EU: In 1951, six countries founded the European Coal and Steel Community, and later in 1957, The European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community were founded. The members wereBelgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. And the main idea of this union Started by the economic cooperation. The Union has gone from 6 to 28 countries.Challenges: At the moment, the European Union is facing serious economic crises, caused by the global Financial crisis in 2008. The EU economy is becoming less competitive compared To the US or China. EU Member States are witnessing huge unemployment rates, Especially among youth, while the labor markets have shifted towards developing Countries. The EU is witnessing a serious political crisis, apparent in its Decreasing political legitimacy and complicated decision-making policies. But This last challenge, is alive sins many years ago and it’s commonly known as The democratic deficit of Europe. --- Democratic deficit: Refers to the lack of democratic Legitimacy of the EU institutions and the decision-making procedures. The real EU democratic deficit seems to be the absence of European Politics. The EU has tried to solve this problem in part by The Lisbon Treaty, which has Strengthened the European Parliament’s financial, legislative and supervisory Powers. The EP has acquired considerable influence in the appointment of the Commission and its President. The problem remains because Major EU decisions Are still made by the European council, made up of each country's national Leaders who all have voting rights proportional to their population, but people Didn’t directly elected them. The EP, that is elected by EU citizens, is slowly Acquiring more powers, but turnouts in EU Parliament voting remains slow due to Protests against democratic deficit of the EU (42% in 2014).LISBON TREATY: amends the two treaties, which form the Constitutional basis of the EU. Signed on December 2007, and entered into force On 1 December 2009. It amends the Maastricht Treaty (1993), also known as the Treaty on European Union (TEU), and the Treaty of Rome (1958). Supposedly it Gives the European Parliament new legislative powers so that, from now on, can Decide on most EU legislation. The Treaty provides the EU with modern Institutions and improves its working methods to effectively deal with the Challenges of today's world. The main objectives of the Lisbon treaty are to Make Europe more democratic and transparent; an European community of rights And values, freedom, solidarity and security; and make Europe an actor on the Global stage by combining its available instruments of the EU foreign policy When developing and adopting new policies. But the reality is that with the new Regulation, the Council will remain the main decision-making body of the EU, Assuming legal powers of essential formal decision. No political or Community Legislation can be adopted without their consent. However, it has lost some Faculties after this treaty, in favor for example, of the Parliament.
Deepening And enlarging: Enlarging/widening Refers to the expansion in terms of membership of the EU (7 enlargements, 2004 Was the largest one from 15 to 25). The EU is open to all democratic European Countries that wish to join. The EU’s enlargement policy accompanies this Process. Any European country may apply for membership if it respects the EU's Democratic values and is committed to promoting them. However, EU accession is Not automatic: the process is based on strict conditionality, with each step forward Based on real progress achieved on the ground and agreed by all the actors. The Requisites the EU asks for the countries are divided in three main fields: Political (it must have stable institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of Law and human rights), Economic (it must have a functioning market economy and Be able to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the EU) and Legal (it must accept established EU law and practice – especially the major Goals of political, economic and monetary union). Deepening: Refers to this ever-closer union and is seen in the increased integration of The EU. Its clearest manifestation has been the EU's transition towards Economic and monetary union and the introduction of the single currency, the Euro. The article 1 of the Maastricht Treaty mentions that there is “the Process of creating an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe”, so that The main objective of the European deepening and it has actually made progress On that. Links Btw policies and role of institutions: The three main Institutions of the EU are the Parliament (which represents the EU’s citizens And is elected by them), the Council (which represents individually the Governments of the member countries and has a rotating Presidency among them) And the Commission (which represents the interests of the Union as a whole). Together, these three institutions produce through the "Ordinary Legislative Procedure" the policies and laws that apply throughout the EU. In principle, the Commission proposes new laws, and the Parliament and Council Adopt them. The Commission and the member countries then implement them, and The Commission ensures that the laws are properly applied and implemented. The Outcomes of the decision-making process are in form of Treaties establishing The European Union and governing the way it works; and in form of EU regulations, Directives and decisions with a direct or indirect effect on EU member states. Parliament: is n EU body with Legislative, supervisory, and budgetary responsibilities. The number of MEPs For each country is roughly proportionate to its population, but this is by Degressive proportionality. It passes EU laws, together with the Council of the EU, based on European Commission proposals; and decides on international Agreements and enlargements. On the other hand, it establishes the EU budget Together with the Council. European Council: defines the EU’s overall political direction and priorities. It Sets the EU’s policy agenda, in general by adopting conclusions during Meetings. It also sets the “strategic agenda” to be focused in the long term. Takes decisions by consensus, but in certain occasions specified in EU Treaties, Decisions are taken by qualified majority or by consensus. European Commission: proposes legislations, enforces European law And sets objectives and priorities of actions. It also manages and implements EU policies and budget, and represents the EU abroad. In other words, the EC is The executive body of the EU.