Mr. Jones: The often drunk farmer who runs the Manor Farm before the animals stage their Rebellion and make it Animal Farm. Mr. Jones is a horrible master who indulges himself while his animals lack food. He represents Tsar Nicholas II, whom the Russian Revolution overthrew.
Napoleon: This is the pig who becomes the leader of Animal Farm after the Rebellion. Representing Stalin, Napoleon uses military force (his nine loyal attack dogs) to intimidate the other animals into obeying him and keeping his power.
SNOWBALL: This is the pig who challenges Napoleon for control of Animal Farm after the Rebellion. He represents Trotsky in the Russian Revolution. Snowball is intelligent, passionate, eloquent, and less subtle and devious than his counterpart, Napoleon. Snowball seems to win the loyalty of the other animals
SQUEALER: The pig who spreads Napoleon’s propaganda among the other animals. Squealer justifies the pigs’ monopolization of resources and spreads false statements that point out the farm’s success.
BOXER: The cart-horse whose incredible strength, dedication, and loyalty play a key role in the early prosperity of Animal Farm and the later completion of the windmill. Quick to help but rather slow-witted, Boxer shows much devotion to Animal Farm’s ideals but little ability to think about them independently. He naively trusts the pigs to make all his decisions for him.
MOLLIE:The vain, and not so smart mare who pulls Mr. Jones’ carriage. She loves attention of human beings and being groomed and pampered. She has a difficult time with her new life on Animal Farm, and misses wearing ribbons and eating sugar cubes.
Animal Farm, known at the beginning and the end of the novel as the Manor Farm, symbolizes Russia and the Soviet Union under Communist Party rule. But more generally, Animal Farm stands for any human society, be it capitalist, socialist, fascist, or communist. It possesses the internal structure of a nation, with a government (the pigs), a police force or army (the dogs), a working class (the other animals), and state holidays and rituals. Its location amid a number of hostile neighboring farms supports its symbolism as a political entity with diplomatic concerns.
The animals of the Manor Farm live in a bad situation because their farmer. One day Old Major called a meeting of all the animals and told them about a dream that he had had the previous night. He had dreamed about an old song called, 'Beasts of England' that started a resistance against the human beings. Everyone was very excited about rebelling. Old Major died a few days later and two young pigs, Snowball and Napoleon, started leading the preparations for the Rebellion. About three months later they revolted against Mr. Jones and they took over the farm. The purpose of the revolution was to create a fair society made only by animals. Snowball and Napoleon started to fight for leadership. Mr. Jones was planning to attack to get the farm back but when he did the animals won the battle called "The Battle of the Cowshed" If something went wrong (like when the windmill they'd worked so hard on was wrecked), Napoleon blamed it on Snowball. When Boxer lost his strength Napoleon sent him to be slaughtered. In the end they became like human beings.