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Periphrasis. Concept. Verbal periphrasis call the union of an auxiliary verb plus an infinitive, a gerund or a participle. • The auxiliary verb, which has lost autonomy, is what brings the verb endings. • The derivative verb (infinitive, gerund or participle) is the charge brought by the semantics and is responsible for syntactic combinatorics. In an example like "the gardener tends to prune fruit trees, the auxiliary is" usually "(not independent: *" the gardener often "). The infinitive "pruning" select the type of direct object (do not say * mow the grass, * prune an iron ....) Identification. There may be combinations of verb and derivative that are paraphrases (usually prune fruit trees) and combinations of verb and derivative that are not. (He tries to prune fruit trees) How formal criteria differentiate from each other? There is an important fact that determines the possible differences: the verb and the derivative of a periphrasis form a functional unit, ie syntactically are not independent, and therefore the derivative "is not switchable by other segments (* q usually trim fruit)-does not accept the substitution x a pronoun (* so often), can not have a subject which does not match the reference of a personal (* Armando I used to talk about you).Types of periphrasis. The periphrasis can be classified as a derivative in three groups: infinitive periphrasis, circumlocution of gerund and participial paraphrases. More commonly, however, is classified by its content. · Perífrasis intonation (indicating the end of an action): stop + infinitive + infinitive reach (I miss singing) · Perífrasis inchoative (indicate the beginning of an action): ir a + infinitive + infinitive start, begin + infinitive + infinitive burst out, put a + infinitive (start walking, get to paint)-periphrasis iterative (indicate a repeated action): soler + infinitive + infinitive again (usually screaming) · Perífrasis durative (indicating the action in their course): go + gerund, ir + gerund, lead + gerund, estar + gerund (going to tell lies) · Perífrasis obliged (indicate requirement) have to + infinitive to have to + infinitive + infinitive duty, have to + infinitive (must study a little more) · Perífrasis indicating possibility or likelihood: power + infinitive + infinitive duty (should be 6) · Perífrasis approximate: come to + infinitive + gerund come (come to measure the same your). COORDINATION AND CONNECTORS. Concept of coordination. Coordination syntactic relationship is established between two or more terms each trained to perform the function they perform in a coordinated segments conjunta.los "must belong to the same functional class, have to do the same syntactic function. Conjunctions and connectors semantic. The coordinating conjunctions are knowledgeable formal ties q function as indices of coordination. Their number is quite classified according to their meaning (copulative, disjunctive, adversative ...). The tongue is another type of connectors (also, however, nevertheless, consequently, so ...) that are not conjunctions or formal links, but q values specified content and nuances involved in the coordination relationship (there was little point, however, that día arrived on time, we have filled the box too, so we will need someone to help us.) connectors we call semantic or discourse connectors. Here are some of its features: conjunctions or connectors formal "join-ing brought homogeneous segments (rich and generous)-lack of mobility, are simple in form and are usually unstressed (but if not I)-not compatible with other connector -not lead-ins do not appear between pauses. Connectors semantic or discourse-linking segments are not necessarily homogeneous-filed (is rich and generous, though)-have some mobility-are stressed and sometimes complex (they are bitter, however, thus x) -- can coexist with conjunctions, some may carry-ons are between pauses. Coordination juxtaposed without coordination or linkage is called parataxis juxtaposed. From a formal point of view is an open coordination "either segment the form q is qualified to perform the function q-play together when we depend on a verb two conjoined sentences each of the segments takes the conjunction" that "(I read that breast, potato mowing q) Coordinator.Copulative coordination. They are the most common manifestation of the coordinated structures. Its links are most representative: and, ni.