ITEM 12. THE BAROQUE. ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING IN ITALY: Bernini and Borromini. Courtezan ARCHITECTURE IN FRANCE. SPAIN: religious and civil architecture. SCULPTURE IN ITALY: BEAUTY AND MATERIALS IN THE WORK OF BERNINI. SPANISH religious imagery: SCHOOLS AND MAIN ARTISTS. PAINTING IN ITALY: THE NATURAL (Caravaggio) and Classic (Carracci) THE BAROQUE DECORATIVE (Cortona and Luca Giordano). PAINTING IN FLANDERS (RUBENS AND HIS CIRCLE) and the Netherlands (REMBRANDT AND TEACHERS UNDER). SPANISH PAINTING: Ribera, Zurbaran, Velazquez and Murillo. The surcharge is an attempt to survive the mannered style since the late s. XVI. Also the decorative complication that has occurred in previous styles (Classical, Romanesque and Gothic), but never as strong as the late Renaissance to the point that is in itself an art style. / / This appears baroque ranging from early s. Until the late seventeenth century. / / There are different theories about where it comes from the name "Portuguese barrueco which means pearl defective and irregular. The Castilian-barrueco irregular pearl and figuratively and contemptuous deformed. "Baroque French which means extravagant. -From the Greek baros weight with significance and, the name of a painter who cultivated this style in Italy and is called Barocci. "It is in 1788 in the General Encyclopedia of Diderot and D'Alembert Quatremere Quincy where the word Baroque joins a visual arts: architecture. "In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (nationalist sentiment) will be recognized not Baroque Classic degeneration but as a style of his time. / / In politics, as a result of the Wars of Religion, comes a new foothold in Europe with political powers clearly divided between Catholic (south) and Protestant countries (north). Nationalities appear as a symbol of their peoples and cultures. Economically arises commercial capitalism and powerful families with countries that become rich and others who fall into ruin. As appears philosophical theories about the divine origin of monarchy, the ideas of Descartes, Newton, Leibnitz. Discoveries of Copernicus, Galileo, Pascal. In music: Vivaldi, Bach and Handel. In literature, Moliere and the Golden Age in Spain. / / This is the art of the Counter-Reformation (Council of Trent -1545 to 1563). Baroque art comes from this council in which the Catholic Church dogmas in art countered attacked by Protestants: the triumph of faith, religion, the papacy, the worship of the Virgin, the martyrs and saints, cultivates pathetic and mystical themes. The Jesuits will adopt as its form of expression. Baroque art has two areas: the courtier and Catholic-looking classic sometimes, other naturalist and, most sensual and decorative. "The bourgeois and / or Protestant, who also seeks the immediate and everyday in the affirmation of the sensitive aspects of reality and their status. But it is more intimate and less decorative. / / The general style began in Rome in the time of Miguel Angel, appearing as a bombastic and flamboyant style. Among the causes which tend to taste the wealth of appearances, we find the rise of capitalism, the rich families of Rome, ... and all the circumstances noted above. / / The complication appears mixed sometimes ornamental architecture, painting and sculpture, all contributing the sumptuous look of the whole. / / The Spanish Baroque covers s. XVII and XVIII the first half of coinciding with a critical period in the economic sphere, that of the Austrians, with a disproportionate involvement of the nobility in the government and the desire to appear. It created some originality coming to some schools. It is a creative boom time over the real possibilities in art as in the religious calendar. In this second aspect are built large temples and rich decoration. The sculpture and painting realism and pathos accused to move the spirit of the faithful to the transcendent .