Casa de lucas

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-"Feedback" in communication implies that: a message is measured and corrected against the original meaning.

"Greyout" occurs in case of: + gZ

-"Non-verbal communication": constitutes approximately 70% of human communication.

-"Pilot's vertigo":   is the condition of dizziness and/or tumbling sensation caused by contradictory impulses to the central nervous system (CNS)

-"Stereotypes" are preconceptions or prejudices which can lead us to: mis-judge individuals even if we have contact with them.

-"The Bends" as a symptom of decompression sickness consists of: pain in the joints

-1. In case of conflicting information you can always trust your Seat- of-the-Pants-Sense. 2. In case of conflicting information between the sensory organs and the instruments you must believe the instruments:   1 is false, 2 is correct

-A "Graveyard-Spin" is: a spin in which the pilot, on recovery, tends to re-enter the spin due to the somatogyral illusion where the vestibular system no longer senses radial acceleration.

-A barotrauma of the middle ear is: an acute or chronic trauma to the middle ear caused by a difference of pressure on either side of the eardrum

-A barotrauma of the middle ear: is more likely, when the pilot is flying with a respiratory infection and during descent

-A Captain running a" Laisser-faire" cockpit will: make few suggestions or decisions.

-A Captain running an Autocratic cockpit is normally: Over-loaded

-A copilot has passed an upgrading course to become a captain. Which psychological consequence is most likely? His/her self-concept is going to change because of new roles and tasks which have to be incorporated.

-A high degree of cockpit automation may alter the traditional tasks of the pilots in a way, that: the attention of the cockpit crew will become reduced with the consequence of 'being out of the loop'

-A human breathing 100% oxygen at 33 700 ft is the equivalent of breathing air at: sea level

-A large number of medical preparations can be bought without a doctor´s prescription. In relation to using these preparations, which of the following is correct: A pilot using any of these preparations should get professional advice from an aviation medical specialist if he intends to fly and self-medicate at the same time

-A leader who demonstrates a democratic and co-operative style will deal with conflict by: trying to clarify the reasons and causes of the conflict with all persons involved

-A non synergistic cockpit: is characterised by withdrawn crewmembers and unclear communication

-A passenger complains about a painful inflated belly at 8.000 feet. You advise him to: 1. unbuckle and massage the belly 2. stand up and let go the gases out of the intestines 3. eat less gas forming food and avoid carbonhydrated beverages before flight in the future 4. drink a lot of water throughout the flight: 1, 2 and 3 are correct

-A person being exposed to extreme or prolonged stress factors can perceive: distress

-A person's attitudes define a set of learned dispositions (likes and dislikes) which: influence a person's reaction and response to people, situations, etc.

-A pilot accustomed to landing on a wide runway may find, when approaching to a narrow runway, that he/she is at a: greater height than he actually is with the tendency to land short

-A pilot approaching a runway which is narrower than normal may feel he is at a greater height than he actually is. To compensate he may fly a: flatter than normal approach with the tendency to undershoot

-A pilot approaching an upsloping runway: may feel that he is higher than actual. This illusion may cause him to land short.

-A pilot becomes skilled when he/she: -1: trains or practises regularly -2: knows how to manage himself/herself -3: possesses all the knowledge associated with his aircraft -4: knows how to keep resources in reserve for coping with the unexpected:  1,2,4

-A pilot can be described as being proficient, when he/she: has automated a large part of the necessary flight deck routine operations in order to free his/her cognitive resources

-A pilot can overcome hyperventilation by: controlling the rate and depth of breathing and/or breathing into a bag

-A pilot can prevent hypoxia by: using additional oxygen when flying above 10000 ft

-A pilot experiences difficulties in the control of his aircraft and consequently omits to monitor the fuel level. This is caused by: a lack of attention due to distraction

-A pilot is 1.7 metres tall and weighs 57 kgs. She is: Normal.

