influence of positivism biologist models diversity principle delincunte man is different from not delicnuente, sociological and opposition to the model environmental theory, clinical and therapeutic vocation. Let's see a continuation of positivism (Lombroso) who tries to search the offender a pathological model . The main areas of research: 1. ANTROPOMETRIA2. ANTROPOLOGIA3. BIOTIPOLOGIA4. NEUROFISIOLOGIA5. ENDROCRINOLOGIA6. CRIMINAL ANTHROPOMETRY GENETICS 1 .- .- There is a theory of criminality but a forensic technique or method of identifying the offender. method devised by Bertillon 11 meiddas body as an instrument of indentifiacion offender BERTILLONAJE: identification of individuals by fingerprint, which ended up being used by police and prisons around the world.
2 .- ANTHROPOLOGY .- Investigations were Lombrosian inheritance tax. The principal authors were:
A) The English prison doctor: GORING that advocated the thesis of the inferiority of hereditary basis of the offender and denied the existence of a physical type of criminal.
He used a rigorous method to verify the hypothesis of Lombroso, but do not detect degenerative stigmata but only certain criminal proclivity or inclination.
Lombroso's theory that crimes are committed by those born with certain inherited physical traits that are recognizable, was refuted by GORING.
This author made a comparative study among 3,000 incarcerated offenders and law-abiding citizens, making anatomic measurements of the skull away from the eyes, etc.., And after eight years, I conclude that there are devastating so-called criminal types with innate disposition to crime, that there are biological differences between criminals and non criminals.
Goring is one of the proponent of the use of statistical methods for studying criminal biotype. Criticizes the method used by Lombroso in the sense that he used a method based on anatomical pathological observation, without objective measurement tools, the inference that the supposed normality or abnormality of the individual. By contrast, GORIN considers that the statistical method is the only one who can provide accurate measurements, reliable, reproducible and independent of the prejudices of the researcher.
The result of their study the statistical biometric Internal English: A statistical study was twofold:
• A resounding denial of the doctrine of the offender as Lombroso's own body type, sui generis, in the anthropological sense. GORING degenerative stigmata found no criminals, who spoke Lombroso. Comparing the group of offenders with the control group (Officers of the Royal Engineers), not more abnormalities found among the first, that among the latter, not statistically significant particularities. The differences were insignificant, with one exception: The height and weight is lower for offenders with the exception of scammers - that in normal people. This ensures that there is a hereditary inferiority of offenders, as these characters think GORING criminal groups are transmitted through inheritance
? The substrate empirical Theory of the inferiority of the criminal, the hereditary basis. According GORING offenders present:
or moral inferiority. There is a moral inferiority compared to normal groups.
or an intellectual deficit. Not only the problem is psychological but the majority of offenders have no education
For GORING the crime:
- It is not based on free will or free wills of individuals as criminal proclaimed the Classical School.
- Nor is the result of unhealthy or abnormal person, not born criminals exist as claimed by the Positive School
- Nor is it merely a result of contamination of the environment or the environment as claimed by the sociological postulate
but provides that the crime is the result or consequence of an inclination of certain individuals to the crime: criminal propensity, either mental or moral or physical.
B) The anthropologist Hooton, on the contrary, admitted not only have identified criminal stigma in the population, but even the possibility of describing differential degenerative characteristics for the respective subgroups of offenders. It is therefore
defender of the Theory of Diversity, concluding that there are significant physical differences between criminals and non criminals. (Size, thin lips, gray eyes, tattoos ...). Criminals would be less than non-criminals in almost all body measurements. This physical inferiority is relevant and is associated with mental inferiority, being the cause of that legacy, and not circumstantial or situational factors.
3 .- Biotypology .- The biotypology is a scientific discipline that deals with the human type polyhedral conceived as a unit in response to the dominance Biotype vital organ or function.