//////ARCHITECTURE: After the Counter Reformation, the end of the XVI, the church shows its austerity in providing fine art nudity and sobriety (purist style) but without forgetting the greatness (supersedes the ornamental). But this architecture, mathematics and naked short-lived since in the seventeenth century gives way to the complexity and dynamism. Complicated spatial structures to be richer in terms of the motion but with classic elements, breaking and giving freedom to a Renaissance artist could not imagine. / / Features: plants and curving walls, temples of luxury and ornamentation, curved cornices , broken pediments and put inside another one, twisted columns, use of pilasters (columns greatest width at the bottom that high), archways, decorative foliage covering everything theatrical and motion sensation; painted lunette vaults scenes celestial domes with spectacular lighting effects;; effects of light and shadows on the facades on the exterior decorative exuberance that comes to hide the constructive elements, sculptures in niches or niches, cornices, moldings superfluous combination of buildings and places and gardens looking perspective and diagonal axes escaped creating a set of bombast. The eye can not see the entire set of the work but that to understand all components of the building needs to go for parts and details. / / / / ITALY: This style was born in Italy in the early XVII. / / The Italian Baroque has different stages: early-Baroque to the use of classic, austere, sternly but with resource utilization and Baroque elements. (Carlo Maderno). Classic-Baroque which uses classical elements but gives movement and dynamism. (Bernini and Pietro da Cortona). Baroque-full, which unites the elements of classical baroque mannerist elements. (Borromini, Guarino Guarini and Filippo Juvara)-Rococo, is to maximize the full Baroque elements. / / In Rome: Jacob Barozzi Vignola (1507-1573) is the creator of one of the models which will serve the baroque churches . His work is the Jesuit church in Rome (Il Gesu) that can be considered as the first baroque building (early baroque). The facade is of Giacomo della Porta to be fairly flat baroque element used to introduce a triangular pediment within a semicircular. / / Carlo Maderno / a (1556-1629) was the first Baroque architect properly, resulting in his works splendidly grandiose creating and curve and the play of light and shadows. Finish the Basilica of St. Peter's with the extension of the Latin cross plant and its façade, which connects the palace with the religious facade (balcony). Yesterday the facade of the church of Santa Susana, similar to that of "Il Gesù" but it is not flat and decorate the interior of the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria. As civil works carried out by the Barberini Palace which will be completed by Bernini and Borromini. / / Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1599-1680) is the supreme representative of Italian Baroque architecture as both a sculptor. Break the dynamic space being moved. Make, in St. Peter's two masterpieces: the Colonnade at Piazza S. Pedro and in bronze, the Baldacchino with the novelty of using a twisted column (helical, spiral) as a model for subsequent architectures, especially for facades and altarpieces. Finish the Palazzo Barberini (initiated by Maderna) and takes the Odescalci Montecitorio and palaces, the latter important because it will be imitated in French architecture and at Versailles or through your own project for the Louvre that was never carried out. It was also a painter./ / Francesco Borromini (1599-1667) is a deeply religious man but tormented spirit. It is that which brings us to the very Baroque and Bernini created scenery and movement with classical elements but Borromini breaks the classical orders and charges, without proportion (break the rules, invented new elements, conceives of architecture as sculpture, and undulates entablatures ledges, banked walls, new forms of capitals ...). His imagination and extraordinary ability to make their works are genius and inventiveness. It is the true creator and disseminator of the facade and curved plan of the game and concave and convex volumes, specializing in the construction of churches such as San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane and Santa Inés (Piazza Navona), the Oratory of Philippians and the Chapel of the University of Rome (San Ivo alla Sapienza). As civil works is the palace of the Propaganda Fide (in collaboration) and the Palazzo della Spada. Pietro da Cortona (1596-1669), painter and architect, is an interpreter of classicism with a new order. Use the sculptural sense column (column decorative). He specializes in the study of perspective to create his work. Thus, the facade of Santa Maria della Pace is designed as the diagonals and perspective of the square in front. It also has the church of Saints Martina and Luca. / / In Venice: Baltasar Longhena (1598-1682) is quite classic, but combines elements Palladio (Renaissance) with other Byzantines. Work: the church of Santa Maria della Salute. / / / / In