-A pilot is used to land on small and narrow runways only. Approaching a larger and wider runway can lead to: an early or high "round out"

-A pilot may get the illusion of low altitude on approach although the aircraft is on the correct glidepath: when the runway is wider than he is used to

-A pilot may suffer from hipoxia: after decompression at high altitude and not using additional oxygen in time

-A pilot meets the ground engineer in charge on the apron. Although the pilot has not been through flight preparation yet, he nevertheless instructs the engineer as to the amount of fuel to be loaded, since he is used to flying this route. This behaviour results from: a decision bias due to habits (frequency bias)

-A pilot should not fly immediately after donating blood because: you have an increased susceptibility to fainting

-A pilot successfully completes a difficult and stressful landing at an aerodrome. The next time a landing is attempted under the same conditions and at the same aerodrome, is the pilot likely to experience: a lower level of stress

-A pilot using a checklist is an example of the interaction within the SHELL Concept of: L and S

-A pilot who is hyperventilating for a prolonged period of time may even become unconscious. Hyperventilation is likely to occur, when: the pilot is emotionally aroused

-A pilot who is trying to pick up a fallen object from the cockpit floor during a tight turn, may experience: coriolis illusion

-A pilot who smokes will lose some of his capacity to transport oxygen combined with haemoglobin. Which percentage of his total oxygen transportation capacity would he give away when he smokes one pack of cigarettes a day? 5 - 8%

-A pilot, accelerating or decelerating in level flight may get: the illusion of climbing or descending

-A pilot, climbing in a non-pressurised aircraft and without using supplemental oxygen will pass the "critical threshold" at approximately: 20 000 ft

-A pilot, height 1.7m and weighing 57kg. She is: normal

-A pressurized cabin helps to prevent: 1. decompression sickness 2 .the problem of expansion of gases in the intestines 3. hypoxia 4. coronary desease: 1, 2 and 3 are correct.

-A selective attentional mechanism is required: because of the limited capacity of the central decision maker and working memory

-A shining light is fading out (i. e. when flying into fog, dust or haze). What kind of illusion could the pilot get? The source of light moves away from him

-A stereotype and involuntary reaction of the organism on stimulation of receptors is called: reflex

-A stress reaction is: the non-specific response of the body to demands placed on a person

-Accommodation, which enables a clear image to be obtained, is accomplished by which of the following? The crystalline lens

-According to Rasmussen's model, errors are of the following type(s) in skill-based behaviour: routine errors

-According to Rasmussen's model, errors in rule-based control mode are of the following type(s) : errors of technical knowledge

-According to the different phases of the "General Adaptation Syndrome" which of the following statement/s is/are correct? 1. During the alarm phase stress hormones (i.e. adrenalin) will cause a massive release of glucose into the blood, an acceleration of pulse and blood pressure as well as an increase in the rate and depth of breathing 2. During the resistance phase the parasympathetic system uses a different type of hormone (cortisol) assisting for the conversion of fat into sugar. 3. During the exhaustion phase the body has to be given time to eliminate the waste products which have been generated excessively during the two preceding phases:     1, 2 and 3 are correct

-Action plans (SOP's) in a cockpit must: be shared by the members of the crew and updated at each modification in order to maintain maximum synergy

-Active errors/failures are committed at: the human/system interface and have an immediate effect

-Acute stress quickly leads to: the mobilization of resources required to cope with the stressor

-Adaptation is: the adjustment of the eyes to high or low levels of illumination

-Adverse effects of carbon monoxide increase as: altitude increases

-After a cabin pressure loss at approximately 35 000 FT the TUC (Time of Useful Consciousness) will be approximately: 30 -40 seconds

-After a cabin pressure loss at approximately 35 000 FT the TUC (Time of Useful Consciousness) will be approximately: 30 -40 seconds

-After a decompression to 43 000 FT the TUC (Time of Useful Consciousness) will be approximately: 5-15 seconds

-After a rapid decompression at 35 000 feet, the time of useful consciousness is about: 30 to 60 seconds

-After SCUBA diving (more than 30 feet of depth) you have to wait a period of time before flying again. This period is at least: 24 hours

-Air at an altitude of 18.000 feet contains, approximately: 21% oxygen

-Alcohol degrades: Paradoxical sleep

-Alcohol, even when taken in minor quantities: can make the brain cells to be more susceptible to hypoxia

-Alcohol, when taken simultaneously with drugs, may:  intensify the effects of the drugs

-Although the anticipation of possible events is a good attitude for pilots to acquire, it can sometimes lead to hazardous situations. With this statement in mind, select the response below which could lead to such a hazard: mishearing the contents of a reply from an air traffic controller when a non-standard procedure was given but a standard procedure was anticipated

-Although we have a field of vision of more than 180° it is important during flight to use the scanning technique, because: only in the foveal area resolution is good enough to see an object clearly

-Altitude-hypoxia, when breathing ambient air, should not usually occur (indifferent phase): below 3 000 m

-Among the external factors that may contribute to an error, cockpit noise and the restriction of the field of view due to windscreen design correspond to: ergonomic factors.

