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Horticultural practices
PREPARATION OF THE LAND .-
is to divide crumble and loosen the soil for good plant growth
or tillage CLACE PREPARATION OF THE LAND: FUNDAMENTALES.-tillage is to divide the mass shredding of earthy that receive the seed comprises fundamental tillage 1 2nd plowing plowing tillage tracking levels comprises dyads UP .- hoeing and hilling gradea seek to preserve and adequate moisture EFFECTS LABRANZAS.-increasing air content, nitrogen indirect increase due to better development of improved micro-structure better soil conservation soil easy Penetration of roots evils Delas destruction site preparation CATEGORIES ACCORDING TO THE PROFUNDIDAD.-a) Work surface. (no more than 10cm deep) stands, harrows, rollers, tents etc. b) current work or Regular (20cm prof.) pua growers or flexible c) manufactured frofundas(35cm prof.) D) work of hitting the wall (40cm prof.) OBJECTIVE OF .- crumble the earth burst open allowing easy penetration of water and air to lower layers constituri an effective cleaning the land hit the wall SYSTEMS .- 3: leaving superficial and deep layers in their sites, mixing the deep layers with coats agables, reversing the order of soil layers CONSIDERATIONS FOR `PREPRACIONDE PLOWS THROUGH THE LAND .- completion time according to H ° (15 to 20% ), number of plow land class terra cleanliness requirements of crop producers proceedings, conduct of drills, the procedure: flower-beds and flat or full tillage REPRODUCTION AND SPREAD OF SPECIES-are by HORTICOLAS. REPRODUCCION. seed-clack of asexual or sexual or vegetative propagation and seed multiplication BODIES IN THE SPREAD VEGETATIVA.-a) .- goose potato tubers isan b) .- achira yautia rhizomes, ginger c) ajipa yacon roots .- d) onion garlic bulbs .- par galdiolo producciónón seed e) .- strawberry mint sprigs mint f) broteso tillers .- .- ADVANTAGES conflay artichoke strawberry genetic characteristics are maintained, shortening the growing cycle. DESVENTAJAS.-bit shelf reprodunccion material, propagating material very bulky, prone to attack by diseases .- Seed replication that seeds should be chosen must be strong resistance to diseases and pests .- SEEDS is one of the most essential parts of good horticultural crop depends on getting healthy and rendidora REVIEW OF SEED .- authenticity. - size, color shape with a sample checking should be harvested at maturity .- physiological maturity or longevity .- germination time you can live a seed purity, vitavilidad, freshness, weight, real value SEMILLLAS CLASSIFICATION .- .- or primary identity is the one in population genetics and pureza.REGISTRADA .- which has been approved by the government CERTIFIED .- It is the seed signed that is held by farmers to improve .- It is the farmer who producesTHE PRACTICAL METHODS: cleaning is done .- zarandas .- according to size using sieves according to the weight .- through weight espesifico launch .- disinfection using a saline powder disinfectant powder repulsive .- .- It is spreading SEEDING seed on the ground FACTORS FOR GOOD PLANTING .- type and soil, land preparation .- incorporation of organic matter, seed .- Review dela above parameters taken .- Seed treatment is disinfection cleaning scarification selection, planting date .- area or place (caract. Climatic soil conditions)species and varieties, market requirement, cropping system, content of H º, T º, seeding depth of sowing seed distribution mechanism ejcucion, operator skill SEED CLASSES .- .- Direct sowing time benefits now, less use of manpower, but economics, disadvantages .- Seed much used, render the Pantites protention, requires good land preparation, direct seeding precautions .- optimum moisture well prepared ground planting deeper planting transplants .- benefits .- fatores climatic protection, soil disinfection easy selection of seedlings, planting irrigation easy easy. Disadvantages .- more labor more expensive retardation of ciclovegetativosystems .- broadcast sowing, furrow sowing rows METHODS .- continuous jet hit to kill long. CULTURAL WORK .- .- is thinning beets and chard. reseeding or failure .- is when all the seed leaves no irrigation effects .- .- there is biological life of plants due to water of organic matter descompocion chemical dissolution of the earth .- .- physical agrecion different weightings REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PRACTICE OF SOIL .- Water quality, copious irrigation, irrigation early hours of the morning FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE AMOUNT OF WATER .- irrigation systems and methods, season summer winter more water less water, soil texture, crop type, growing season of plantsTRANSPLANTATION .- is when the transaction by which the young plants produced in nurseries for transplantation .- REQUIREMENTS pretaracion plant cool cloudy day, before the extraccon water, land must be well prepared to have water. DISTANCE FROM TRANSPLANT: Distances transplant is linked a. Characteristics of crops. Purpose of the crop. Tent or WEED: OBJECT OF THE CARP. 1Destruir weeds. 