Roman Family: Father of the family ‘ Paterfamilias ‘ had the right of life and death of children as long as he lived, right to choose children occupation, spouses, control wealth, had right on daughters wealth until he dies and moves to husband, have legal power to act, rights are mentioned in the law of ‘ Patria Potestas’
Women in Rome: subordinate to a man, legally under her father, after death she will be under husband, families arrange marriages, she is a free woman after giving birth to three children.Is free from slavery after 4 children. UNIVIRA, one-man-woman, women caught in adultry will be banished from home, women drinking wine are punished
Reasons behind Class Conflict: benefits of conquering new provinces and countries went mostly to rich people, small farmers were forces to serve in the military and often got bankrupted after wars, expansion without planning, made people struggle and poor.
Grrachi Brothers: started office to serve interest of Plebeians, Tiberius Gracchus distributed lands for the poor. Subsidized Grain sale, colonized more land for poor, argued citizenship for all. Laid foundations for the end of Republic, challenged senate and exposed problems of poor.
Bread and Cricuses: Augustus was aware of the risk in number of poor people and aware that he need to keep them happy to not riot by keeping them well fed. Free grain and controlled food prices was the solution and kept them entertained through chariot races and gladiators, circus maximus and amphitheaters.
Why Empire was under the threat of unrest and revolt? Wealthy people had lots of estates, Roman armies captured many natural resources which required more labor for farming and mining which increased the number of slaves and military conquests, piracy and raids in foreign lands .Half million captured during Julius Casesar. What do you know about Spartacus and 3rd servile war in Rome? Was a gladiator, became slave leader in the war which was uprising against the Roman republic, escaped from school and became leader of gladiators in refuge of mount Vesuvius, continued revolt for 2 year, he as crushed by the empire which killed 100,000 slave 6000 crucified as warning against revolt.
New Arrivals in South Asia:New waves of Aryan immigrants happened- People from Central Asia/ Europe and Iran, sanskrit- The sacred language of Hinduism
The VEDAS:T Vedas are religious reflections, the information of the chronicles, collected and composed are found in the stories and scriptures the earliest one is the ‘VEDAS’ (4)- The RIGVEDA, 1028 hymns composed in Sanskrit,The other religious literature during this time consists of ‘Brahmanas’/ Upanishads’.The ‘Puranas’- genealogical lists of the rulers (mixing facts and fable)
Ramayana- a later one The written version in Sanskrit was composed by ‘Valmiki’ in 700 B.C.E, This story tells us about God-king Rama, victory over Ravana (demon king of Srilanka), who had kidnapped Rama’s wife Sita
The Establishment of states Aryans began to build a new urban civilization,700 B.C.E there were many political groupings called –Janapadas- began to emerge, Some constituted as Republic/ other monarchies, One of the dominating states were ‘Magadha’, Alexander the great attacked during 326 B.C.E/ his troops mutinied/ Chadragupta Maurya began to carve the first Indian empire
Government under Maurya Dynasty:Political structure based on family lineage- The new empire expressed its theory and politics in the Artha- Sasthra or the manual of politics by Kautilya, the minister of Maurya- It was discovered in 1909- Indian political thought expressed itself in terms of ‘Justice of the fish’, -larger states swallowed smaller ones- The book states that every state must be on constant guard against its neighbors- for all are enemies- They taught a doctrine ie ‘the enemy of my enemy is my friend’- It includes how to collect taxes and encourage trade - Kautilya was obsessed with spies- In the competitive world of constant warfare, the state had come into its own.- The state has to make sure that its citizens get the four major goals of life- Wealth/ sensual pleasure/ the fulfillment of social and religious duties/ and heaven- The state helped to enforce rules of behavior between males and females- The men will be charged with more power over women- Women’s property rights were always very limited, some professions were open to women- There was a caste system, which regulated the life of people- Caste system governs private behavior and it gives people unequal status under law- The state regulated religious establishments- The state enforced rules developed by the guilds, association of businessmen and producers