-Among the factors that increase tolerance to long-duration g forces are: Bending forward or supine body position and tensing of the abdominal muscles

-Among the factors which affect night vision are: age, cabin altitudes above 5 000 ft, smoking and alcohol.

-Among the factors which affect visual acuity are: Hypoxia, age and angular distance from the fovea

-Among the factors which can cause illusions while taxiing are: relative movement and cockpit height above the ground.

-Among the functions below, which is the most sensitive to hypoxia? Night vision.

-Among the measures that a pilot should take when in an area where gastro-intestinal upsets are endemic is: avoidance of ice in cold drinks.

-Among the physiological responses to stress are: sweating, dry mouth and breathing difficulties.

-Among the symptoms of hypoglycaemia are: Headache and lack of concentration

-An authoritative leader of a group will: tend to become over-loaded in times of high stress or in an emergency.

-An efficient flight deck (synergetic cockpit) will be observed when: decisions are taken by the Captain with the help and participation of the other crew members

-An example of conflict between status and role is: a senior Captain acting as co-pilot to a junior Captain of an aircraft.

-An experienced pilot: prepares thoroughly for a flight and is able to anticipate the majority of possible problems

-An identical situation can be experienced by one pilot as exciting in a positive sense and by another pilot as threatening. In both cases: the arousal level of both pilots will be raised

-An illusion of obtaining greater height above ground can occur when: suddenly flying over small trees after prolonged flying over tall trees.

-An important aspect of Situational Awareness is: When a pilot's perception equals reality

-An increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood leads to: an increased respiratory rate

-An under-confident and self-effacing co-pilot is promoted to Captain. It is not uncommon for such a person have a behavioural pattern which is: aggressive if challenged by another member of the crew.

-An unnoticed way-point error entered in an aircraft data base is an example of: Latent failure/error

-Analysis of accidents involving the human factor in aviation shows that: there is hardly ever a single cause responsible

-Angular accelerations are perceived by: the semi circular canals

-Anxiety and fear can cause: hyperventilation

-Anxiety can affect: 1. Judgement 2. Attention 3. Memory 4. Concentration: All are correct

-Any prolonged exposure to noise in excess of 90 db can result in: noise induced hearing loss

-Any prolonged exposure to noise in excess of 90 db can result in: noise induced hearing loss

-Approximately ................... of all communication is achieved by factors other than words (metacommunications): 80%

-Approximately how long will a blood/alcohol level of 60 mgm/100ml take to return to normal ? 4 hours

-As a cause of accidents, the human factor: is cited in approximately 70 - 80 % of aviation accidents

-As a result of automation in cockpits: communication and coordination call for an even greater effort on the part of the crew members

-Astigmatism is caused by: A mis-shapened cornea

-At rest the cardiac output (the quantity of blood the heart pumps in one minute) of an adult is approximately: 5 litres/min

-At rest the cardiac output (the quantity of blood the heart pumps in one minute) of an adult is approximately: 5 litres/min

-At what altitude (breathing 100% oxygen without pressure) could symptoms of hypoxia be expected? Approximately 38 - 40 000 ft.

-At which altitude (within the "indifferent zone") may a degradation of night vision occur? From approximately 1 600m

-At which altitude is it necessary to breathe 100% oxygen plus pressure after a rapid decompression ? Approximately 40 000 ft.

-At which altitude is it necessary to breathe 100% oxygen under pressure after a rapid decompression ? Approximately 40 000 ft.

-Attitudes are defined as: tendencies to respond to people, things or events in a particular manner

-Autokinesis can give the pilot the impression that: a star is another aircraft

-Autokinesis is: the apparent movement of a static single light when stared at for a relatively long period of time in the dark

-Autokinetic illusion is: an illusion in which a stationary point of light, if stared at for several seconds in the dark, may - without a frame of reference - appear to move

-Barotrauma caused by gas accumulation in the stomach and intestines can lead to: pressure pain or flatulence

-Barotrauma is caused by an increase or decrease in the volume of the gases contained in the body's cavities. Which, in practice, are the most frequent locations of such problems? Facial sinuses, middle ear and dental cavities

-Barotrauma of the middle ear is usually accompanied by:   a reduction in hearing ability and the feeling of increasing pressure

