9.What causes systems designed to maintain peace to fail or succeed?
One system created to maintain peace was The League of Nations (LON). It was promoted during the WWI by Woodrow Wilson (USA president). This league was created in 1920 with the idea of prevent another catastrophic conflict or war through discussion, negotiation and diplomacy.
The LON provided to all their members’ (at its peak there were 60 members) some aims: the first is collective security, which means protect every nation from other attacks. The second was help countries with disputes to settle their problems peacefully. The third was encouraging all the country members to reduce its armaments. The last one was promoting the international cooperation with problems.
These aims help undertook humanitarian work to improve the health and living standards of people. The LON had special commissions to work against slavery, share medicines and help refugees. Moreover the LON paid for the International Labour Organization (ILO) which helped to improve the conditions for workers in different countries.
Although all of these had some success improving working conditions, health and sanitation, and giving economic assistance to lots of countries; it also had many limitations, which meant that it was less effective. So we are going to see the reasons why this LON failed.
As there were lots of members it took a long time for decisions to be made and action taken. Also the League encourage the reduction of armaments, there was a lack of an own standing LON army.
The world economic crisis (Great Depression) which began in 1929 contributed to the LON’s decline. It brought unemployment and falling living standards to most countries. Due to this depression countries had not too much money and as the LON relied on economic sanctions to get states to comply with its decisions, these sanctions had limited impact.
The weakness of the LON was exposed when, in 1930, new aggressor states challenged peace like Japan and Germany together with Mussolini, they refused to keep to the rules or uphold treaties. The League failed to stop Japan invading Manchuria (China) in 1931 and Italy’s attack on Abyssinia (today Ethiopia) in 1935.
In conclusion the LON failed to keep its idealistic idea of peace and the WWII that followed it was the most horrific in human story.