General cargo Terminals. Classification: - Conventional: These terminals Are very old installations, which at the beginning did not move unitized cargo. Their layout is simple and in general they do not require large extensions for Cargo handling and manipulation. Distribution and dimensions, as well as Installations needed depend on the cargo type manipulation and they have open Storage areas as well as light storage facilities, silos and horizontal Storage. ¿How do they operate? For the cargo loading and discharging, They use mobile shore cranes with high lifting capacity between 20 to 30 mt, For the storaging and interconnectitvity, depends on the cargo presentation, They use: platforms, rolling cars and reach stackers and reclaimers. A. Mobile Cranes. Can operate in Any berth or patio for its mobile capacity. B.Forklift. Equipments that Move electronically or diesel, very common use in light general cargoes.
Roll on-Roll off Terminals: Ro-Pax: Ferries Where the cars are moved by their own owners, uses in passenger or tourism Activities. Ro-Ro: vehicles are either moved in platforms with their own Driving system, or by drivers themselves. Operations. They move thru the Vessel’s ramps, having one or three doors located at bow, stern or aside the vessel. ¿How do you store the cargo?
There is a large storage space where they Accomodate vehicles and trailers. This area is organized as a big cross docking Station in land. Taking into account, origin and destination of the vehicles. There are other installations like parking buildings. In terminals Ro-Pax, The are to types of traffic, passengers and vehicles. Manipulation equipment: A- Mafis. B- Tugmaster. C- Tractor Units
Container Terminals. How do these terminals operate? These terminals can use different types of cranes for Their loading and unloading operations such as gantry cranes or mobile cranes. The most used equipment are: platforms, forklifts, reachstackers, straddle Carriers, RTGs or RMGs.Characteristics: They are designed based on the structure of the ships, For example: For ships between 1500 and 2500 TEU, with a length between 200 and 260 meters --- 00 meters of berthing line, if what is going to receive are 3 Ships. - Depths from 11 To 14 meters. The extension for the Required storage area depends on: - The number of containers to be moved on a yearly Basis. - The average waiting time Of the containers in the storage áreas. - The average height of container Stacking. - The means of manipulation. A basic Principle for storing containers is as follows: - The empties and Fulls, will be grouped separately. - Damaged containers and damaged containers Are stacked in the area with RTGC equipment. - Empty containers Are stacked in the front yard. Four indicators locate a container in the yard. – Tier. – Block. – Lane. – Stack.
Block 3, stack 16, Lane 5 and Tier 3 in the yard.
Handling Equipment A- Gantry crane (gruas pórtico de muelle). B- overhead traveling Crane (Grúas pórtico de parque ) rail mounted gantry cranes (RMG) or RTG rubber tyred gantry. C- Straddle carriers. D- Reach Stacker crane (reach stacker crane).