia was not stupid and perhaps information sent his son took it very seriously. Arrian says that at no time expressed any anger toward Alexander Antipater, who, however, is profoundly altered when he received the royal messenger. While Asia Craterus crossed the peaceful rhythm that required their health and their veterans, the ruler sent his son Cassander to defend their cause. Both men had to cross the road and the meeting could not have been very friendly.
Meanwhile, Alexander continued his shift to Ecbatana Opis, at which point Arian, whose texts survive the whole, has a frustrating gap in an important human story. After the tear, the text says, "... Hephaestion. It is said that giving in spite of himself, Hephaestion was reconciled with Eumenes, he inadvertently Eumenes willingly. " It would appear that those words were for Alexander. Plutarch, confound, inveterate whose chronology is practically nonexistent, says that during the India campaign, Hephaestion and drew their swords and Craterus was about to set off a struggle between factions when Alexander rode up and cut, publicly scolding and Hephaestion Craterus private. The subsequent course of events gives more overtones of probability that this incident is part of the dispute with Eumenes Hephaestion.
Eumenes was a Greek distinguished, one of the boyfriends of the Susa weddings. He had been private secretary to Philip and then Alexander and he also had field command. It was a shrewd and capable, then was active in the wars of succession. He had a slight brush with Alexander that meant serious consequences for history. After the march through the desert, Alexander was left without an immediate supply of money and asked friends to do a collection. The collaboration was very low Eumenes, Alexander was upset because everyone knew that returned these favors with interest. With simple, if not crude-humor Macedonian, ruled that Eumenes's tent caught fire in order to see what was saved. The bailout amounted to 1,000 talents in cash, representing an immense fortune, but burnt and correspondence files real loss that scholars still complain. If you disliked Hephaestion, maybe I would have blamed Eumenes of that idea. Later, when Susa was filled to capacity for the celebrations, Hephaestion, who was then occupied a high post-hosted a guest musician in the house that Eumenes had reserved for himself, had an argument and we can not attribute responsibility to anyone because not survive more details. The latent hostility should continue the march to Opis and, it seems, in the incident broke out impetuously missing Arian texts. Perhaps Alexander lost his temper, especially if you thought that the division had contributed troops to mutiny, or perhaps acted after a calm assessment to avoid a dangerous fight. Arrian's account on the words of Macedonian is much more valuable than that of Plutarch, who says in his version of the story through Craterus-Hephaestion Alexander reminded who owed his position and threatened to kill everyone that give rise to return to the fray. It would be interesting to know what actually happened, especially in view of the results.
In the company of the court-including but not Barsine Roxana-Estateira (probably stayed with his grandmother in the harem in Susa) - Alejandro rode Ecbatana, looking along the route the royal horses and a parade of "Amazons" organized by a local satrap, whom he had once asked several questions on this legendary race, perhaps the idea of the Amazons was of interest to bisexual nature. The Amazons were presented, classically correct as in the right breast bare and armed with the traditional hatchet. Although graceful maneuvers performed, Alexander thought that these weapons do not serve them little unusual to the sex-hungry soldiers and made them take the camp the escort.
Ecbatana, the beautiful romantic city described by Herodotus indefatigable traveler, had to be a cold last winter home for the poor Dario, but had now reached its perfection summer. Although busy with plans for the future (I wanted to explore the Caspian Sea, hoping to find a northeast passage to India), Alexander finally relaxed in the Persian paradise. The word is Persian and means beautiful park. Always reluctant to sit back, invited the usual group of distinguished artists and held contests, banquets and games. No doubt the alcohol flowed freely, though not more than at other times. It should be remembered that the pattern of behavior is basically repetitive heavy drinkers as they reach the point of disinhibition. If Alexander had become increasingly addicted, no doubt would have references to similar outbreaks of violence that killed clit. We can deduce that his penance was more than temporary and that gave him a painful lesson.
During the celebrations, Hephaestion fell ill with a fever, but a week later was better. Alexander left the palace to preside over an athletic contest for men. I got the message that Hephaestion had suddenly deteriorated. "They say that the stadium was full to overflowing", stunned the audience with his sudden departure and ran at the bedside, but arrived too late.
Alexander had developed a fortress invulnerable to danger, injury, extreme weather conditions, hardship, fatigue, illness, the weight of responsibility and fear of his own death. This blow hit him where it had no defenses and reason hardly resisted. He remained with the body one day and one night, until my friends dragged him, spent three days lying, crying or silent, fasting and unapproachable. He became bitter reality of the tragedy that had represented him at Opis to impress the troops. When he rose to a duel gave wildly extravagant. He cut his hair, like Achilles for Patroclus (the usual tribute was a single strand that was attached to a crown). He cut their manes and tails of horses and remove the ornaments of the city walls.
The sources did not give reason to suspect that the lovers were apart after the death of Hephaestion. However, self-reproach for the loss are relentlessly retrospective recall every detail. Alexander had recently put the monarchy over the friendship, maybe with every reason, but these issues are revived with great pain. There is no doubt that for a few days just kept right. But it is not clear that it was so irrational as to hang Hephaestion's doctor.
Plutarch says that while the doctor (a Greek named Glaucias, probably the faithful Philip was dead) was in the theater, the patient discontinued the diet (unspecified) and chicken breakfast and a bottle of wine. (Usually the Greeks had breakfast with wine.) Arrian mentions only wine. Whatever it was, died soon after, and that Alexander remained with the body "most of the day." Arrian, that for this event using various sources whose names unfortunately not, then quotes a according to which Alexander ordered the death of the doctor prescribed a drug to be harmful. Not only was a reasonable suspicion then, but it is still present.
