- L1 TRANSFER: The influence that learner’s L1 exerts over the acquisition of L2. Positive, negative transfer, overuse/avoidance. Theoretical accounts of L1 transfer: -Behaviourism: errors were the result of interference. The habits of the L1 were supposed to prevent the learner from the learning habits of the L2. -Contrastive analysis: comparison of the 2 languages were carried out using CA. -Mentalist accounts of L2 acquisition: a few errors were the result of L1 transfer. -Cognitive accounts of L2 acquisition: transfer is a cognitive process. L1 as a kind os input from the inside. + Learners perceptions: learners have perceptions regarding the linguistic features of their own language. Learners have a sense of what features in their L1 are in some way basic and what features are unique. Transfer is governed by learner’s perceptions about what is transferable and by their stage of development.
- THE ROLE OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN SLA: L1 without conscious effort, L2 work hard and study consciously. 2 knowledge systems (S. Krashen): 1. Acquired L2 language: implicit knowledge of the language. Developed subconsciously through comprehending input while communicating. 2. Learned L2 language: explicit knowledge about the language. Developed consciously through deliberate study of the L2. The two knowledge systems are indecent of one another. Learned knowledge can never be converted into acquired knowledge. Conscious attention to input. Schmidt argues that learning cannot take lace without noticing (the process of attending consciously to linguistic features in the input). Factors which influence noticing the input: instruction, frequency, skill level, comparing..
- PROCESSING OPERATIONS: Deduce the operations that learners perform from a close inspection of their output. -Operating principles: general strategies that children use to extract and segment linguistic info from the language they hear and which account for regular properties of their output. -Ander’s one-to-one principle: an interlanguage system should be constructed in such a way that an intended underlying meaning is expressed with one clear invariant surface form.
- COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES: Mechanisms involved when learners use the L2 knowledge they have acquired in communication. Strategies: paraphrasing, substitution, coining new words, non-verbal strategies, avoidance.
- COMPUTIONAL MODEL: Identify some of mental process involved in constructing and using an interlanguage. The ‘black box’ houses some kind of apparatus that extracts info from the input, works on it, stores it and subsequently uses it in output. Two types of computational model: 1. Serial processing: info is processed in a series of sequential steps and results in the representation what has been learned as some kind of rule and strategy. 2. Parallel distributed processing: the learner has the ability to perform a number of mental tasks at the same time.