Analysis of the Cartagena Manifesto

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Simón Bolívar had assumed command of the Puerto Cabello Square on May 4, 1812. A month later, on 6 June, it fell to the royalists. Faced with this loss and after signing the capitulation, Bolivar got through to Curacao and then to New Granada. There, the government recognized the rank of colonel and allowed their participation in the Campaign of Magdalena. On December 15, 1812 wrote his first document sets out the causes which led to the loss of the First Republic and warns neogranadinos on the need to unite to defeat the enemy. These causes by Bolivar were:
1. The tolerance scheme followed by the Republican authorities to consider how weak and ineffectual. He criticized the attitude of the government of Venezuela against Coro, claiming that the Junta had not let the attack and fortify it, and blaming the judges, who consulted inappropriate codes. "Thus we were philosophers for leaders, philanthropy by law, dialectic and sophistic tactic by soldiers." The doctrine that relied, found that "every conspiracy going on a pardon and forgiveness happening every other conspiracy that turned to forgive."
2. The lack of a regular army, disciplined and able to be in the battlefield to defend freedom. By contrast, many bodies were established undisciplined militias, which, besides depleting the treasury of the national treasury, with the salaries of the staff, destroyed agriculture, the peasants away from their homes and made odious government that forced them to take up arms and abandon their families. The result proved severely Venezuela error calculation. The militants who went to meet the enemy, ignoring the weapons handling, and not being accustomed to discipline and obedience, were overwhelmed at the start of last season, despite the heroic and extraordinary efforts made by their leaders to lead them to the victory.
3. The subdivision of the Province of Caracas. "This reform passed by Congress awakened and fostered a bitter rivalry in the cities and places subordinates against the capital."
4. The dissipation of public revenues evidenced unnecessary costs, especially in salaries of office workers, clerks, judges, magistrates, provincial and federal lawmakers gave "a mortal blow to the Republic", as generated the need for paper money unsecured . This factor contributed to a general discontent that was used by the royalists.
5. The adoption of the federal form of government. The considerable freedom that this system was perfect, but it was not for the interests of nations. Under the federal system, provinces are governed independently, but in practice, were not able to exert themselves fully and their rights as they lacked the political virtues that characterize the republics. Bolivar favored strong centralized government: "Our division, not the Spanish arms, we turned to slavery.
6. The earthquake of 26 March 1812 and the fanaticism of the clergy in relation to the phenomenon were to Bolivar a significant and immediate cause of the ruin of Venezuela. Not only for moral and physical disorders caused, but by the absence of an authority to act with diligence. In this sense, the attitude of the clergy found scope for action because he was aware that crimes were left unpunished forever.
After listing and analyzing these causes Bolivar considered necessary assistance to regain the New Win Caracas and proposed a draft Campaign to go to Venezuela "to liberate the cradle of Colombian independence.

While the causes mentioned by Bolivar contributed to the loss of the First Republic, it must also consider as a negative factor to the patriot cause, the force exerted the hostility of the masses against the new government. The movement of 1810 and the Declaration of Independence directly benefiting the Creoles, and people naturally had to be apprehensive before a movement that favored the industry economically and politically exclusionary social criterion which was manifest. To this was added the influence exercised by the clergy, who accused Republicans of atheism.

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