It is very difficult to explain a sudden crisis as a young convalescent. Peritonitis due to perforated appendix does not kill instantly. We suggest a typhoid fever causes hunger pains, drilled solids ulcerated intestine and the patient may die from bleeding, but this process is considered fast if it lasted a period as short as six hours and Alexander had to return the stadium at full gallop in a matter of minutes. Atypical and widespread hemorrhage could trigger a collapse so quickly, but the symptoms are much more consistent with poisoning, and given the medical knowledge of the time, Alexander had thought that was it. The position of the doctor was suspicious. Could give the patient the wrong medicine while attending all the celebrations, saying (to deny it later) could make a meal, a fact which then attribute the death, and go where nobody could find it-a fact that in itself was objectionable, while the drug was effective. No doubt the doctor was useless to search for what caused the fatal delay warning when Alexander. Like all powerful, Hephaestion had enemies, a fact that Alexander was aware. He had to avenge Patroclus and Achilles was not able to split hairs. After the initial despair, he would realize that in the case of being guilty, Glaucias could not be more than an agent and its execution was definitely lost the knowledge of who was the real author.
Theoretically it is possible that he had planned Craterus from afar. But Alexander never showed to him the least deterioration in confidence, which shows that any conflict between craters and Hephaestion had been superseded long ago. Eumenes was terrified he lived. Their dispute had been recent, extensive and heated. Plutarch, who wrote his life, says that Alexander immediately regretted having supported against Hephaestion. At that time became bitter repentance. Was severe with those who had fought with the deceased, especially with Eumenes, they supposed to be exhilarating. Considering the mood of the Macedonian, Eumenes had to ask when I would wake up one morning Alexander in the conviction of knowing who was the murderer. The secretary, conservative businessman, was protected by organizing complex and expensive celebrations in honor of Hephaestion. To recover the entire, Alexander had to dismiss his suspicions, he knew a lifetime Eumenes, before those taxes are soothed and cared for their own offerings. For its time was a form of communication with the dead, the only one he had and now, despite the teachings of Calano, the action was the only escape I knew.
Banned music at court and in camp: he ordered that all cities of the empire were in mourning; Hephaestion dedicated to his regiment, which would carry his name in perpetuity and its image as a standard. Architects and sculptors designed shrines and statues in his memory in the main cities. The Alexandria would be exceptional and, as usual, at this point the bizarre pseudo-Callisthenes it is useful: at least you can do if he describes his hometown. Arrian quotes, and rightly deplores alleged letter from Alexander to Cleomenes, satrap of Egypt, later expelled by Ptolemy. The letter states that, in return for proper care of the sanctuaries of Hephaestion, to Cleomenes be granted immunity from all crimes, past or future. The document has some importance because it written if Alexander is evident that he was temporarily estranged, and anyway, as presented here is undoubtedly apocryphal (contains a reference to the lighthouse, built eighty years later) pseudo-Callisthenes can be deduced true nature of the immunity. In describing the creation by Ptolemy of a temple of worship Serapis and Apis state, defines the position of high priest, their attributes and their remuneration. "It will be inviolate and free from all types of obligations." On the Egyptian religious procedures, Alejandro knew as much as Ptolemy and his true instruction should consist of organizing an inviolate priesthood for the worship of Hephaestion.
The most painful and heroic was sending a little later an embassy to the oracle of Amun at Siva to call for divine honors granted to Hephaestion. (Hence, of course, mention of the priests.) Was more than the aggrandizement of the deceased. How else is the son of Amon deified in the world could meet to come to the mortal son of Amintore of Pella?
Worried about all this, Alexander forgot his suspicions. Among those who relapsed in, not say a single word that had more reason and at the comfort of the loss, more should rejoice. Alexander could not know that person was determined and ruthless enough to cause his death. It's something that was learned after the death of the monarch. Then it became clear that no one had hated so bitterly as Roxane Hephaestion, who murdered his young widow as his hands were free. Ecbatana Before leaving, the group of artists who had gathered for the celebrations was asked to leave the mourning silenciodel to participate in the funeral games.The funeral itself was held in Babylon, by the campfire Homeric. The embalmed body was entrusted to the convoy of Perdiccas, the new chiliarco, a relative of the Macedonian royal house and carries one of their traditional names. Eager to leave and to blunt the pain with the action, Alexander himself led an expedition against a tribe of bandits, the coseanos, which had long plagued the route between Babylon and Susa. The Persian kings never managed to subdue him and found it easier to get rid of them buy them. Pursued them to their winter-summer strengths were nomadic life and forced to surrender. (With his usual respect for the brave, then recruited a corps of coseanos.) Ptolemy, another commander of the expedition, said it had been a difficult mountain campaign in which Alexander participated actively. The months of physical rest should relieve the discomfort that produced the wound in the chest. However, that war may become his death sentence. He spent two months in the hills in the same time that the Persian kings in Babylon, the court settled on the basis of its moderate winter. Alexander came to the city in spring and spent his summer hot and unhealthy.
Shortly before his death, Hamlet says: "We defy augury" and reminds Alexander mused about whose noble dust in the cemetery. Alexander had already had their first omen: A certain Apollodorus, who had a bad conscience because of a misdemeanor committed in Babylon when Alexander was in India, he asked his brother-Scryer Peitágoras-guess her to read the future in the entrails sacrificial and explained that he had great dread of Hephaestion and the monarch. The seer wrote to his brother, who by then was in Ecbatana (maybe I was expecting an auspicious day), and told that Hephaestion was not to worry because the lobes of the liver without victim foretold his death. Hephaestion died the day after Apotodoro receive the letter, was so impressed he wrote again to ask what were the Babylonian omens about Alexander. In due time came the same answer. Clearly, in the meantime, Apollodorus overcame any fear that could experience towards the king went to see him worried and prayed earnestly that he was aware of the dangers, but did not reveal the full story of the omens and their severity. Alexander kindly gave thanks and went to fight the coseanos, ignoring him. Now I waiting new predictions.
