1.The Ancien Régime is a period that covers the 17th and 18th centuries. During it a lot of political, economic and social transformations took place:
-Monarchs became more powerful, trade increased, bourgeoisie became more powerful and wealthier, humanism developed, there were advances in science and philosophy and new artistic styles amerged.
The main features of the ancien régime:
-Open economy: craft production and trade/ powerful monarchs: absolute monarchy/ estates system: nobility:social power,bourgeoisie: economic power/ culture: humanism
1.1 Politics in the Ancien régime: in the 17th cent. Absolute monarchy came to predominate in Western Europe.
Estates General: political assembly in which all the estates of the realm were represented.
2.Economy and society of the A.E: had the following characteristics:
-Economy: relevance of traditional agriculture/ survival of the trades in the craft production/ stagned domestic trade/ foreign trade expanded through new routes/ mercantilism was imposed as an economic system.
Mercantilism: a new system that was based on the idea that a country's wealth depended on how much gold and silver it had.
-Society: continued to be statified/ the third estate had to pay taxes/ the nobility and the clergy did not pay taxes.
-Rationalism and Empiritism were new ways of thinking that appeared in the 17th cent.
-Scientific Method the knowledge of chemistry, medicines and other sciences coul de tested by following these steps: observation and measurement, the establishment of a hypothesis, the demostration or refutation of the hypothesis and the presentation of conclusions.
4.18th cent: the enlightenment; was an intellectual movement and a new way of thinking that emerged in Europe in the 18th cent.
The main principles of enlightenment tought were:
-Learning and teaching/ reason is the only real source of knowledge/technological and science progress/ equality and liberty.
Enlightenment thinkers did not suppoirt absolute monarchy and they proposed measures to limit powers, such as the separation of powers and popular sovernity.
Popular sovernity : political theory that states that the power resides in the will of the people.