Antonyms,synonyms,homonyms and hyponymy

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2-Explain the differences between lexicology and morphosyntax.

Lexicology is the study of content words, or lexical items (the study of the meanings and origins of words) and morphosyntax is the study of the grammatical categories or linguistic units that have both morphological and syntactic properties (the set of rules that govern linguistic units).


3-Idioms: define and give examples of the two main syntactic types.

An idiom is an expression whose meaning cannot be deduced from the meanings of its parts.

There are two main types of idioms:

-Those which are not whole clauses: pull someone's leg

-whole clauses: he won't even lift a finger


4-Explain how, in certain cases, there are dialectal and stylistic variations between synonyms.

Because these differences are independent from truth-conditions.

-Dialectal differences

Certain synonyms differ from others in their association with a given regional, social or age dialect:

1) Regional dialects for instance, British English in contrast to American English (Autumn-fall; lift-elevator).

2) Social dialects, from working classes to upper classes. (lavatory-toilet)

3) Age dialects (wireless-radio)

-Stylistic differences

These are varieties according to the register, i.E. To varieties of a language used by a single speaker, which is considered appropriate to different occasions and situations of use. Main distinction: formal/informal. This distinction is noted especially between words of Latin and of Germanic origin (brotherly-fraternal; buy-purchase), and between one-word verbs and phrasal verbs (do up-decorate; put off-delay).

-Related to differences in style are differences in emotive meaning

(baby-infant). Emotive words can be evaluatively positive (which is often the case with familiarity markers) or negative (horse-nag; car-banger…; taboos and their corresponding euphemisms).


5-Explain how a pair of lexical items can display more than one kind of oppositeness.

The pair of lexical items “black - white” could be considered as:

-binary antonyms: divide some conceptual domain into two mutually exclusive compartments, so that, what does not fall into one must fall into the other. True/false, dead/alive

people who live in a black and white world

-multiple incompatibles: three or more terms that cover an area and are mutually incompatibles. Seasons, colours animals, plants moths, cardinal points...

the dress is black and white

-gradable antonyms: gradability, members denote degrees of some kind of property.

grey is in between of black and white.


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