-Barotrauma of the middle ear most likely will occur: when descending rapidly

-Barotrauma of the sinuses of the nose: is caused by differences in pressure between the sinus cavities and the outside air pressure

-Before takeoff, a briefing: must be done systematically in order to refresh the memory of the crew members and to co-ordinate actions

-Below 70,000 ft., what gas makes up the major part of the atmosphere ? Nitrogen

-Between which components, with reference to the SHELL Concept, covers pilot misinterpretation of the old three-point altimeter? Liveware – Hardware

-Blood pressure is normally measured in: mmHg

-Blood-pressure depends on: 1. the cardiac output 2. the resistance of the capillaries Which of the following lists all the correct answers ? 1 and 2 are correct

-Boyle's law is directly applicable in case of: the expansion of trapped gasses in the human body with increasing altitude

-Breathing 100% oxygen at 40000 ft is equivalent to breathing ambient air at: 10 000 ft

-Breathing 100% oxygen will elevate the pilot's physiological safe altitude to approximately: 40 000 ft

-Breathing pure oxygen (without pressure) will be sufficient up to an altitude of: 40000 FT

-By 'long duration acceleration', we mean that it lasts more than: 1 second

-By what action could the pressure gradient between the middle and the outer ear be balanced? By swallowing.

-Caffeine may cause an increase in cardiac rate, restlessness/nervousness, insomnia, anxiety and intestinal irritability. Excessive consumption is considered to be in excess of: 250 mg/day

-Can you suffer from aerodontalgia in the descent? No

-Carbon dioxide: Is a normal product of internal respiration.

-Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in flight: presents an extremely dangerous situation as the blood may not be able carry sufficient amounts of oxygen to vital cells and tissues of the body.

-Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning leads to hypoxia because: CO in blood displaces oxygen from the blood corpuscles impairing oxygen transport.

-Carbon monoxide in the human body can lead to: 1. loss of muscular power 2.headache 3. impaired judgement 4. pain in the joints 5. loss of consciousness: 1, 2 , 3 and 5 are correct

-Carbon monoxide is always present in the exhaust gases of engines. If a pilot is exposed to carbon monoxide, which of the following responses is correct? A short exposure to relatively high concentrations of carbon monoxide can seriously affect a pilot´s ability to operate an aircraft.

-Carbon Monoxide is particularly dangerous because: 1. Its initial symptoms are not alarming 2. It is colourless 3. Its is odourless 4. It is highly toxic 5. Its effects are cumulative: all of the above

-Carbon monoxide poisoning can be treated by: increasing the amount of oxygen being physically dissolved in the blood

-Carbon monoxide poisoning:  is more likely to occur in aeroplanes where the cabin heating is supplied by passing cabin air over the exhaust manifold(s)

-Carbon monoxide poisoning: is more likely to occur in aeroplanes where the cabin heating is supplied by passing cabin air over the exhaust manifold(s)

-Carbon monoxide, a product of incomplete combustion, is toxic because: it competes with oxygen in its union with haemoglobin

-Cataract is caused by: A clouding of the lens

-Changes in blood-pressure are measured by: pressoreceptors

-Cholera can be transmitted through: Food or water which has been contaminated

-Cigarette smoking has particular significance to the flyer, because there are long-term and short-term harmful effects. From cigarette smoking the pilot can get: a mild carbon monoxide poisoning decreasing the pilot´s tolerance to hypoxia

-CO (carbon monoxide) present in the smoke of cigarettes can lead to: 1. reduction of time of useful consciousness 2. hypoxia at a lower altitude than normal:   1 and 2 are both correct

-Coaction is a mode of coordination which recommends: working in parallel to achieve one common objective

-Cognitive and physical rehearsal of actions during training: It is most important for the acquisition of complex perceptual motor skills

-Cognitive Coping is associated with: ignoring or rationalising the stress factor.

-Cognitive evaluation which leads to stress is based on: the evaluation of the situation and the evaluation of capabilities to cope with it

-Cohesion is a major advantage in times of: Difficulty

-Colour Blindness: may be subtle and only detected using specialised tests.

-Communication efficiency is most sensitive to: Workload and interruptions

-Concerning circadian rhythm disruption (jet lag), adjustment to destination time: 1. Takes longer when travelling west rather than travelling east 2. Takes longer when travelling east rather than travelling west 3. Varies little between individuals 4. Varies substantially among individuals. Which of the following lists all the correct statements ? 2,4

-Concerning the effects of drugs and pilot´s performance: the primary and the side effects have to be considered

-Concerning the light sensitive cells of the eye: the cones detect colour vision and are highly sensitive to hypoxia.