-Y (replacing x and word before you start the phoneme / i /). Is a connector so, with a very generic semantic value q approaches the addition or addition. When the first segment is positive can be followed by denial: it was potato and not me. Sometimes appears to mark repeated stylistic values (insistence, emphasis) and I said, and repeated it and he ignored me. "Nor is denial presupposes copulative link in the first segment and appears before all others: do not know ramon, or my boyfriend or his sister. This implies q denial affects all coordinated terms: do not know your uncles or cousins. Emphasizes the verb prefix meaning: no classes or my boyfriend or his sister know. Bimembres copular Coordination. There copular structures composed only two terms x coordinated. Each is introduced by one of the terms of a correlation conjuntiva.los + known and frequent cases are those k are linked formally with the comparative of equality (both ... and, = ... q, the same ... q):-attended both young and old, as the book reviewed the CD-x q hotel hunters spend the same q tourists.Disjunctive coordinations. They use the conjunction or (before words beginning with the morpheme q / o / is replaced xu). Are open coordinations q + d may consist of two members. The link is usually between the last two terms of coordination, "can come with a brother a relative or friend. Disjunctive sentences usually have entities, properties or processes q can not occur in a repetition of the conjunction gives prominence to the alternative character. If the terms are two, the meaning is exclusive and is approaching the dilemma:-o-o come ot you stay with me or against me. Assumes the disjunctive variable meanings in different contexts: approximation (one brown or reddish we were there 10 or 12 friends)-equivalence (the almanac or calendar, Don Alvaro, or the force of destiny). The conjunction or binds to other elements to form conjunctive phrases, "or provides an explanatory value (George, that is, my neighbor). accentuates the character or disjunctive (or go out to the movies or I stay home)Distributive coordinations. Vienen correlations introduced by assemblies of identical segments normally x generally adverbial8bien home ... well, ... and, either ... whatever), I can get it at home or in the office, "and decide to stay, and x opt to leave, they warn that a distributive sense q appears in constructions such as a few ... here ... there before ... now yesterday ... today, and so on. not made by conjunctions, but through correlations of character buildings is coordinated x juxtaposition in terms of q ones, here, today ... make a syntactic function "before crying now calling after a climb require - , others lower. These structures support the inclusion of a coordinating conjunction (one up and one down), q can not be done in the distributive built with formal ties (* goes well with good friends and colleagues). COORDINACIONES (II)Adversative coordination. The structures are adversative coordinate q k two statements in the second introduces some kind of opposition or exclusion from what is stated or implied in the two types "restrictive, most common combination, but" the correlations that are joined by connector only. adversative restrictive. bimembres are coordinated structures in the second segment k k denies it implies the first: luis is high, but not restrictive adversative plays baloncesto.las perform two speech acts expressed in two segments, "the primero8luis is high) means a statement does not express (Luis plays basketball), the second coordination implicitly rejects such information (Luis not playing basketball.) connectors are the property of reflection they give the same type q but semantic relationship. They are: however, nevertheless, however, yet, despite everything, and so on. When the connectors adversarial not coexist with a conjunction (but, and) the two segments continue to form a coordinating structure, but in this case x juxtaposition. The effect is manifested x adversative connectors: is low, but not complex.Adversative corrective. These structures involve the execution of two speech acts. On the one hand, refute the opinion (express or implied) of any issuer, on the other correct and provide the right solution: A-pepe's smart-B-foo is not intelligent, but correlative adversative avispado.las have the following formal features "are bimembres-coordinated structures but the connector involves the previous presence of a denial-correction may take place on noun phrases, adjectives, adverbs. -although denial is normally next to the verb, affect the term k-correction made corrige. x but can be supported x the presence of discourse markers q made a correction. Although they provide the same value are not semantically correct conjunctions. SUBORDINATION and subordinate clauses. Subordination. There syntactic subordination between two functions when one of them(subordinate role) shows relation of dependence on other (nuclear or core function). for example, the CD, the CI and the supplement are subordinated to core functions or core predicate sentence. By extension, this concept applies to contracts a phrase q subordinada.asi function in the sentence "knows the notice" saying that "the news" is a subordinate or dependent phrase "know." When k gets a subordinate role as a prayer, we speak of subordinate clause. Subordinate clause therefore call to prayer plays a role under a different qs. For example the CD: knows (kernel sentence) q arrived parents (CD). Functions and categorically subordinate. In the area of prayer there is a relationship between functions and syntactic categories. Not every category can play any syntactic function, "subject, CD, CI, supplement: attribute noun phrase: noun or adjective-CC: noun phrase with a preposition or adverb-CN: adjective phrase or epithet.Subordinate clauses and transposition. When we want a phrase q k performs a function not of its own category, should be subject function is not peculiar to adjectives. For generous k, x example, may be subject to "be rewarded" must be a noun x through the article and receive generous rewards. For a noun phrase as complement Pedro can be rated "clock" must be epithet x through the preposition: the watch of Peter. Similarly for k a sentence has the potential to play a subordinate role is to undergo a process of transposition. We then have 3 kinds of subordinate clauses: noun-substantive or sentences. Prayers q once transposed to the noun category can perform functions such as subject, CD, CI, supplement, etc.