The first were happy. Coming down to the plains of the Euphrates, he found people sent beyond the borders of their empire: Carthaginians, Libyans and Ethiopians, Scythians, Celts and semibarbarians Tyrrhenians, Brutti and Italian Lucania. Not only requested the signing of treaties of friendship, but will set out their differences to address them, as if an oracle above all controversy. According to Arrian, was subsequently discussed at infinity if Rome sent an envoy, in his opinion, no. Certainly, Alexander was aware of the Romans, Alexandros of Epirus, his brother and uncle had fought two years in Italy on the side of the Greeks against incursions Tarentines Brutti and Lucania, until he was killed by treachery. Alexandros was allied with Rome and its offices due to reach both Olympia and her sister to Alexander, who sent emissaries or not the Romans, and must have his eye haberles ... especially if they had not sent anyone. Here is a glimpse of the biggest questions of history that disappears in the act.
Neither Alexander nor his people had seen men from as far away. This experience led to new perspectives.The next destination was a personal message. Nearchus, who had come to Babylon before him, came to him worried. (The loss of memories is regrettable NEARCO for history. The fragments that remain show a picturesque style, talent for descriptions and a deep affection, subtle to Alexander.) Carried a message from the priests of Bel, the great Assyrian divinity of Babylon, which separated the sky from the earth and established the path of the stars. Their priests were astrologers and had spotted an extremely adverse effect on the sky to the entrance of the king in Babylon. He recommended that ran its course.
Went looking for the crossing of the Tigris and, according to Arrian, he departed from his teammates. He was warned, presumably through an interpreter that does not continue the march to the west and veer to the east. At this time of year would have been the normal course of a Persian king who was going to Susa. However, this monarch had plans that could only be implemented in Babylon. He replied with a verse of Euripides saying (apart from the interpreter's translation) that the best are those prophecies come true. Although he had never been skeptical, Alexander liked to do things his way and had already survived ominous portents. He had one in Gaza and almost bleed to death, had another in the Oxo and recovered from the disease cholera or whatever. In Multan, where he had escaped death by a whisker, not received the slightest warning. And at that time was suspected that there were ulterior motives. As he had said, his generous donation to the funds for the restoration of the temple, made in his previous visit had not resulted in any temple. The tithes were collected from Bel demolition of Xerxes, when you lift the new temple should be devoted to maintenance rather than priests. After the embezzlement of Harpalus, Alexander must have wondered what happened to the funds for the restoration of the temple. Babylon was renowned for his austerity.
But we must give the benefit of the doubt even a god suspect. Alexander decided that, at least, would enter the city from the east. He led his men and found the entrance cut off by swamps. It would have been humiliating to wallow in the mud of the Euphrates in deference to a stratagem interested and Alexander made a decision. Arrian probably NEARCO echoes when he says: "Partly by choice and partly not, Alexander disobeyed God." Shortly after entering the city sent for the brother of Apollodorus, the seer Peitágoras-signal and asked what had led him to send the warning. Apollodorus is clear that he had been afraid to say - however, saw a man of integrity who was in the presence of another man of integrity. He described the omen, Alexander asked what their true meaning and scored for an answer: "Something very serious". His only reaction was to show respect abroad for the honesty of the seer. In his memoirs, Aristobulus says that he told himself Peitágoras.
Since Alexander Hephaestion died and gave the order to hang the doctor, must haunt the idea that Achilles lived more than Patroclus. To guess the fate of his mortal son, the immortal Thetis warned that if avenging his friend, then she would ensue death Achilles paid the debt of blood and its price. However, only a part of Alexander's mind was governed by Homeric parallels. Swift-footed Achilles, the great creation of the poet personally had not created anything. There had been king, explorer and builder of cities or towns. Alexander looked to the west and planned his next years.
Roxana had moved to Babylon, obviously the easy way out of Ecbatana real, as it is unlikely that would have accompanied during the winter war. She was pregnant. It is strange and perhaps significant that Alexander not make the slightest remark, not knowing a single word about his plans in the event that the child was male. At this point, just look at the map to open an important possibility. Alexander "had made his men to rest" after the campaign and the easiest way to Babylon would be through Susa. There were Barsine-Estateira, she Dripetis (perhaps it was only since the death of Hephaestion) and Sisigambis, whose influence was always immense. If Alexander passed through the city, it is certain that he made a visit and you may then decide that the veins of his heir had royal blood running Persian. Probably at the time of his death the daughter of Darius was several months pregnant. That would make the motive to murder Roxana into something far more compelling than mere revenge.
In a geographical sense, Babylon was vital to the empire of Alexander and proposed turning it into capital. Shortly after his death the city would fall into provincialism and in the first century was in ruins. Alexandria Alejandro created in the very center of the Hellenistic world. However, the Babylon of his time preserved the traditions of the royal pomp that Persia had inherited from Assyria. The half-Hellenized and gave enhancement. His flag was mounted in the gala "paradise"; around on couches with silver legs (probably the same as the wedding of Susa), sat his chief officers and their friends. Near the throne were the perfumed incense burners, old Persian kings protection used against human odor almost universal (the courtly Persepolis in the relief goes to Darius the Great covers her mouth with his hand to deflect his breath on the face regions). No doubt the Bagoas loved took his exalted place in the hierarchy of palace eunuchs, many of whom hold positions since the reign of Oco. There was the royal harem, who probably took care of supplying young beauties of both or either sex.
Gala attended the flag of Greece's sacred embassies to recognize the son of Amon. Their taxes are composed primarily of the exquisite gold crowns, of which few examples have survived lower than remind us of the best, garlands of ears of wheat and barley, olive branches, flowers, trimmed with delicate nature. Although no one knows the exact date, the gala also attended ward Cassander, son of Antipater, an emissary of his father.
