Augustus Ceasar: 14 year of war, ,Octavian Reunified the Roman World, Augustus meant ‘Sacred’ his achievement was immense and after his death roman chosen him as GOD. He liked to be called ‘Princeps’ the 1st Citizen, he become single ruler with real power solely under him, ruled for 56 years, stabilized borders and economic growth.
Family Life during Augustus rule: upper class women were educated and participated in public life, equal rights for women in society, women allowed to own and control there own wealth in their own name, exiled own daughter Julia for offending his public affair, punished celibacy, Augustus was for a well- ordered family and well-ordered empire.
Military Under Augustus: during cesar average roman served for 7 years in army, soldiering was a profession, 16-25 year olds were paid regular wages, as Rome expanded the Armies did so.
Economic trade and Politics: Imperial markets that open opportunities for wealth elites, attaining trust is required for hegemony. Romans levied taxes, rents and recruited soldiers from captured people.
Supplying Rome and cities: feeding million people became hectic, food and grains were imported from Egypt, Sicily and North African Cost, only few cities required to import goods due to the large number of inhabitants, people mostly worked on land, agriculture was plenty and consumed the products from newly conquered lands, Rome constructed new cities including Modern London, Paris, Barcelona, Budapest and many other European Countries.
Luxury Trades: Inter-continental, long distance luxury trade, import of myrrh, other spices from Arabia, Ivory from Africa and textiles from india, Rome traded with its Metals ,Gold coins good from china crossed the mountains.
The Golden Age of Greco- Roman Culture: When Rome conqured Greece it took its culture, they adopted Greek Language & Literature as well Architectural and Arts tradition, Rome maintained Polygolt culture in its conquests in Europe and Asia,Latin was Admin Language. Invention of concrete made constructions practicable.\
Religion and Imperial Rome: centralized on the emperor-God, Augustus rebuilt temples and encouraged worship of ancestral gods, sacrifices were made for Gods, Jupiter, Juno and Minevera.
Decline of Roman Empire: invasions by Barbarian Tribes, economic troubles and over dependence on Slave Labor, the rise of the Persian Empire, overexpansion and military overspending, corruption and political instability, Christianity and the loss of traditional values weakening the roman armed forces.
Mare Nostrum: ‘Our Sea’ the Mediterranean sea and the lands 3 continents surrounding it Pax Romana: a rule of stability and Peace that was enforced by Rome.Rome Bday: 21st April marks the finding of the City of Rome
Patricians (Pater-Father): ‘free man’ distinguishing from the majority wealthy, powerful and hereditary were more powerful
Plebeians: Lacked hereditary ties and property, served as military officers, excluded from GOVT, were slaves captured from war. Didn’t allow marriage with Patricians, were only members in the senate.
What do you know about the struggle of orders in Rome? Patricians and Plebeians had disagreements 15 years after the fall of kingdoms, which lasted for 50 years, Plebeians had the advantage of strength and numbers over the Patricians as they were foot soldiers, Patricians impose the Law of 12 tablets which were harsh over the poor especially the Plebeians which put them under fear and lack of rights, which yielded the power of Patricians, Plebians gained representation in the Senate and gained the rights to elect two tribunes.
Tribune: a Plebian officer elected by Plebeians and charge to protect their lives and properties, with the right of a veto power against the proposals of the Senate. Senate: The Roman Senate was the legislative and consultative body of the government, board of old men.
Magistrates: Senate elects them to carry on Administration of the Republic, whom after one year become a member in the Senate.
Consul: two magistrates appointed by the Senate, one of the two holds supreme civil and military authority whom are appointed for one year.