Turin: Guarino Guarini (1624-1683) religious and math teacher is considered the great geometer from Turin. In his works blend Renaissance-influenced elements of Gothic, Mudejar (brick), Hispano (dome and vault Caliphate) and Sicilian-Norman (Sicilian tradition = brick). Their property are guaranteed oculi (decorative outdoor or window.) Works in Turin: the Carignano Palace, the church of S. Lawrence and Chapel of the Holy Shroud. Juvara Filippo (1676-1736). In Turin, the two currents are given as in Rome. If Guarino Guarini's Borromini, Bernini Juvara is. It marks the transition from Baroque to neoclassical. Guarini influences him but is more interested in the works of Bernini. Her works are the basilica and monastery of Superga gantry classic dome, the church of San Felipe Neri and the facade of Palazzo Madama to be the basis for the Royal Palace in Madrid. He is appointed by court architect Victor Emmanuel of Savoy and asked to work in European courts as the place where the Spanish Royal Palace of Madrid (which connects the palace of Bernini Odescalchi the influence of the facade of the palace of Versailles Madame and elements and the Louvre) and the palace of La Granja. In Portugal, the Royal Palace and the Cathedral of Lisbon. ///// FRANCE. The French Baroque architecture is both religious and civil. In the nun appears the Italian influence, while in Civil most useful and sought after Louis XIII funcionalidad.A are the kings who promote the great works and so the style will be named the monarch in question. Louis XIII. Churches and palaces were built on Italian models. The most important authors are Lemercier author of the Church of the Sorbonne, Mansart builder of the church of Val de Grace and the palace of Maisons Laffitte, and finallyLe Vau making the main facade of the Louvre. / / Some of these authors work also during the reign of Louis XIV. Louis XIV is both a style characterized by the magnificence and richness especially in the interior, as due to the foundation Academy elements comply with greater sobriety and classicism. The Palace of Versailles brings together artists of all kinds as Perrault, Le Vau and Hardouin. The latter also makes the Church of the Invalides in the Place Vendome in Paris. Louis XV. The refinement of the baroque forms results in this reign, the so-called Rococo is characterized by the use of the rockery. The most important author is Jacques Gabriel that works even in Spain where he is the author of the Hall of Porcelain Palace of Aranjuez. This style arises because of the importance acquired by the big bourgeoisie that seeks a more enjoyable life and art is more delicate. Louis XVI. It is close Neoclassicism when adopting the rules of the Academy. These represent a return to classic standards and creativity is lost. Authors: Servandoni the church of S. Sufflot Sulpice, and is the author of St. Genevieve, also known as the Pantheon in Paris .//// GERMANY AND AUSTRIA: Lucas Hildebrandt Balthasar Neuman / / / ENGLAND: SPAIN .///// Inigo Jones. With the transfer of the court Madrid is produced and urban population growth and is first order, then the capital of the great architectural focus s. XVII. At the time of the Bourbons is built around the court under the French and Italian influences. In a second step creates the regional schools. / / Castilla: Juan Gomez de Mora works at the convent of the Incarnation in Madrid near Fray Alberto de la Madre de Dios. It also works in the municipality of Madrid, in the course of the Plaza Mayor of Madrid and the Clergy of Salamanca. Crescencio is of Italian origin and is the author of the prison of the Court, also makes the Pantheon of the Kings of the Monastery of El Escorial of polygonal, bronze and polychrome marble. Francisco Bautista built the church of S. Juan Bautista de Toledo and the convent of Santiago in Madrid Comendadoras. Pedro de la Torre is the author of the Chapel of S. Isidro in the church of S. Andrés de Madrid. Jose Jimenez Donoso built the House of Salamanca Panadería.En work throughout the period Churriguera family and his style is characterized by a further complication in the structure of the buildings which has resulted in the so-called Baroque " Churrigueresco. De Salamanca to carry out work to other provinces. José Benito Churriguera has the coffin of Queen Maria Luisa of Orleans, the altarpiece of S. Salvador de Leganés, the chapel of the Sagrario of the Cathedral of Segovia, the urban complex of Loeches Baztán New Madrid and the facade of the Academy