Levels of control(Local regulation,Neural regulation (short reflexes control localized activities in small segments of tract, sensory info from receptors reaches CNS.Long reflexes involve interneuronsan motor in CNS), Hormonal regulation).ENS innervate by PNS. Gastric Glands:In fundus and body secrete most acid involved gastric digestion, Parietal & Chief cells.Pyloric Glands:secrete mucus & digestive horm. (gastrin by G cell, somatostain by D cell, Ghrelin). Parietal cell:Secrete intrinsic factors & HCI.Chief Cell:most abundant near gastric gland, secrete pepsinogen.G cell:produce mucous secretion in pylorus, produce 7 horm.)Lacteals: large quantities of lipids. Intestinal Gland:glandular pocket,contain enteroendocrine cells produce serveral horn (gastrin,CCK,secretion)Intestinal crypts: release of enzymes from shed cells(converts trypsinogen to trypsin).Duodenal Submucosa Gland:located in submucosa,produces lot mucus when chyme arrives,protects epithelium frim acid of chime.Enteropeptidase:brush border enzyme,activates trypsinogen.Liver lobules lfow:portal vein-sinusoids-exits central vein-hepatic vein- IVC.Main liver func. Metabolic reg(carb,lipid,amino acid metabolism, vitamin and mineral storage,drug inactivation)Hematological Reg(removal of antibodies,horn,storage of toxins,synthesis plasma proteins)Bile Production.Bile flow:hepatocytes-bile canaculi-bile ductules-left/r hepatic ducts-common hepatic duct-cystic duct to gallbladder(storage)or common bile duct(excretion). Hormones:GIP(stomach slows emptying,pancreas insulin secretion) Secretin, CCK(gallbladder increase contraction to expel bile).VIP.Haustra:pouches in walls of colon permit expansion.Feces brown: urobilins & stercobilins. Defecation:involuntary, positive feedback intrinsic myenteric defecation reflex & PS defecation reflex.