He was a man in the prime of life, very capable and was not averse to war, however, when Alexander left for Asia was not the firstborn of his regent. As Antipater was an invalid who needed help, the only possible explanation is a long-standing antipathy. Indeed, the inadequacy of Cassander for this mission made the world doubted the motives old that his father had to send it and drove him to suspect that his real task was more sinister. But Antipater could not send anyone else because their other two sons were already with Alejandro, one of them, Iolas, fulfilled the role of butler. Ten years had passed and it is possible that the complaints were neglected juveniles.
ParaCasandro had been ten years in Macedonia, had been excluded from the great adventure with great prizes, the Spartans fought in a war that, by comparison, seemed small-town, had attended the Olympia constant intrigues against his father, whose just to undermine the political order of the exiles.Then came the crushing blow of his replacement and the call to the court, it was an implied threat to move men who were already resentful and restless. It was a decade that saw neither father nor son Alexander, both had had contacts with the Lyceum, to which the deceased belonged, calisthenics. In the exotic splendor of Babylon, Cassander saw men who had been boys when he was a kid royally installed between generals and satraps, amid incense burners, these same men enthroned in gold precocious kid hated and envied in the old Pella times, a ruler of the world, a god.
For his part, Alexander found unattractive Cassander as before. The dialogue was almost immediately became hostile. The fact that Cassander made fun of a Persian who showed that Alexander proskynesys and give him head against the wall is probably no more than an anecdote passed on, but by no means implausible. According to Plutarch, long after Alexander's death, the sudden vision of his statue at Delphi sweats caused Cassandra. Later killed Olympia, Roxana and her son, is beyond doubt that he would have loved to kill Alejandro, of course, is the favorite suspect Plutarch. And even today, despite the medical evidence, it is difficult to acquit him without great reluctance.
As I had no intention to depart from the faithful his new position Craterus, Alejandro Cassander just spent time, besides, was too busy with their own concerns. His march to the West was about to begin. The first phase would be to explore the unknown Arabian Peninsula along the coast in search of a navigable route to communicate with Egypt. I already knew the Egyptian side of the Red Sea and the open channel by Darius the Great from the nearby Suez to the Nile, which had to be cleared only for the armed cross it. Among the papers, it is said, appeared after his death, shows the plan for the exploration of the North African coast and the construction of a road to the Straits of Gibraltar. Probably his next target would have been Sicily vulnerable territory then splits, its history was among the books that Harpalus sent him, would have been a good springboard to get to Italy. As demonstrated by the embassies, fame and had allowed him to win half of future campaigns. The Carthaginians and the Romans would have created difficulties, if any passed, virtually nothing prevented it from reaching Britain.
Were expanding the port of Babylon, where he built a new fleet, the indomitable Nearco was willing to send; Peucestas Persian army train a loyal and disciplined with Antipater would an army of young Macedonians. The adventure will begin with a march of just under five hundred miles, from Babylon to the mouth of the Euphrates. There the troops were to meet with the fleet, which would turn south, while Alexander undertook the march down support. Already knew the narrowness of the Gulf, this time, supplies could reach them by sea if it was found that the shore was deserted. The impressive southern coasts of the Red Sea and were terra incognita, even more distant points in Makran aid, disaster could have been frightening, but had probably learned by now what time to head back.
Arrian says that Alexander had an insatiable desire for conquest. While true, his career shows that for him the power was not an end but an instrument. He longed to discover and model terms was creatively. Romantic love to the personal heroism, which shortened the life also was the spell that brought his men to follow and is inseparable from its destination.
Great plans were forgotten when Deinócrates-the artist who designed the pyre of Hephaestion-fired its swarm of workers and announced he was finished. Everything was ready for what remains the most spectacular funeral that history knows. Alexander's is no exception to the rule, his body was too sacred a relic and a symbol of political position too high to destroy it. Patroclus was leaving the archaic style of the heroes, although accompanied by a holocaust of wealth Babylonian and Hellenistic art.
The fact that such a monumental building was designed to burn and was completed on time only raised doubts in our century, witnessed the death of manual skills. The same would be achieved, if not ease, at least successfully, in all courts of sixteenth century Europe, whose immense skills triumphant performances of royal splendor, yet can be studied in the detailed drawings of the architects. All cases were created to as ephemeral as the present one. And Alexander could appeal to vastly superior resources.
The Babylonian form was a step pyramid, or ziggurat, and art, Greek. It stood about two meters, on a platform two hundred square, embedded in the vast outer wall of Babylon. The ground floor was wood fuel and palm was open to fan the flames and let the air. Then appeared the sizes, floors rising ever closer, bows of boats with armed figures in the middle flags and red felt the increasing heat stir, then spiral torches that sustained-foot eagle, a hunting scene; a battle of centaurs, bulls and lions alternate, trophies of arms, at the top, the bird-headed woman to whom the Greeks called sirens, hollowed from the ground up, before the fire, hidden singing voices provide them with praise the deceased. It describes the top of this monumental pile, which should contain the coffin with the corpse. The use of fast-burning softwood greatly accelerate the work of hundreds of artisans and their armies of slaves helpers. Gilded parts, the others would be painted, especially in blue and crimson. For weeks, as the story went up, had to attract swarms of onlookers, as a modern tourist taking snapshots, one of the curious had to write an outline or detailed description used by Diodorus. Alejandro plans include a permanent memorial, perhaps on the same site, whatever its form, was not the work of weeks, but years.
Apparently, this was the only time that Alexander used his almost unlimited power to the full satisfaction of their desires. However, for the modern skeptic is missing one factor: the constant presence of Hephaestion himself, wandering as it did Patroclus while awaiting the release of the fire, heard the petition of divinity that would rescue a separate and inferior position in the land of the dead understanding - had not he always understood? - the gift of devotion and offerings of remorse.
