IONIC: thet are solids at room temperatures and have medium to high meltin and boiling points. Ionic bond is strong because it is electrostatic. They are very hard. It is not eassy to scratch an ionic compound. They are fragile. Hitting them forces ions with the same signs together, and they repel and break the crystal. Most disolve well in water, water molecules may surround the ions,weakening their bonds and separating them from the crystal lattice. This is called solvation. They do not conduct electricity well in solid state but hey do in solution or liquid state. SODIUM CHLORIDE
COVALENT-NETWORKS SOLIDS: they are solids at room temperatures since they form crystal networks called lattices. They are very hard and they have very high melting and boiling points,since covalent bonds are very strong. They are fragile because the atoms may not change position without breaking the bonds that maintain the lattice. They do not conduct electricity and they are insoluble in water since they are not composed of charged particles. GRAPHITE AND DIAMONDS, SILICON CARBIDE AND QUARTZ.
MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES: they have low melting and boiling points because they are usually in gas,liquid or soft solid form at room temperatures. It is soft and it fragility depends on the compounds. Only the most polar could be soluble in water snd they do not conduct electrical current. And example is WATER
METALLIC BONDS: they are solid at room temperature due to the strenght of the metallic bond,through there are exceptios such as mercury, that are liquid at room temperature. They have high melting and boiling points because the metallic bond is strong it is not easy to separate the atom it joins.They are ductile, malleable and hard. The free movement of electrons prevents repulsion between positive ions when they move. They are insoluble in water and are very electrical and heat conductors and an example is IRON.
ELECTRICAL CONFIGURATION: 1S2, 2S2,2P6, 3S2, 3P6, 3D10, 4S2, 4P6, 4D10, 4F14, 5S2, 5P6, 5D10, 5F14, 6S2, 6P6, 6D10, 7S2, 7P6.
hydrogen 1, boron 3, carbon
4, nitrogen 5, oxygen 6, fluorine 7, sulfur 6, silicon 4, chlorine 7
ELECTRONEGATIVITY: 0-0,4 is covalent. Since 0,5- 1.7 is polar covalent and over 1.8 is ionic bond.
CHEMICAL BOND: occurs when three is an attractive force between 2 atoms or a group that creates a stable and independent chemical.
PROPERTIES OF CARBON: can bond with other via simple, double or triple bond. The carbon chains formed may be linear or cyclic, both can be banched. The compounds it forms must contain at least carbon and hydrogen but may also include oxygen or nitrogen atoms called heteroatoms.
ISOMERES: if carbon compounds hav the same molecular formula even though the atoms are bonded in different ways.
DIAMOND: each carbon atom is bonded to four more. It is the hardest material and has a high melting point at atmospheric pressure. It is not soluble in any solvent. It does not conduct electricity.
GRAPHITE: each carbon is bonded to 3 others with single covalent bonds. The 4 carbon can move freely. It has a high boiling point at atmospheric pressure and is almost insoluble. It is soft solid. It devides easily into layers. It conducts electricity due to the electrons that move freely between layers.
TYPES OF FORMULA: molecular formula(C4H7), complete structural formula con bonds para arriba y los lados and condense strucutral formula con bonds pero poniendo los numeros de las H.
FUNCTIONAL GROUP: with 1 chain is alkane, -ane, with 2 bonds alkene, -ene , with 3 bonds alkyne, -yne. With OH alcohol -ol , with N,NH,NH2 amine -amine,
Main chain(number of carbons) 1-meth, 2-eth, 3-prop, 4-but, 5-pent, 6-hex, 7-hept, 8-oct, 9-non.