-adjective or adjectival sentences. Prayers k after a process of adjectives are capable of contracting functions adjective (CN). The most common Transposing the adjectives are relativos.-adverbial sentences. Prayers that act as adverbs. Noun sentence.Features. Are known as substantive or noun q transposed sentences are trained to perform a specific function of noun phrases (subject, DQ, IQ ...). Any substantive sentence consists of 2 parts: Transposing (usually a combination) and the base (prayer). in short-noun sentence is equivalent to prayer that has been all noun-noun sentence consists of two components: Transposing and prayer prayer base-base is a verb phrase, however the substantive sentence behaves together as a noun phrase. substantivized conjunction with that. the most common and usual carrier q is the ancient language to convert sentences into noun phrases is the noun conjunction x que.las prayers this conjunction can play any role nominal "subject (no I care that they are so young)-CD (pepe says the vaccine is effective)-Cl (do not pay much attention to that criticism)-suplemento8se complains that did not help)-CCfinal (he plays the piano for their nimble fingers)-CCDE cause (sings tangos because they leave the soul)-CCmodo ( I always read it without forcing you k)-CCtiempo (not seen him since we were in school)-attribute (the precondition is k can not talk during the game-based attributional bimembres contractions (demonstrated his innocence, was released) Prayers substantive with if. the conjunction if you join verb phrases to form sentences noun. They introduce uncertainty values or introduced x interrogación.las sentences if they appear primarily as CD, but can get other nominal functions "CD (not known whether these holidays come) -subject (do not know if the game broadcast)-supplement (can not remember if they called my cousins). interrogatives and exclamatives indirect concern tonics.All sentences interrogative and exclamatory part is introduced by one of those on tonics, which may introduce independent sentences or subordinate. In the latter case, have two functions are Transpositor and perform a function within the sentence q transpose. Interrogative and exclamatory indirect. Q substantive sentences are carried out and replaced nominal functions and coordinate with nouns and pronouns. The transposition is done by the conjunctions if the relative or tonic: not told me. There interrogative truncated x the ellipsis of their final segments. This occurs when there are repetitions, but I lost the book somewhere. The indirect interrogative and exclamatory include: proper or improper. · Own uses that name to the sequences of indirect style are matched with an interrogative or exclamatory structure direct style. The Transposing "that" is usually accompanied by the conjunction if a relative or tonic, "said," it's sunny? / Said if toward sun· Improper. We apply this name to the sequences of indirect speech that have no correspondence with a structure of interrogative or exclamatory style of indirect differences own x the fact that q does not appear here before the conjunction or relative so tonics "ignored: Is it sunny? / ignore if it's sunny "stories. Features of the relative. The relative signs of the language are characterized by perform several functions in one-oración. are Transpositor: contribute to the adjectives in sentences;-have anaphoric function, refer to a previous expression, his predecessor: "the car you buy" The car is antecedent to the relative. There are headless relative clauses express: he either wants you ara you mourn, "behave like phrases within the sentence q introducen.los relative subordinate clause in the contract the same funciion would play its antecedent if you were in your lugar.asi, "the computer that I like" the one on which functions as a subject of "like". The differences relating to one another categorical, functional and semantic. -that. It is the relatively invariable in form. May be accompanied by the article (the, la, lo, los, las). Supersedes any SN.tmb is designed to run as an adjective or adverb when you have as background to an element of these categories;-quantum. Indicates a number that corresponds to that expressed by its antecedent (explicit or implicit). Is invariable when functioning as adverbio8cuanto suffers). Presents gender variance and number (as,-a,-os,-as) in their some nominal or adjectives. In any of his appearances is replaceable item + it,-who. Replaces animate nouns. You can enter any function call. Offers change issue: who / whom. Pets to be replaced by the sequence article+ it, explaining that many on whom behave as substantive sentences: who (= which) are going to die salute you,-which. Is able to replace any SN. Varies only in number but also shows their consistency through Article q always accompanies him,-where, when, how. They have as an antecedent to nouns to indicate, respectively, place, time or mood. Are invariant and DC function as the sentence they introduce. When lack of background, leading prayers equivalent to adverbs. "As" a substitute for an antecedent adjective good as they are, "whose. Presents gender variance and works as a relative determinant q possessive, so it does not match the background, but with the term or modifying kernel: those children (antecedent), whose parents (center) talked. It is of little one in the colloquial language.

ON stuctures. Prayers on with history. All relative clause that has as antecedent a noun phrase behaves like an adjective sentence, ie as an adjective phrase that complements the background: - The boys (SN) of whom he speaks ( Sadja).. Evidence of this transposition is that Sadje. Are switchable by adjectives or determinants. Those boys. Prayers headless relative. When the relative lack of background unqualified. · Where and when entered traditionally considered adverbial sentences (are a type of SN): Always goes to his birthplace. · As , leads prayers so adverbial: Lives in the XXI century as slaves lived. · Who andwithout antecedent sentences introduced as substantive: Who knows what honest. Concerning substantive. The article is a noun not only adjectives, but also segments that have undergone a previous adjectives. Therefore, also is able to substantiate relative constructions: "The bitter, the bitterness, Those bitter. Relatives who and how. · Who. In all its uses is switchable by item + sequence that: Exit with those who want / Exit with who he wants. In such contexts, who performed a double transposition: the one corresponding to relative and related to the article incorporating. Hence, when there is no precedent, all sentences are introduced by NP's who: The who either loves you / Who loves you well. · Quantum. Transposing This article also incorporates values + that relative. When you have no background, also carries a double transposition. So the result is an NP.You mind what you say / you mind as you say. COMPARATIVE SENTENCES. Features. Are syntactic constructions by which we express the result of comparing two quantities from the point of view of quantity, quality, or how. We distinguish two types: · Comparative own (it is warmer than yesterday). · Comparative relative (knows less than it appears). If we look at the number of possible degrees and quantification, are divided into "comparative superiority, using the quantifier most, - comparative of inferiority, they use less;-equality comparisons, use so, like + or article itself. Comparative own . They adopt the more formal pattern that, unless, as much as, like, + same article. In Spanish we heirs of the Latin comparative adjectives in-ior, but only four remain the possibility of forming comparative constructions: larger, smaller, better and worse.Relative comparisons. Stepping on carrying on the kind of emphatic how strong they were! Them suitable to be included also in comparative structures. Consider two pairs of sequences as follows: Robert is ready miguel's smart he was. Between them we can establish a comparative assessment gives results as: Roberto's smarter than it was Miguel / Roberto is as smart as it was Miguel. The comparative structures for the following characteristics:-form from its second segment structures on the type emphatic how strong they were, hence are called relative comparative;-the background on the term is increased,-on exercises on one of the functions of the second segment of the comparison; never elided;-the verb of the relative clause is usually not elide. ADVERBIAL OF PLACE.Subordinate clauses of place. The relative where locative introduces meaningful sentences. · If you have a nominal antecedent, the result is an adjectival or relative sentence: The house where he was born / The birthplace. · If no antecedent, the result is a prayer that serves as the adverbs of place. They are called adverbs of place: Since locative adverbs are a type of noun phrases, the adverbial of place are a subset of substantive sentences. "Near where I was born (my house). SUBORDINADAS TIME. Prayers temporary. Temporal sentences are introduced by the relative time. We found him in two contexts: "with history, transposes to prayer adjectival category.," Without precedent, the result is a sentence adverb of time. We found temporary prayers when not only circumstantial complement, but also as a supplement, complement nominal, Add an adjective and adverbial complement. Apart from the sentences when there are other types, are classified as "concurrency introduced by Transpositor while, as, according to conjunctival and sweeper as,-prior introduced by the transpondster little or conjunctive locutions