The premise of this research is the existence of a correlation between the physical characteristics of the individual and their psychological traits, including body type and type somatic or mental, between character and temperament. So it tries to find a correlation between physical characteristics and criminal behavior, establishing some relationships between physical traits and character.
There are two schools:
? SCHOOL GERMAN: The best known representative of the German school is Kretschmer (1888-1964) who developed a dual typology:
or Constitutional Perspective,
or characterological perspective.
From the constitutional perspective, constitutional distinguished the following types:
or Letptosomático: Body elongate and slender, small head, pointed nose. Its geometric representation corresponds to a vertical line (Don Quixote).
or Athletic: great development of bones and muscles, chest and large head. Its geometric representation corresponds to a triangle or inverted pyramid.
orPicnic: Low fat (Sancho Panza). great development of the abdomen, his head is round and broad, short limbs, tendency to obesity. Its geometric representation corresponds to a circle.
or Dysplastic: (Dwarfs and Giants). Exaggerated forms. It is a diversion or stopping the process of lamination, ie acquisition and shaping of the normal fitness. Includes cases of constitutional anomalies such as dwarfism and gigantism, obesity, child enucoide or extreme cases of other types.
or Mixed: Not classifiable in any previous. It is the most frequently arises from a combination of the above by inheritance.
Since the characterological perspective, previous constitutional types associated with corresponding psychological characteristics and made a second typology, distinguishing between:
or Esquizotímicos: They belong to this class of individuals normally leptosomatic constitution and temperament introverted to be a subdivision:
a. Hiperestesica: irritable and nervous people idealists.
b. Intermediate: cool, energetic and serene.
c. Anesthetics: listless, solitary and indolent.
Where the rate is compounded schizoid mode arises: would the corresponding mental illness schizophrenia.
or Cyclothymic: are extroverts, fleshy constitution. They tend to be sociable, but can range from joy to sadness, and there are three subcategories:
a. Hypomanic: continuous joy in constant motion.
b. Syntonic: realistic, practical and humorous.
c. Phlegmatic: calm, silent and sad.
or Viscous: individuals belong to an athletic, ranging from the type Letptosomático and fleshy (These are peaceful people, generally passive ..).
Regarding the relationship between crime rate and Krestchmer concludes that:
? The pyknic yield the lowest rates of crime since it is gentle and often when offenders occasionally. They are not hardened criminals.
? The leptosomatic are difficult to treat and prone to recidivism, (thieves and con).
? Athletes are the most violent and representing the highest ratios of crime.
? AMERICAN SCHOOL .- emphasize W. Sheldon Glueck marriageJB Cortes and psychologist.
Sheldon has a clear approach embryological connotations because part of the blastoderm (unit cell from which all individuals) and identifies three concentric layers or layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm). Sheldon makes a categorical classification by relating the layers from somatic constitution innermost to the external (like an onion representation).
The concentric layers relate to the various layers of the embryo:
- The inner layer (endoderm) - viscera
- The middle layer (mesoderm) - skeleton
- The outer layer (ectoderm) - the epidermis
According to the predominance of the stratum in question would produce a typology, with its physical and temperamental traits.
Sheldon's constitutional typology: Therefore, as somatic or static characteristics would result in three types:
? Endomorph: Predominantly in endoderm or inner layer (visceral). Its structure is low, and prone to obesity. Correspond to the picnic.
? Mesomorph: Predominantly mesoderm (middle layer: Muscles and bones) great development of the somatic structures, whose dominance is the skeleton. Would correspond to the athletic.
? Ectomorph: predominantly ectoderm (nervous tissue and epidermis: outer layer), fragile and elongated body. It corresponds to leptosomatic.
Each of these types of physical or bodily, stands about character traits and temperamental own, that is, three types, giving rise to characterological typology of Sheldon:
? Viscerotonics: the endomorph, outgoing and sociable temperament.