2dstruir the crust of the earth's surface. THE BINAS. walks are in light work to remove, crumble, aerate, hold moisture. DESHIERVE. Can be done by hand, mechanically and chemically. FERTILIZER. Communication takes place after each annual harvest. Hilling O RECALZO. The objectives are stable plant, cold protection of the root system, prevent flooding, money, tuberization or increased volume of bulbs, tubers. TUTORAJE O ENCAÑADURA. It can be done in a simple, stand, trIpod, against trellis, tripod, Pyramus, branching, mesh. Phytosanitary treatments. It can be applied. Physical control (photo control) plastic blue and yellow color. Chemical control. Biological control. Remote Control (IPM). PADDING OR MULCH. In order to maintain the balance of soil moisture. Avoid contact with the ground. Avoid weed emergence. Temperature increases. (Lead and white). PRUNING. Tipping, sucker-removers, desbrte or desyemado, desñiete, peeling, Recep or mowing (strawberry). TYPES OF PRUNING. Single stem pruning, pruning or double U-stem, pruning or double candlestick U. MONEY. Aim to give more quality product and can be done. With earthing. Straw shelter. Using tables (type casing). CROP ROTATION. It is methodical and orderly succession of cultivated species in the same field. PURPOSE OF THE ROTATION. Maintaining soil fertility. Control of pests and diseases. RECOMMENDED ROTATION CYCLE. First Year, leafy vegetables. Second year, root vegetables. Tecer year, fruit vegetables. Fourth, h, seed. Associated culture. It consists in the cultivation of two or more species have special characteristics q. Season Como. Exhibition. Soil type. Culture techniques. And having botanical characteristics.SPECIAL HORTICULTURE. Cole crops (Brassica oleracea). FAMILIA. Cruciferaceae or cruciferae. ORIGIN. Southern Europe. Optimum temperature. 12-21 º C (maximum cy minima5 * 28 * C). Photoperiod. Very variable. USES. Consumption in the food and feed. Energy value. 0.23 calories / gram. NUTRITIONAL VALUE. Cabbage vit A. Cauliflower B 2. CY Brucella Col D. Broccoli Ca and Fe therapeutic properties. For arthritis. Builder bones and teeth. Recommended to control anemia. Clarify for eye infections. Botanical characteristics. Flowers root. Inflorescence compound and corymb cluster. Stamens tetradynamous. Silique fruit. Seeds spherical. SOIL CONDITIONS. Loose, fertile. Deep and wet. Preferably clay. PAID. 25-35 TN / ha of decomposed manure. Fertilizer and soil: 1:2:3. Ph 5,6-6,5. WEATHER FOR cole crops. Warm. Cloud. Wet and something fresco.GRUPOS and varieties of cabbage. Brassica oleracea capitata Vd. Cabbage Cabbage leaves smooth. SUB VARIETY. Corazion ox. Quintalero. Purple. PERFORMANCE. 30 50Tn / Ht. Brassica oleraceus of cabbage, kale leaf. SUB VARUEDAD. Asti, vertus, early san juan. PERFORMANCE. 30-40TN/Ha. B, or Botrytis Vd cauliflower brassica oleracea 40tn/has performance: performance brocloli or broccoli .- 30 to 40 tons / ha. brassica oleracea gemmifera vd: cabbage yield: 30 to 40 tons / ha, brassica oleracea Palmflower: cole green. Yield 50 to 69 ton / has Caulo rapa brassica oleracea: cabbage or radish cilinaba.-performance 40 to 50 ton / has brassica campestris .- nabicol kohlrabi or 50 to 60 .- tn/60 GROWING TRANSPLANT TIME Generalmenteson transplantation .- When the plants developed the fourth seeding sheet .- transplant is variable distances. Profundindad seed, germination rate, germination cultural work PESTS .- nstitute popcorn sprouts of cabbages cabbage flies nematode diseases .-Clubroot white rust bacterial leaf spot of mildew mildew damping off of radish and radish sprouts cultivation (rapahanus sativus and R. parvus) parAevitar therapeutic diuritico goiter ENERGY antieescorbutico and botanical characteristics .- 0.23 annual CALOERIAS venial conditions slightly sandy soil .- francs nutrient-rich clay is not paid fertilization soil reaction pH from 5.6 to 6.5 weather varieties of radishes .- globular and oblong CROP boleo reproduction or direct sowing rows, seeding transplant 10 20 kl / has depth of sowing seed .- 1cm distances 10x10 15 x15 20x 20 germination time .- 3 6 days germination .- 4 to 5 yearstraspante .- 4 to 5 leaves real empoca seed cultivation work year-round watering weeding thinning tents, etc.. Plgas .- pulgon grisourga cabbage or turnip pripinto palomnita isoc crusiferas fly soaring cabbage white rust mildew diseases appearing .- bacterial 3 6 months growing cycle harvesting radishes radishes 10 28 days and return 45 90 days 30 40 tn / has so conservation-like potato is only for direct consumption ke cool CULTIVATION OF CEBOLA (Allium cepa) T º 25 º C 15 A short day FOTOPERIDO intermediate and long 10 to 14 hours) properties terapeunticas correct body purifying respiratory energy to the human body nutritional value 1.3 caloriesgood content of vitamins bc ex ncaracteristicas botanical bulb root surface soil conditions .- inflorecencia is not as important to cultivate any sueloabonado incorporate manure from 5 to 6 meces

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