as soon as a time, not good, "immediate succession using the phrase as. ADVERBIAL mode. Sentences so. Adverbial sentences most commonly known are those introduced by the relative as. We find in several contexts: face-to antecedent gives the result of a sentence adjective, the way he passes the ball, "with antecedent adverbial, it is a sentence adverbial, Do so like I said," without precedent, the result is a sentence adverbial, live like a millionaire. The relative sentences which can also lead manners or with a history such, either autonomously. If the verb is repeated may be deleted. Other Transpositor manners are satisfied, as, as as as. PRAYERS OF CAUSATION.Cause and prayers of causality. In philosophy is understood as cause everything that has occurred or is likely to produce an effect. Language is not so, can be understood as cause, reason, justification, explanation, and so on. We distinguish various types of subordinate clauses of causation: causal, consecutive, conditional and concessive. · Grounds. The subordinate clause expresses the cause, reason ... the event that manifests the main clause. I will not because I have to study. · Row. The main clause contains the cause that leads to a result expressed in the subordinate clause. Sleep late while. · Conditional. The subordinate clause expresses an event that occurs as the result of the conditional expressing the main clause. If I had money I would go to Venice. · Concessive. The subordinate clause expresses a cause not the effect reached significance for the main clause. AlthoughI love the sea, we will not go on vacation to the coast. Prayers of causality. According to the element on which they depend, differentiate various types of subordinate clauses of causation: · Accessories circumstantial. They proposed the verb without pause.'ll Come if it ends soon. · Topics. Appear in initial position, separated by pauses. If you are tired, sleep. · Declarative verb. Depend on an implicit verb, say. If you know, where is it? / If you know tell me where is it? · Explanatory statement or precedent. Some sentences causal, conditional, concessive and row may affect the entire preceding sentence. Do it, but will not get anything. The consecutive sentences, unlike the rest of the prayers of causation are always proposed: It rained so much that the river was flooded.Causal sentences. Causal circumstantial complement function. They take the form of the noun phrase preceded by the preposition by. In most situations we find also restricted preposition. He died of pneumonia. The cause SN can be represented by an infinitive and a noun sentence. He resigned due to tiredness / resigned because he was tired of being tired resigned. Not uncommon phrases that have specialized in the expression of causality. -because of + NP,-by reason of + NP, because of + NP,-in view of + NP,-thanks to + NP,-due to + SN. Grounds in topic position. We know that the topicalization of an occasional segment allows us to assign an additional value because of condition or concession. Study in Madrid / Madrid, studying. As a result of this process, causal constructions have appeared only function as topics. · As Grounds for guidance:as is a Saturday, we rested. · Absolute constructions: put these conditions do not sign. Abbreviated absolute constructions can manifest cause, soon went to bed tired. · Constructions of the type how strong they were. The emphasis topicalization structures can generate causal senses when the verb appears in the indicative and prepositions precede them at or. Of how much I read, the brain went dry. · Infinitives with preposition. From time to drive, my eyes hurt . Causal sentences. Grounds for declarative verb. The causative verb differ from declarative verb of the statement that "are separated by a pause, - need to restore the verb in questions that implied. Causal explanatory. There causal sentences that do not affect a verb, but a previous statement. They introduce an explanation or justification for an order to a question, a request to a council ... back:Shut up! That bothers me. Are the causal explanation. Unlike the other phrases or sentences do not unite, but stated, genuine acts of speech. Looking at the example we note that consists of two statements and the second statement of the example has a causal structure. There are features that differentiate the causal explanation of the rest of the grounds "to build an explanation of why he has made a statement, proposals are to come,-the previous statement is justified is completely closed, the explanation starts after a pause long, the causal-explanatory statements could affect with no verb. Besides it and since there are conjunctions and connectors that are unique to causal explanation. This is the case then that is that. Conjunctions may vary according to the speech act is justified: statements, questions, decisions, insults, orders, compliments. CONDITIONAL Estrucutra. Concept and characteristics. Conditional structures express a cause, Should they occur, would lead to the effect noted by the main clause. Features: · Connectors. The most common connector is the combination compliance