of Fine Arts S. Fernando in Madrid. Alberto Churriguera performs the Plaza Mayor of Salamanca and was the one who completed the facade of the cathedral of Valladolid.Pedro de Ribera is the most bizarre and complicated baroque architects. Works: The bridge of Toledo, the shrine of the Virgen del Puerto, the church of the convent of Benedictine Montserrat, the cover of the hospice, the cover of the Conde Duque Barracks, all in Madrid. Narciso Tome has the facade of the Universidad de Valladolid and the glass of the cathedral of Toledo. Ardemans Theodore was born in France but coming to Spain to work in the palace of La Granja modeled on Versailles. Juvara Filippo involved in building the Royal Palace in Madrid with Sachetti but is more classical Filippo especially in the Chapel Royal. Bonavia made the palace of Aranjuez. Carlier the convent of the Salesian Real Madrid .//// Galicia: The ornamentation is not as lush and the main examples are in Santiago de Compostela around their temple of the Apostle, as it provides a wrap baroque cathedral. José Peña del Toro makes the Torre de la Campana. Andrade l to Clock Tower. Casas Novoa is who covers the Romanesque portal of the Gloria with Baroque facade .///// Obradoiro Catalonia. Josep Juli has the church in Bethlehem and the palace of the Virreina, both in Barcelona .///// Francisco Aragón de Herrera, the Younger and Ventura Rodríguez end the Basilica del Pilar Zaragoza. The latter also works in Madrid in the Liria Palace and the church of S. Mateo. This is an author and links to lift .//// neoclassical particular stress two cities: Valencia and Murcia. Conrrado Rudolf performing the facade of the cathedral of Valencia. Jaime Bort made the facade of the cathedral of Murcia. / / / Andalucía. Alonso Cano up the facade of the cathedral of Granada, Francisco Hurtado Jeronimos monastery of Seville, Antonio S. Rodriguez Palace Telmo in Seville, Luis de Arévalo the sacristy of the Cartuja de Granada y; Vicente Acero makes the drawings of the Cathedral of Cadiz and the facade of the cathedral of Malaga ./////// SCULPTURE: In the s. XVI forms that follow were submitted by Miguel Angel (inner tension, but always contained a closed contour). Renaissance forms are in equilibrium and rest, the Mannerist close on themselves, nothing stands out. But in the s. XVII outstanding sculptural forms are grimacing, open, even when they are moving in marble. / / Features: - A desire to move, not the content but to the outside. Now the bodies break the invisible forces that imprisoned in the mannerism and move more naturally. Thus, there will be ways in saltire, the garments take on personality so that the folded double, swell and swirl. Sculptor focuses more on the movement of the fabrics that make the forms of the human figure. Without doubt it is a pictorial character appear, trying to represent the appearance that the reality of form. "It opposes surfaces (contrast). A smooth and other rough, searching for the polychrome marble and polychrome wood. The virtuoso is that the marble seems alive with various wear surfaces creating painterly effects."Sometimes I do not think of a sculpture isolation but needs a framework to continue the movement. It is a decorative sculptures, contrived and tries to impress. "Contrasts in the materials and their mixture. -Materials: Italian marble, bronze and, to a lesser extent, wood. France: marble and bronze. in Spain and Germany: marble, bronze, clay and timber. · Topics: religious themes, mainly ecstasy (divine love), the apotheosis glorious scenes of saints (especially martyrdom) and certain allegories, abounding in altarpieces and church facades. Civil-themed decorative and occur equestrian statues, monuments citizens, sources ... often inspired by mythology. Mythological themes for the decoration of palaces and gardens. Theme funeral as the exaltation of humanity, the glory of the powerful and heroic character .