To protect the old brick heat Babylonian stuck with bitumen tiles covered with adobe site of the pyre. Men of the West had to keep all his memories of life in the awesome spectacle of the flames, the other a tribute to Alejandro modest ceremony, solemn and quiet, they almost go unnoticed. However, it is likely that the Babylonians were more surprising than the first. He ordered them to put out the fires of the temples for the duration of the funeral. It was the logical expression of what years ago was told Sisigambis: "He too is Alexander." The usual ritual destined to death that the great king.
Alexander returned to action immediately. Undoubtedly, had wanted since he had breath to direct his mind. So the intention of the funeral had to do with fame and future of Hephaestion on earth and everlasting life in Elysium.
Meanwhile, the new fleet did exercises on the Euphrates. It seems that, as was very competitive, Alexander liked his men to encourage intense rivalries, but without the bad feelings that encouraged skills training, making the exercises in races that were won trophies, became very popular. It also addressed the reorganization of the army. Mergers race began to work better. Peucestas Persian troops arrived with his first class, very soon, and apparently without opposition, Alejandro those assigned to units commanded by a joint officer corps composed of Persians and Macedonians. Soldiers flocked to the satraps of Asia Minor.
The expedition to the Persian Gulf was almost ready to begin. Today we can assume without risks, uninhabited territory is uninhabitable, but by then there were many open spaces, and in their march intended to establish coastal ports Alejandro and establish colonies. Obviously, your project in North Africa did not depend on a sea route Arabic if necessary to abandon this quest, you could simply start their march from Egypt. Again, the exploration and settlement occupied a priority in your mind.
There is nothing wiser than the legend after the events occurred. However, it seems that, at the time, at least some of the omens of death of Alexander were recognized as losses. We have said that Aristobulus had the firsthand testimony of the seer. Another omen was the occupation of the throne, during the brief absence of the monarch, a man of obscure condition that was apparently mentally disturbed he had been arrested for a crime that is unknown, but escaped and entered the throne room while everyone had taken a break elsewhere. The first proclamation of the event were the groans of the afflicted court eunuchs-Bagoas was certainly among them-who saw the eerie omen and that "under a Persian custom," not the man withdrew, it is possible Incomplete his manhood had further aggravated the omen. Long before conquering Persia, Alexander knew that sitting on the throne of a great king was a crime that was paid for with capital punishment, he had remarked jokingly to numb the cold soldier who sat in his chair to come into heat . The seers told him it was worse than a lack of respect: it was a distress signal. The man was tortured to find out if there was a plot tool: the poor man said he had only wanted to sit on the throne and did not know why. His response became even more unlucky and killed him threatening to circumvent probably fared much better than most of the fools of the time.
It has been suggested that, under several previous predictions, some friends sent to the Persian honest man a criminal-dispensable to fulfill the role of scapegoat real (just as the wily Bess had offered to take the place of Darius) and that Alexander had him killed by mistake instead of allowing carry bad luck. Apparently, there is no reason why clarify that a prophylactic measure was not discussed in advance with Alexander and did not explain why the correct procedure. It seems that the incident was one of those omens, authentic product of chance, which the ancient world they attached the greatest importance.
In a realistic sense, was nearer the mark less strong signal to those who saw, for we have the strength to be related to the probable real cause of the death of Alexander.
Among the countless activities that make amazing he had time to devote to the dissipation of which he was charged in Athens, Alexander growers interested in occupying the lands downstream of Babylon. Suffered from poor irrigation because the Euphrates drained away uselessly in swamps and lakes. Alexander assembled a fleet and sailed through the area with his engineers to investigate what could be done. Developed a practical and adaptable to river flow, while acknowledging the area, Alexander saw a good location for a city and prepared to establish it. He then returned to Babylon navigating the flooded lands. The channels were meandering and complex, some ships were lost temporarily. Over the years, the channels had invaded the ancient cemeteries of the Assyrian monarchs, who had ruled the area before the conquests of Cyrus the Great.
Alexander, who apparently always enjoyed the craft, took the helm of his boat, which at the time sailing with some wind. Petasos wearing a hat or Greek for sun protection, with a tape with the actual colors, purple and white. The wind waved his hat and ripped the tape, which became entangled in a reed by a grave. Hindsight recalls the grave as ominous, but the main concern at the time corresponded to the loss of the royal diadem, the symbolic miter. A willing sailor jumped into the water, swam and regained the belt. To prevent wet, returning thoughtlessly tied it around his head. Seers agreed that was not only a flagrant impropriety, but a terrible omen. Therefore, the sea was whipped. Alexander, who thought it was typical as well as lack the initiative had to his credit, gave him a talent of silver. (Some sources say he was beheaded anonymous-yet here we are to believe the engineer Aristobulus, which undoubtedly was part of the expedition.) None of the ancient writers recognized, even with hindsight, the most significant in those swamps and canals flowed all the wastewater from a city as densely populated as Babylon.
It has been discussed ad infinitum real authenticity of the Journal, which describes the daily course of the disease that killed Alexander. Some scholars say it is too sincere to be a courtier document, others suggest that later was expanded to refute the rumors that had been poisoned. And it does, it is difficult to believe that the relatively small falsehood, seeing that the case described is so clear that it is almost classic and has a consistency that goes far beyond the medical knowledge of the time as to who had invented. Anyone can question whether things would have changed if Alexander had taken care of when he fell ill, we may also ask why he did not. It is certainly not consciously seek death. Had developed sufficient plans for a large life expectancy. At this point we move into an area of psychosomatic, basically, we know that Pythagoras himself or less. All Alejandro's life story shows that the sense of self was often a mystery even to himself. It contained a power saw like a force of nature. More basic than vanity, something that was not vanity but a side effects, prompted him to carry, with appreciation, the oracle of Ammon.Had surpassed Homer, who never left, and a key part of his person had been Achilles from the time he sat on the knees of old Lysimachus. Patroclus was dead as far as was possible to take revenge, was avenged. The conditions of mortal destiny of Achilles were met. Even as a boy Alexander must have known by heart the words of the spectrum that returns become dream:
And I appeal to you in pain, give me your hand, never
will return from the dead in me the rite of proportions
Never again will you and I live, we removed from our
beloved companions and make plans for the heartburn, but
I was given at birth has opened its mouth to catch me.
