3.3. THE FOUNDATIONAL TREATIES. The idea was to encourage a progressive economic integration that would eventually lead to a political union. The first treaties>foundational treaties : THE TREATY OF PARIS (1951) >Established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) >Originally formed by: France, Luxembourg, West Germany, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands. The treaty of rome: Signed by the same six countries ,Established the EEC (European Economic Community) Formed a common market of goods, labour, services and capital and a common agricultural policy.The Treaty of Euratom (European Atomic Energy Community) >A common market for nuclear energy . The ECSC, EEC and Euratom created their own institutions that gradually took on some responsabilities of the member states. 4. THE COMMUNIST WORLD (1945-1982) 4.1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS .Political system: dictatorship of proletariat= The common interest was more important than individual rights and freedom.Countries created institutions that joined executive and legislative powers and only permitted the existence of a single party: the communist party. Economy was controlled by the state: Collectivizied the land, nationalizied indutry and services and controlled the market and prices.1945-1960, it recovered from the crisis caused by the war.After 1960, the economy slowed down, due to: 1. Low productivity. 2Lack of economic incentives to work . 3Technology in the Eastern bloc was far behind Western countries . 4Lack of consumer products led to the rationing of some goods . Communist society was: In theory: egalitarian> classless In practice: important differences between: The communist party that controlled the state bureaucracy The rest of the population The standard of living for most of the population improved after the war, but not to the level of Western countries. The state guaranteed:1. Fullemployment 2.Covered basic needs(education and health) 3.Improved public services although the equality of these services was poor. 4.2. THE COMMUNIST COUNTRIES Communist bloc (Soviet Union)= Central and Eastern Europe (Soviet troops after the WW2).Revolutions in China (1949) Revolution in Cuba (1959 ).Some parts of Asia (North Korea and Indochina) .Some parts of Africa (Angola and Namibia) .The soviet union: Stalin died in 1953. Khrushchev started a process of de- Stalinization to fight the abuse of power and cult of personality. He allowed some freedom of speech and thought. Brezhnev stopped all reforms started by Khrushchev when he died in 1964 . Its satellites :In European countries controlled by the USSR >the state repressed revolts and claims of independence >Ex. Revolutionary attempts in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (the Prague Spring of 1968) .Communist China. After the WW2, a Civil War started in China. The nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek, who was leader of the Republic . The communist rebellion led by Mao Zedong. Mao achieved the victory in 1949> The communist led by mao created the popular republic of china.> nationalist goverment took refuge in formosa creating the nationalist republic of taiwan. Mao occupied the Tibet (1950) Characteristics of the Maoist political system: Fierce repression of the opposition .A strict control by the communist party of all aspects of life. Cultural Revolution (1966-1971) forced people to abandon their traditional ways of life and change their habits and beliefs . Sometimes individuals were forced to go out of their villages and professionals such as doctors and engineers were sent to work on farms. The Chinese economy adopted a system of collectivization, and was organized in communes. Each commune was self- sufficient and combined collective work in agriculture and industry. The economic plans to develop heavy industry in 1958 received the name of the “Great Leap Forward”.