//// ITALY. Esteban Maderno in 1600 sculpted in white marble at Santa Cecilia, lying after being beheaded. Works well polished and treated with great naturalism. Its composition is still closed. Gian Lorenzo Bernini: His most important works are performed only as from 1620: · Rape of Proserpine, or Pluto and Proserpina (1621-22), which represents the rape of the goddess by the god of the underworld or Averno described in Ovid's Metamorphoses. You back the dog Cerberus or guardian of the gates of Hades. Composition blade that opens into the hands of Proserpine, creating diagonal spread out. Is marble. Movement and dynamism, appear that this struggle will keep forever, but knows that Pluto is going to win by mocking laughter it presents. · Apollo and Daphne (1622-25), represents the final moment of the chase in which Apollo Daphne touches and it becomes laurel. It represents the outward movement, great refinement of modeling and naturalism in the leaves and bark. Psychological effects on their figures. · David (1623), represented just in time to throw with a sling. Even with the gesture of strength in the face. · Longino (1629-1638), is a monumental figure. His work is truly complete as it breaks the classical scheme, giving the diagonal composition and the conquest of the body through the clothing, designed dramatically. Movement, light and shade. Abundant two-color folded and makes the niche of marble of various colors. · Ecstasy of Saint Theresa, Cornaro Chapel in Santa Maria della Vittoria. It is the theme of divine love and regards it as a table despite being in the round. Play pictíricas shades between dark marble columns with a clear center that makes an angel or seraph penetrating the heart of the holy with the fiery arrow of divine love, a symbol of the holy union with Christ. All this on a large cloud of white marble. Different qualities are noted between the cloud and the mantle that are rough and the body is polished. Mix materials: black and white marble with gilded bronze combined arrow and rays of light from the background. In the holy, the body that represents is at least limited to the face, hand and foot. The rest is covered by the study of folding of the mantle, where what matters is your choice, not anatomy. In this view it is added to the sides of the altar stands as a theater, a kind of balcony where are the characters of the Cornaro family that comment, come and enjoy this vision with movement and gestures. ·Death of Beata Albertoni, in ecstasy, which repeats the provision of the face and folded in Santa Teresa but it creates more drama to twist itself and to stand alone. · Al tar Mayor de San Pedro del Vaticano, called the Chair (or chair) S. Pedro. It is located in the apse of Michelangelo. In the center of the oval window where it says the dove of the Holy Spirit. About the Celestial Glory with many angels and rays of light emanating from the center. Below the chair represents S. Peter, under two angels with the tiara and keys, wrapped as a relic. On the back the relief of handing over the keys of Jesus S. Pedro. Chair taken by the four Fathers of the Church. Using harvested and repolishing marble, bronze and gold painted plaster simulated. Movement and nervousness. Interpretation of the stage. · Tomb of Urban VIII (1628-1647) in S. Peter's, is crowned by a statue of the seated pope and blessing, in bronze on a marble pedestal incorporating high set two allegorical figures: Charity and Justice. True memory of the tombs of the Medici by Michelangelo. Death of the sarcophagus that starts out the poster of the Pope's name. Mix materials: bronze and marble, creating painterly effect and play of light and shadows. · Tomb of Alexander VII. (1671-78) in S. Peter. Unlike the previous almost everything is marble, except the Sun of Truth (allegory). Mixing different colored marbles. The Pope appears on a pedestal, praying sarcophagus. On either side the allegorical figures of virtues: Charity, Truth and, including a large cloak with many folds of trying to escape Death boosting the hourglass, giving the instability of life and strong faith of the Pope prayer. / / As urban designer performs several sources: • the Triton, is one of their primary sources (1642-1943), which represents four dolphins supporting an open shell inside which emerges a newt playing a horn or marine shell. · of the Four Rivers in Piazza Navona (1648-51). Represents Danube, Ganges, Nile and Rio de la Plata supporting a shield with the keys of S. Peter and an Egyptian obelisk. Breaks the effect of symmetry by the movement of the characters. Share in the counter of characters. · Of Neptune (god of the sea) and the Moro (goddess marina, shell and dolphin) both in Piazza Navona .