And you, Achilles, whom the gods have your own destiny ...
The rite of cremation was done. In this furnace was impossible to regain the slightest clue mortal dust; is much talk of the monuments to Hephaestion, but there is a single reference to his grave. Alexander was in a state of constant movement, the day organizing the fleet and army and held hearings on death row ceremonial couches with silver legs, night plunged into the distractions of the symposium or the banquet, which was the only I knew how to relax. If he was willing to die, his intellect had not yet recognized. However, his intuition has always been amazingly powerful and often perceptive. For more than a decade cruelly overloaded his body and his mind had long been in those conditions, probably most of his life. While assessing the omens his mind due to a throne or a purple ribbon, perhaps his intuition was more circumspect: perhaps received the message that was his mind that would be exhausted first.
While dressing for dinner and felt the first chill of fever, probably said it was nothing serious, looked like any evil that was infected in Bactria and overcome in a couple of days, there was nothing to worry about. Perhaps it is significant that the last event of his life recorded by Arrian before the onset of the disease is the return of Shiva's emissaries who were sent to consult the oracle of Ammon on the divinity of Hephaestion. I was not able to be considered a god, but he could worship God as a hero. His cult was approved, the spectrum could enter into the Champs Elysees and the difference in rank was never very important. Maybe this is the time I sent the letter to Cliomenes, who was in Alexandria. Alexander also decreed that all commercial contracts, in which form is invoked the gods as witnesses, the same way that today God is invoked before judicial testimony, to be inscribed "in the name of Hephaestion."
Plutarch and Arrian conclude the rest of the story. The first states that Alexander gave a magnificent reception in honor of Nearco. The second argues that, by the advice of fortune tellers, ceremonies held that day to counteract the bad omens. Both agree that, when it was bedtime, Medius of Larissa was invited to a party late at night and assured him it would be fun.
It is the first time that the sources mention Medius, apart from the fact recorded by Nearchus, that during the cruise on the Indus had enjoyed the privilege of being in command of a trireme, as he had no high command, it shows that it must have been friend of Alexander. The ancient writers accused of flattery, perhaps because the book I wrote and that has disappeared or because they won the favor of Alexander. No doubt it took more than flattery to become a valued partner since the death of Hephaestion, had to require imagination and touch, not even the most hostile sources sexual allusions.Unlike Cassandra, Medius known had no reason to wish the death of Alexander and all the reasons for wanting the world to live, was a generous friend. In the history of Cassander, one death more or less just a detail, but Medius, whether or not an admirable man, certainly a serious figure vilified.
He had opportunities in both Alexander's host for two nights. The statement that was loving Iolas, Alexander's butler, is almost certainly a hoax intended to impute a motive, in the case were guilty, Iolas could have acted on their own at any time and not a festive occasion would avoid their responsibilities. Both Arrian and Plutarch dismissed as absurd the claim that Alexander was poisoned on the feast of Medius, as medical tests are right. Therefore, both mentioned, to reject-the story according to which Alexander gave a sharp cry of pain and had to leave the party after emptying a "cup of Heracles." Certainly, it could be a comment propaganda invented during the wars of succession to involve Medius or Perdiccas, and anyway, it is interesting to note that, if true, would coincide perfectly with the clinical picture. Needless to say, any poison capable of producing this effect would ingest anything that the victim died in convulsions in under an hour. Anyway, the "Heracles Cup 'was a very large bowl and emptied the last drop. It is likely that in Babylonian summer, cool the wine in a snow pit. Such drink drink on a hot night by a man whose temperature was rising, could easily cause instant and violent cramps. At no other time is mentioned that Alexander complained of pain, something so uncharacteristic has some persuasive because he could be suffering similar involuntary cramping. If it has, at the time was not given much importance. Then had to create terrible doubts, fears and personal mutual suspicion in the minds of Medius and their guests. No wonder that the incident was hushed silence and give fuel to sinister rumors.
Plutarch probably has rescued an essential truth in the midst of such gibberish: "The poison was water." You may just be the water of the Euphrates river below, charged with unpurified droppings of various diseases. Obviously, that's not what he meant to Plutarch, and Iolas-brother of Cassander and real butler-remains a controversial figure. Mankind did not wait Pasteur told that water could be fatal: he learned to relate cause and effect. Florence Nightingale, who until the end of a long life he refused to believe in germs, was perfectly aware that certain pumps and wells in London were dangerous. This type of empirical knowledge back to the dawn of civilization and in the public domain in the classical period. It is remarkable that the kings of Persia not only drink spring water in particular, but that would make it boil. No one knows why or if the lost science of an earlier era was preserved as ritual. It is not known if Alexander remained the custom in the Persian court, but probably survived as a routine. Unless turbid waters all look alike. Perhaps it was the instrument of many unsolved murders that have passed, and in a sense they were, as natural deaths. The disadvantage was that it was not infallible, sometimes the infection is not contracted or that the victim was recovering. I had the enormous advantage of being undetectable ... unless someone was of the tongue. According to Plutarch, someone spoke. According to his words, the fact that the poison was water entrusted to him by the Cyclops Antigonus a certain Hagnotemis, which, unfortunately, do not know anything else.
He said the water was sent by Antipater, on the advice of Aristotle, and taken by Cassander. He was allegedly taken from a drain of the river Styx at the level of lethality Nonacris and his cold was intense, it ate away all but the hoof of an ass, container that was transferred.