if. Other connectors such as when ... and if conjunctive phrases, provided ... · formal selection. The conjunction if it imposes a restriction on the verb forms with which it combines. It is only compatible with the present perfect tense and simple past tense of subjunctive and indicative, and corresponding with the compound forms: if I love, if loved, if he loved ... · Types. Depending on the degree of probability are classified into three types: actual or likely, if I win the lottery, I retire; potential, if he were rich, you buy a house, or improbable or unreal, if I had won, would have called. Estrucutra FOLLOW.Concept. The constructions are syntactic structures bimembres consecutive segment which expresses the consequence or result of the action signified by the first. The consecutive sentences are structures of causality. The first segment shows actual cause, while the second expresses the consequence. Consecutive or consecutive with that intensity. The first term gives a result that triggers escalation expressed in the second, is so stupid that everything breaks. We distinguish two types: * Consecutive intensity with quantifier. · Both and Quantifiers may give the first statement of an intensity capable of producing a result. Both can affect verbs, names (behaves like an adjective or pronoun) in adjectives and adverbs (as in the form attached). • The quantifier that behaves like an adjective. The quantification introduces affects the quality scale. His thoroughness is such that no detail escapes. The consecutive sentence of quantifier syntactically dependent. Intensification can also be expressed by each and a: a garment is sick. * Consecutive no quantifier intensity. The tongue may get the intensification of the first segment by other means. -type structures how strong they were!;-intensity sequences if, if I'm stupid that I cut!;-exclamatory sentences, statements exclamatives have an intrinsic quantification that qualifies them to enter consequences, they I have told you not talk! Consecutive non-intensive. In these constructions there is no intensification in the first segment. The second part is presented as a continuation of the process or result expressed in the first. From a formal standpoint, the two terms are set construction, with independent intonation. Hence come separated by long pauses. Many grammarians include them within the group of coordinated sentences. We distinguish two groups: · Coordinated by juxtaposition. The row value is derived using contextual inferences;It ended the period with complaints, we can do nothing. The language has semantic or discourse markers that support consecutive interpretation: thus, so, accordingly, consequently, so, so, in this way. · Coordinates with connector. Is introduced by the conjunctions with that, then and conjunctive phrases: thus, from (way, way, shape) that. The first statement has a falling intonation and is followed by a long pause. The second begins with one of the conjunctions identified; think therefore I am. STRUCTURES Concesa. Concept. Concessive structures in the main clause denies the scenarios that can lead the subordinate clause. This occurs because, as a cause which is inefficient. The semantics of concessive structure is very similar to that of adversities but. We analyzed the following dialogue: A._ Luis is high; B._ Although Louis is high, does not play basketball. · Concession. The caller B supports the view of A. · Involvement. This statement can be converted to the cause that leads to an implicit conclusion. · Rebuttal. The second statement refutes this claim denied or implied. Concessive circumstantial complement. Adopt characteristics of this function: direct complement to the verb, which are proposed without pause. Unlike other positions of the concessive although circumstantial complement function are always in the subjunctive. I'll tell the truth even if it costs me the job. The sequence shows despite the negative nature of a circumstance. When the speaker wishes to report that this negativity does not preclude the realization of the statement by the main verb, generating a concessive value. Refereeing continues despite criticism. Temporal sequences with when and if they assume the conditional concessive value to be supported by an adverb. They are built with guidance: do not drink wine even when you are invited. The adverb and conjunction can become permissive when attached to a verb in the subjunctive. Not resign and threaten me with punishment. A value similar to that of even adverb, noun sentence before that, what we have with the adverb badly. Its use is restricted: this is so wrong that you weigh. Concessive explanatory. In final position after a long pause, we also find sequences with concessive value. Like causal conditionals that appear in this position, bring a note of clarification or explanation correction that affects the preceding sentence. Marriage is an ideal state, though not all plain sailing. The concessive proposals sometimes affect interrogative or imperative statements,Where you put the scissors?, Although not to wonder.

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