//// Portraits: · Portrait of Louis XIV of France made for (sister of the Pope). It is a bust of primarily psychological. Sobriety, restraint and psychological analysis. your stay at the French court invited by the king and as a model for other portrait. Constance · Ratrato Buonarelli. Alejandro Algardi · Relief of Meeting of Pope Leo I and Attila (Attila arresting Leo (1646-1653) in which the Pope stops, assisted by St. Peter and St. Paul are coming from the sky , Attila in his attempt to take Rome. Made of white marble, is balanced, has the three forms of relief and creates depth.'s actually the creator of reieve Algardi painting. • The Beheading of St. Paul (1641-1647) . It represents two figures in the round the executioner with sword held high and kneeling saint. · Portrait of Ms Olimpia Pamphili (Pope's sister). Bust of primarily the psychological. Sobriety and restraint. Duquesnoy Francisco. Accentuate the classic. · San Andres S. Peter. In the central pillars of the basilica, there are four niches which represent the four best preserved relics are the Vatican: the cross of S. Andrew, the spear of Longinus, the cloth of Veronica and the Cross of Christ found by St. Helena. Longinus does Bernini. Represents like that of Bernini in white marble cross a composition giving the figure a more dynamic and moved. But the folds are quite straight, eliminating the wealth and virtus of Bernini achieved cloak. Camillo Rusconi is a sculptor who gives way to s. XVIII, where the stream joins the classicist berninesca Algardi and Duquesnoy. Work: San Mateo. / / / / In the s. XVIII remains the influence of Bernini in all sculptors, giving a bifuecación in two directions, one of refinement, gracefulness and playfulness that gives rise to the Rococo, and another will emerge severe Neoclassicism. / / / Del XVIII are sculptors such as Pietro Bracci (1700-1773) and Filippo della Valle (+ 1768) which together with the architect Nicola Salvi made between 1732 -62, one of the most beautiful fountains of Rome: The Trevi Fountain. Source that uses the facade lower side of the palace of the Dukes of Poli, giving a theatrical character .//////////////// PAINTING: ITALY: Baroque Painting in Italy continues to use fresh, but also the oil painting on canvas, which leads to abandonment of the table. / / This painting was created as opposed to the Mannerist style that was of an aristocratic and intellectual and therefore not served a religious world as it produced shock and awe the faithful to see the unreality of elongated bodies, plenty of nudity, abhors a vacuum and perspectives not covered. / / For this reason, tends to naturalism, with a desire for movement and decorative taste for letting the player to make the faithful gimmicky approaches the church, depicting saints and heroes. / / also created to serve as the Counter-naked decrease (in religion only in San Sebastian and Magdalena) and the mythological. Add to that the abundance of themes of martyrdom and apotheosis as sculpture. / / Baroque painting between late-century S. XVI to XVIII and although emen Italy where this style from the rest of Europe, introducing innovations in each country. / / Italy is also the first to highlight the fundamental directions of baroque painting: 1 .- Naturalism and tenebrism: Caravaggio. 2 .- Classicism: The Carracci, Guido Reni, Domenichino, Guercino. 3 .- Decorative Painting: Pietro da Cortona, P. Pozzo and Luca Giordano (Luke Jordan) ///// Naturalism and gloomy. Naturalism is the opposite of Mannerism, does not stop to things less pleasant as corpses, pieces of meat, fish, cows open channel or little human types perfect. / / The tenebrism painted on a dark background highlighting the things in the foreground by creating directed illumination, therefore, a contrast of light and shadow. The tenebrism not used in landscapes but in still lifes. In the more advanced is used to dusk./ / Michelangelo Merisi, Caravaggio (1573 to 1610). Born in the village which gives its name, north of the peninsula, soon moved to Rome where he began to paint in a workshop. Complex life man, alone, works alone (rare in this time dominated the teacher and the workshop) and rebellious. Die young and with limited production. Make few works but changes the whole history of painting and will be followed and copied by other artists .. Paint all the topics from the mythological, religious and always taking street types and characters holding current reality and the street where you live. Use direct-to-natural models with all its imperfections (naturalism) and to emphasize that actually uses something that is not real: its light is unreal, and that places the dark background from which a strong light source (tenebrism), giving an strong contrast of light and shadows, leaving no spaces between chiaroscuro. Caravaggio why not give significance to the stage at the back because they almost always