Despite being an officer of Alexander, Antigonus is barely mentioned, became king at the nearby Asia. It enjoys good reputation, but later contacted and may Antipater found out something. The Styx is innocuous and perhaps obscure Hagnotemis was an inveterate liar, but a fanciful tale of murder, Pseudo-Callisthenes includes the surprising detail that the hoof of an ass was boiled. Just as the rural healers used substances that contained penicillin long before science knew its principles, it is possible that malicious empirical had discovered that a container holding boiling microbial strain destructive outside contacts with other agencies, while the gel formed in the hoof would serve as perfect breeding ground. It was certainly possible to find contaminated water a few miles from Babylon. Many infections do not cause dysentery, fever and weakness, but increasingly, as described by the real-Journal, and without an antibiotic given time may end fatally.
After the party, Alexander spent most of the day sleeping. Some historians are suspicious of this claim of the Journal and interpret real just like a hangover that lasted all day. Extreme fatigue is a typical symptom of the onset of various infections and one of the harassment that patients first complain. Corno was tired, Alexander spent the day in bed to get a good night. Medius invited him to dinner and went.
It is this second party which calls into question his psychological state. We are witnessing a man who felt a religious respect for the wishes. He has received several ominous omens announce that he is in grave danger. He has devoted part of the day before solemn ceremonies designed to prevent. In less than two weeks intends to launch a major expedition. It has a base of medical knowledge as good as any layman in his time. He knows he has contracted a fever. However, rises, attended an informal meeting without ceremonial importance and spends half the night drinking wine. Overall, it is very strange behavior. Although it was late, he did it before the end of the party. Despite the hour, took a bath, and first met really bad, requested that they should make the bed in the bath house next to the pool and spent the rest of the night. In the morning we had to move in a litter to conduct the daily offering on the altar of the house. Alejandro behaved as if he had a slight indisposition should not hinder his plans. He organized the march would begin three days later and the fleet set sail four days later. It took another half bath in the scorching heat, after which he felt much worse. Probably gave him chills. Although burning with fever, continued to organize the expedition and only a few days delayed his departure. In the coastal plain hot, sought the cool shade he had known in childhood, it was moved to the other bank of the Euphrates to the paradise trees and at night he slept next to the palace pool. On the ninth day could hardly present the offering when he was transferred to the sanctuary, but it was giving instructions to his officers. No mention that see a doctor, perhaps the death of Hephaestion had lost confidence in them. Had they been, however it was spotless, the legend without doubt the doctor would have considered an accomplice to her murder. The story offers an unusual image: stubborn wrong treatment of a disease that by now should know that it was dangerous and stubborn refusal to acknowledge their awareness of the danger.
At this point, a detail that Plutarch calls into question a Iolas "Aristobulus says that when delirious with fever drank wine and became violently delirious." Indeed, the commentary suggests that Alexander did not drink wine regularly, with fever often lose the desire to drink alcohol and reject it because they prefer something more refreshing: a sensible natural measure. If someone, no matter who offered him wine when raving, there is a strong suspicion of premeditation. For a man in the estate of Alexander was virtually poison and it is possible that exercised a destructive effect.
The delusion did not last long. However, the disease was exacerbated and the tenth day and could not be deceived. He ordered that the principal officers gathered before him and the youngest to the doors of their rooms and had it moved from the garden to speak to you. Before reaching the fatal complication dominated, whose presence must have felt when he gave the command was unable to be heard.
A lesser man would have resilience ill with pneumonia earlier. By then it must have spread from the damaged lung to scar tissue from the wound in the chest and invaded the lining of the lung in the form of pleurisy. Probably suffering great pain. Although she was lucid until the end, it is clear that from that time could only whisper a word or two.
He was too serious to take him to the royal apartments. Meanwhile, the soldiers who had seen him were quite optimistic hauled, at the end of the day, most had suffered an attack of fever in Asia. It was not possible to keep secret what they saw the officers. Alejandro as the next day did not show up, the men began to say, like three years before the Indo-they hid his death. Crowded at the gates of the palace and demanded to see it with your own eyes. They arrived just in time. Alexander could only give the order to let them enter. It opened a door at the end of the chambers to parade one after another, and held its last parade Alejandro. When entered first, Alexander turned to the soldiers and held until it became the last. Not one went without being recognized, "greeted them all, raised his head with great difficulty and waved their eyes."
Always willing to die on the battlefield, had long dam was ready to die of pain and found that they do not affect them. Although it is unlikely that by now he had recovered, the depletion due to shorten his last hours. He accepted the suffering necessary in return for what life had been essential: to live up to its legend, loved and worked off handsomely, whatever the cost. Sustained by the pride of philosophy or faith in the immortality of his fame or his soul, Alexander went to meet an end with the same dignity, integrity and consideration for others that Socrates himself. Until the rapid and painless drank hemlock, Socrates was a healthy man with a long and satisfying life behind him, Alexander was fulfilled with a large project in ruins and desolation of a deadly disease.
No one pretended that he was not on the verge of death. Peucestas and six friends spent the night praying for him in the temple of Serapis, an Egyptian highly metamorphosed Asclepius whose cult, apparently, Alexander went to Babylon, where it merged with a local god. Asclepius patients slept in their sanctuary to have dreams curative Serapis was consulted during the vigil and morning gave his verdict prophetic. In his generous concern for the friend whose life was saved in India, was absent from the room Peucestas mortuary and sinister power struggle had broken out.
Alexander is credited with the wry comment that foresaw a lot of competition during their funeral games, but it is too wise, witty and had never been at that time was not on forces to try. He took off his royal ring and handed it to Perdiccas, a gesture that in itself was no more than appoint a provisional-Alexander did not give up easily, although he was accepted as the appointment of the regent. But the time came, I had to get in the general asked, "Who do you leave your kingdom?".