? Somatotónico: the mesomorph, energetic temperament. Increased activity, aggressiveness
? Cerebrotónico: the ectomorph, temperament schizophrenic. Increased introversion and social isolation. Sociofobia.
SHELDON concluded that the higher rate of offenders is in the temperament Mesomorphs somatotónico (which would correspond to the athletic type of viscous behavior of Kretschmer's classification).
The Glueck MARRIAGE reached the same conclusion = Prevalence rate among offenders mesomorphic, who have physical strength, energy, sensitivity, tendency to express in action their tensions and frustrations.
The traits that determine the criminal proclivities are: Violence, Aggression, and rebellion.
PSYCHOLOGIST biosocial approach of J. Court concluded that criminal and noncriminal differ in the physical, for offenders are more mesomorphic, are endowed with higher energy are potentially more aggressivefrom a temperamental perspective, and motivational needs require a high success and power than non-offenders.
4 .- NEUROPHYSIOLOGY .- Neurophysiology studies collected from the application of the technique of electroencephalography (electroencephalogram), which graphically measured brain activity, and to establish a correlation between brain activity and irregular or brain dysfunction human behavior, specifically, the criminal.
Other studies have attempted to verify electroencephalographic two hypotheses:
A) .- Whereas many violent crimes for no apparent reason respond to severe brain abnormalities that detects only the EEG.
B) .- There exists a certain connection between specific crimes committed by juveniles, the product of immature individuals, and unique brain dysfunction.
Eysenck examines the functioning of the ANS (autonomic nervous system) by linking it with the concepts of introversion and extroversion. The threat of intimidation
the punishment is potentially much more effective in introverts, and concludes that the psychopath (extreme cases of extroversion) does not develop a proper sense precisely because the working of their SNA. AROUSAL moved the concept of 1 to field of criminology and related to the psychopath because it had higher levels of extroversion, and are described as unable to experience tenderness, have very low sensitivity to pain for that reason feel the need to experience strong feelings, with a low level of cortical activation or arousal.
5 .- ENDOCRINOLOGY .- Various studies have tried to associate human behavior in general and the criminal in particular, hormonal or endocrine disease processes, given the connection of these with the autonomic nervous system and this in turn with the life instinct -affective in all cases. Relate chemical imbalances, hormonal, behavioral disorders.
The thesis of thought Lombrosian endocrine differ in three aspects:
a) .- They do not usually keep such hereditary glandular disorders.
b) .- acknowledges the healing of those who suffer such disorders, and
c) .- possibly argue that the influence of such criminal activity is not direct but indirect.
The research has been followed in relation to:
1 .- HORMONE LEVELS .- In recent years, and dealing with aggressive and sexual crime have proliferated research aimed at demonstrating some relationship between testosterone levels and male criminal behavior and the success of treatments hormonal sex offenders. Increased levels of testosterone = more aggressive in men
Female criminality on his part, has been made in connection with certain hormonal imbalances own menstruation. Premestrual = Greater aggressiveness syndrome in women.
2 .- DEFICIT OF MINERALS AND VITAMINS .- Especially B vitamins relate to adequate functioning of the nervous system so that its faulty metabolism or deficiencies in intake affect brain activity and behavior.
So is any excess or defective metabolism of certain minerals: Copper, Magnesium, which affect hyperactive behavior, generating unease and disquiet.
3 .- HYPOGLYCEMIA .- Insufficient intake of carbohydrates in the diet produces a blood glucose deficit, which, if significant, affect the metabolism, causing irritability, anxiety, depression, ...
4 .- .- ALLERGIES Allergies nerve can adversely affect behavior. Clinically described the stress and fatigue syndrome allergy.
5 .- .- ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS Certain high rates of lead levels in blood are associated with indices of hyperactivity. The consumption of food additives is associated with aggressive and hostile behavior.
Other environmental investigations emphasize the aetiological relevance of other factors that may act as stressful as:
1 Activation cortex. Minor cerebral cortex function, greater need for stimulation
- Thermal factors.