removed. Give what has been called tenebrist current, Caravaggesque, claoscuros strong .... That influence Flemish, Holland, France, and even in the first Velázquez. / / Works: Mythological-moral: Baco Baco teenager El Niño / / Religious: is the largest production. Here, also look for real models and feral, with the use of the dark: The Death of the Virgin, Burial of Christ, The Supper at Emmaus, David with the Head of Goliath, Jerome / / Other religious works: the Virgin of the Rosary Our Lady of the grooms, San Juan Bautista, S. Vocation Matthew, the martyrdom of s. Matthew S. converting Pablo / / / / Classicism is the Bolognese school (Northern Italy). Contemporary naturalism is reacting strongly against excessive idealism (mannerism) and against excessive reality Caravaggesque naturalism, creating a painting for a more intellectual Renaissance that winds up on a certain idealism. This style really liked all of the various cults, considering an eclectic style (drawing by Michelangelo, colorful Venetian rafael idealism and sensuality of Correggio) is a synthetic art. Concerned about the landscape that is usually beautiful, serene, to be inserted in the classical ruins that opposes the landscape made by Flemish and Netherlands who are much more real and dramatic. Primacy of natural design with classic elements without altering the real but imperfect removing. Stresses Barocci. The Carracci: Luis, Anibal and Augustine. Carracci, La Virgen de los Descalzos Augustine Carracci, S. Communion Jerome, and The Marriage of S. Catalina. Annibale Carracci: mythological scenes of Love, The Flight into Egypt include Guido Reni Crucifixion of S. Peter (Vatican), La Magdalena (Chicago). Among the latter: The Aurora (Villa Ludovisi, Rome), Hippomenes and Atalanta (Prado). Il Guercino, .///// Dawn Decorative painting. Call baroque fullness also . Surge in 2nd ½ s. XVII. He specializes in spectacular and magnificent vaulted decorative purposes. Background: The vault of Annibale Carracci and his pupil innovations Lanfranco ago in the 20s of the XVII dynamic elements, movement, twisting and flying figures painted in the service of power.Pietro da Cortona's Triumph of Divine's win s. Ignacio (1685-1694): over the real structures Dela frescoed church, with special effects virtuoso, walls and arches of another great temple which appears in a sky full of groups of angels and allegorical characters. Pozzo performed well, with the work of Baciccia (the Gesu), the most solemn and emphatic celebration of the glories of the Church, while the last great work of Italian Baroque. Il Baciccia, The glory of the name of Jesus. Lucas Jordán (Luca Giordano) (1634-1705). Napolitano, is a large vault. A pupil of Ribera. It charts the manner and style of artists as diverse as Raphael, Durer and Tintoretto. Studied Lanfranco, Pietro da Cortona and the great Venetian masters. That ability to evoke distant foreign styles, as well as the speed with which performed his works earned him the nickname of Luca "Fa Presto. Are aspects that manifest the exceptional virtuosity and intelligence, colorful paintings, giving a personal evolution from the tight realism of his early years riberiano until light baroque apotheosis of your last period. It is the most famous mural of the Italian painter of his time. He was called by Charles II of Spain where he worked until he died. Frescoes in the Church and the staircase of the Escorial, the hall the Cason del Buen Retiro and the Sacristy of the Cathedral of Toledo. No other Baroque painter left a production as large as him, sometimes suffers from haste and superficiality, but as a whole as a case of great fertility inventive variety of inspiration and mastery of technical resources. Influences such as fresco painters in s. XVIII. / / / FRANCE. Are given the same trends as in Italy. A) Naturalism as a result of contact with Italy reached great success but despite of this, some authors are of influence La Tour in Holland. / / La Tour is the most famous tenebrist as shown in Cheaters serving light of a candle to illuminate his work. / / The Le Nain brothers represent rural scenes in tone funny and always outdoors. B) Classicism. Principañmente practiced by the French who lived in Rome and from there to the orders. They tend to be landscapes and portraits. "Landscape: Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain. "Portrait: Philippe de Champaigne, Hyacinthe Rigaud and Nicolas Larguilliere. Entombment of Christ Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Flora, The Plague of Asod, and Shepherds of Arcadia. Claudio Landscape with the embarkation of Santa Paula .