Most have assumed that he was asked to elect a successor among the highest-ranking official. In the event that Barsine-Estateira was pregnant, you may be entrusted with a secret so important dynastic hierarchy friends and Nearchus Perdiccas. Therefore, had two children by birth whose gender unknown. In the event that both were males, the Macedonians will raise the question Macedonian monarchs secular polygamists.
Arrian gives us the answer of Alexander: "Hoti to kratisto" the strongest words that reached the force of prophecy during the wars of succession. Also mean: "At best." Alejandro dying, explanations were beyond their reach, and perhaps he meant that the Macedonian Assembly must choose between them when they reach adulthood. It is likely that in colloquial speech instead of the superlative comparative use as freely as now. That's assuming they actually said the word "kratisto".
In its usual pronunciation, "kratisto" and "Krateros" does not sound alike. However, it is very easy to confuse, especially suited, to pronounce a man who suffered rattling and panting because of pneumonia. Craterus was the person who took first place in the confidence of Alexander. He had already appointed regent of Macedonia. The fact that now was destined to assume the regency of the empire on behalf of the unborn heirs had to be bad news for Perdiccas, present holder of real ring. It is probable that the words were barely audible Alexander, except for one who was leaning over his bed. Perhaps it was a convenient mistake.
Peucestas and healing sanctuary became friends early in the morning. They had asked the god if something would bring Alexander to the shrine and the oracle replied that would be better to continue where it was.
No doubt the deity was concerned about his professional reputation but, anyway, his advice was wise. Alejandro produjese allowed last basic ingredient of all legends multifaceted whose death was about to light: its unshakable sense of style. For once, Quintus Curtius Rufus renunciation of rhetoric and offers us his parting words. When asked when Perdiccas wanted him divine honors him, Alexander said: "When you happy"
A dark haze across the sky and saw a ray of heaven down to the sea, accompanied by a huge eagle. In Babylon shook Arimazd bronze statue, the beam reached to the heavens and the eagle followed him, carrying a shining star. When the star was lost in the sky, Alexander closed his eyes.
The legend had begun.
After numerous disputes, intrigues and periods of real battles, the generals agreed that it was unthinkable that the throne passed to someone in whose veins ran the blood is not Alexander. The mentally retarded Arrhidaeus reign under the regency of Perdiccas to be born the son of Roxana.
In the story of Quintus Curtius Rufus, become confused references to the debate on stem Barsine. Plutarch is likely to have alluded to the daughter of Darius. The most compelling evidence is the act of Roxana. Unlike Hephaestion Alexander when he lost, Roxana immediately addressed practical issues. For express mail, sent a letter to the princess, forged the signature of Alexander, in which he asked to be transferred immediately to Babylon. The news of the death must have come before thanks to the use of real local relay, running day and night. If they overtook him on the road, did not undertake the return Barsine it supposed to be received with honors. She presented with Dripetis, sister and widow of Hephaestion. Roxana did kill them both and throw their bodies into a well. It was exactly what would have made Olympia their situation: when the queens were found, they must discover that they had much in common.
Plutarch says that Perdiccas was complicit in Roxana, it is highly unlikely considering that still did not know the sex of their child. However, compared with a fait accompli and only son of Alexander on the way, probably Perdiccas, covered it up.
The son, Alexander IV, thirteen years old when Cassander murdered him while taking the life of Roxana. Not survive the slightest information about his personality or appearance.
Olympia had been lynched four years earlier. Nevertheless, the soldiers of Cassander, who had voted for his death, were not capable of murdering the mother of Alexander. Cassandra gave to the many relatives of those she had sent to kill. He faced his fate, fortunately missing the details, with resolute courage.
Olympia lived seven years longer than his son. Sisigambis, Queen Mother of Persia, survived five days on the news of the death of Alexander. When she heard, said goodbye to his family and friends, stood facing the wall and fasted until death overtook him.
As a courtesy to fellow scholarship, historians are classical natural and correctly assume prior knowledge of the relevant literature to ancient sources. This work is aimed at a broad audience and the following list may serve as a guide for those wishing to make their own assessments and examinations. There is a translation of the majority of the works and the text we have analyzed the relative reliability of the most important *.
Arrian: Anabasis of Alexander.
Quintus Curtius Rufus: The History of Alexander.
Plutarch: Parallel Lives: Life of Alexander.
Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library (books XVII to the reign of Alexander, also the books XVI and XVIII for the events before and after).
Justin: Epitome of Trogus.
Additional biographical details and anecdotes
Plutarch: Parallel Lives: Demosthenes, Eumenes, Phocion.
Plutarch: Moralia or Moral Works: On the Fortune or Virtue of Alexander Sayings of kings and commanders.
Strabo: Geography (Book XV for numerous quotations from NEARCO).
Athenaeus: The dipnosofistas (gossip discourse).
L. Pearson: The Lost Histories of Alexander the Greal (excerpts, with commentary on the authors).
Works related to the life and times of Alexander
Isocrates: Letters and speeches.
Aristotle, especially: Politics and Ethics.
Diogenes Laertius: Lives of the Philosophers,within ten books: Life of Aristotle.
Known works by Alexander, which unsafe or probably influenced in his thinking
Xenophon Anabasis Cyropaedia.
Euripides Tragedies (especially, perhaps, The Bacchae, written and performed for the first time in Macedonia).
EA Wallis Budge, The Alexander Book in Ethiopía, Oxford University Press, London, 1933
George Cary: The Mediaeval Alexander, comp. DJA Ross, Cambridge University Press, London, 1956.
AM Wolohojian: The romance of Alexander the Great by Pseudo-Callisthenes, translated from Armenian into English. Columbia University Press, New York and London, 1969.
Unfortunately it is very difficult to find the exquisite literal English translation in 1880 made Sikandar Nama HW Clarke E Bara, XIII century Persian romance.