6 .- CRIMINAL GENETICS. (Heritage and crime) .- Advances in genetics will soon raised the problems of criminal legacy and what, if any, hereditary factors and their influence on criminal behavior. For studies on the influence of heredity in criminal behavior
The priority areas are Criminal Genetics:
1 .- Studies on crime families.
2 .- Studies of twins
3 .- Studies of adoption and
4 .- Investigations on chromosomal abnormalities.
1 .- STUDIES ON FAMILIES CRIMINAL .- Studies on crime families, tend to track the progeny of a single straight line (no pedigree), leaving it without considering the hereditary influence of other family members, concluding that:
- There is increased crime rates in descendants of criminals.
- There is an increased incidence if both parents were criminals, or if he was also someone else up.
2 .- TWIN STUDIES .- For the twin studies provides a prior distribution based on the degree of genetic loading, distinguishing between:
a) .- or unicigóticos twins. = 1 only egg
b) .- Fraternal or dizygotic twins. ? Eggs.
Noting that twins or unicigóticos: have higher rates of criminal agreement. Were also found much higher rates of concordance criminal sexual offenses for crimes against property.
3 .- STUDIES ADOPTION .- Studies of adoption, are to monitor the conduct of criminal and noncriminal, linking parents and biological children and adoptive parents.
It found a higher incidence of biological factor.
The criminal element is more likely to occur in the adoptee who has a biological father with a criminal record, which the adoptee has a biological father with no criminal record.
Crime rates on the rise according to foster youth from the criminal background of the parents, but much more natural than the adopted children.
Therefore, establishing the critical importance of genetic factors.
4 .- CHROMOSOME ANOMALIES RESEARCH Malformations .- In the chromosome, is part of the hypothesis that certain chromosomal defects determine human behavior, and therefore criminal.
They find their basis in the following postulates:
Chromosomal defects Certain determining human behavior and therefore also the criminal
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes:
? 22 of them are called autonomous and inherited chromosomes from each parent and one from the mother.
? The 23rd pair of chromosomes are called sex chromosomes and are different from each = WOMEN = XX
MAN = XY
The major malformations observed were:
A) .- Default: Turner syndrome or monosomy .- It is characterized by the presence of a single X chromosome Phenotypically are women, the absence of chromosome Y. The lack of Y chromosome determines the female sex of all affected individuals, and the absence of the second X chromosome determines the lack of development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics. This gives women with Turner syndrome and infertility child look for life, with masculine features.
- Delayed or incomplete development at puberty.
- Underdeveloped genitalia.
- Mamas small and sparse pubic hair.
- Broad, flat chest. Short neck and short stature.
- Absence of menstruation.
- Vaginal dryness.
B) .- An overshooting: Klinefelter's syndrome in men (XXY, XXXY) accentuates feminine traits. Klinefelter syndrome (XXY) is a relatively common chromosome abnormality, and is to have one or more extra X chromosomes along the Y chromosome It can have 2, 3, 4, and even up to 5 additional X chromosomes, together with the Y chromosome The greater number of additional X chromosomes have an increased risk of suffering mental retardation and malformations.
- The most common is infertility and low testosterone levels
- Enlarged Breast: Gynecomastia
- Pubic hair, facial, and underarm.
- Small penis.
- Small testes
- 1 in 50 male patients have mental retardation.
Usually their appearance is a tall stature, long arms and legs, testicles inactive and hard, and dressing them to grow breasts men who exhibit this syndrome.
XXXY XXXY XXXXY
C) .- TRISOMIE: Consists of the duplicity of the Y chromosome (Trisomy XYY). Their bearers are supposed to:
- Hormonal Disturbances
- Defects of behavior and adaptation to the environment.
- Significant intellectual deficits.
- Low affect, excessive aggression and antisocial behavior.
Was studied in prison populations.