//// The portrait are influenced by Rubens and Van Dyck and work around the reign of Louis XIV (1 ½ s.XVII). Philippe de Champaigne, comes from Flanders and is the creator of two trends, an intimate bourgeois characterized by simplicity and expressiveness (Portrait Arnauld's mother and the daughter of the painter), and the other court in which what prevails is the dress and gesture. / / In the court of Louis XIV dominates this second trend and its authors are Hyacinthe Rigaud and Nicholas Larguilliere working especially sumptuous fashion and showiness of the portraits with very complicated architectural backgrounds and draperies. A) The Academy and the Art of Versailles. / / In the 2nd half century XVII establishing the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in order to make art in the service guidelines of the Royal House that will align and control the CreAcción Paris.Simon Vouet is its originator. Educated in Rome, after an initial stage reaches the classical tenebrist more brazen. Brum Charles Le is the chief representative of the Academy. Poussin's Disciple and follower of Rubens. He works as a painter at Versailles real in Allegories of the king and tapestry cartoons in the Royal Palace. Mignard painted the dome of Valde-Grace besides being a portrait of the Court; Antoine Coypel author of the dome of the Chapel of Versailles and Charles de la Fosse author of the dome of the Invalides. / / / FLANDERS AND HOLLAND: So s.XVII both territories share a common culture that, since then, will distance themselves in the social, economic, political and religious as a result of secession Province of North Holland or the Crown of Spain. As a result we must differentiate between a Protestant North, and a bourgeois democratic South or Flemish Catholic and monarchist aristocra'tico. / / These differences are reflected in the paintings: themes, sizes and ways to treat them. Belgium is religious issues large altar paintings of the theme of Saints and Sacraments. Mythological themes for great palaces, always very sensual and very pompous and solemn portrait. Holland is Old Testament religious themes in small format (for rooms of the bourgeoisie), while the boxes disappear altar; The mitológixco subject are few and treated allegorical and moralizing, the picture is sombre, intimate and realistic portrait corporative appearing in a tone of democratic equality. In short like most of realismno of bourgeois taste, small size, decorated with domestic scenes, animals, cityscapes, rural, marine, still life ... The authors are independent and work in stores where customers go. ///// Flanders. Peter Paul Rubens is educated in the Italianate forms as civil law is considered one since his trip to Italy where Michelangelo estidia adopting the greatness of the body, the Venetian with its warm colors and Caravaggio. Characteristics of his work are the exuberance, dynamism and vitality in diagonal compositions that reinforce the sense of movement. Religious works: Adoration of the Magi, The Descent, Doomsday. Mythology: The Three Graces, Judgement of Paris (where used as a model to his wife Elena Fourment), colorful pictures with an intense and important psychological treatment. Van Dyck is a disciple of Rubens it influences both the mythological subjects as in the portrait. Features: elegance and delicacy that makes the service of his court portraits. Influence-century English painting XVIII. CarlosI Portrait of England. Jordaens is a convert to Protestantism. Discusses hot topics very happy bourgeois The satyr and the peasant. In the mythological Rubens also follows that it was his teacher. ////// Netherlands. Rembrandt is a man of dramatic life. Italy is inspired by what makes you influenced at first by the tenebrism with strong chiaroscuro games in shadow. Old Testament religious subjects treated very dramatically, landscapes, still lifes, portraits, self portraits, portraits corporative, mythological.Night Watch, The Sampling Officials of Amsterdam, bathing Girl, The Flayed Ox. It also cultivates the genre of printmaking. Hals portrait is essentially a cheerful and optimistic spirit. Release technique (Impressionism). Portrait corporative official Banquet S. Jorge, The Regents of the nursing home. Delft works primarily on indoor tables treated with great delicacy and simplicity. Colors applied to characters that are engaged in household chores the letter.