-Concerning the relationship between performance and stress, which of the following statements is correct? A moderate level of stress may improve performance.

-Conductive hearing loss can be caused by: 1. damage to the ossicles in the middle ear caused by infection or trauma 2. a damage of the auditory nerve 3. an obstruction in the outer ear 4. a ruptured tympanic membrane: 1, 3 and 4 are correct, 2 is false

-Contrary to a person's personality, attitudes: Are the product of personal disposition and past experience with reference to an object or a situation

-Coriolis illusion, causing spatial disorientation is the result of: simultaneous head movements during aircraft manoeuvres

-CRM (Crew Resource Management) training is: intended to develop effectiveness of crew performance by improving attitudes towards flight safety and human relationship management

-CRM and MCC training are designed to improve: The quality of crew performance

-Dalton's law explains the occurrence of: altitude hypoxia

-Decision making in emergency situations requires firstly: delegation of tasks and crew coordination

-Decision-making can be influenced by the following factors: 1. people tend to conform to opinions expressed by a majority within the group they belong to 2. people always keep the future decisions in line with those their superiors have made in the past 3. people more easily tend to select data which meet their expectations 4. people rarely base decisions on their personal preferences but rather on rational information Which of the following lists all the correct answers ?  1,3

-Decision-making is a concept which represents: a voluntary and conscious process of selection, from among possible solutions, for a given problem

-Decision-making results in: a choice between different options to achieve a goal

-Decision-making results in: a choice between different options to achieve a goal

-Decisions made by pilots in a cockpit: remain valid for a limited time only

-Decompression sickness can be prevented by: 1. avoiding cabin altitudes above 18 000 FT 2. maintaining cabin pressure below 8 000FT when flying at high altitudes 3. performing physical exercises before and during the flight 4. breathing 100 % oxygen for 30 min prior and during the flight: 1, 2 and 4 are correct

-Decompression sickness symptoms may develop due to: cabin pressure loss when flying at higher altitudes (above 18000 FT)

-Decompression sickness/illness is characterized by: over-saturated nitrogen gas molecules in the body tissues.

-Decompression symptoms are caused by: dissolved gases from tissues and fluids of the body

-Define Hypoxia and explain why living tissues require oxygen: Hypoxia is the lack of sufficient oxygen to meet the needs of the body tissues which require oxygen for oxidation of carbohydrates from food to produce energy.

-Differences of opinion should be regarded as:  Helpful

-Discussing private matters in the cockpit: can improve team spirit

-Disorientation is more likely to occur when the pilot is: 1. flying in IMC 2. frequently changing between inside and outside references 3. flying from IMC into VMC 4. approaching over still water at night: 1, 2 and 4 are correct

-Disruptions of pressure equalization in air-filled cavities of the head (nose, ear etc.) are called: barotraumas

-Disturbance of the biological clock is most likely to appear after a: 1. bad night's sleep 2. day flight Amsterdam - New York 3. day flight Amsterdam - Johannesburg 4. night flight New York – Amsterdam:  2 and 4 are correct

-Divided attention is the ability: 1. to execute several mental activities at almost the same time (i.e. when switching attention from outside the aircraft to the airspeed indicator on the instrument panel) 2. to monitor the progress of a motor programme (i.e. flying or taxiing the airplane) on a relatively subconscious level, while making a radio call at the same time (requiring a rather conscious level) 3 .to select information and check if it is relevant to the task in hand. At the same time no other operation can be performed. 4. to delegate tasks to the copilot while concentrating on the procedures:   1 and 2 are correct, 3 and 4 are false

-Dizziness and tumbling sensations, when making head movements in a tight turn, are symptoms of:    "Pilot`s vertigo"

-Does noise (above 90 dbs) improve performance? Never.

-Doing a general briefing in the pre-flight phase the captain should emphasize: particular requirements in the field of crew coordination and co-operation

-Doing a general briefing in the pre-flight phase the captain should emphasize: particular requirements in the field of crew coordination and co-operation

-Dry air is a mixture of gases. Their volume percentage is about: 21% oxygen,78% nitrogen, 1% other gases

-During a night flight at 10,000 feet you notice that your visual acuity has decreased. In this case you can increase your acuity by: breathing extra oxygen through the oxygen mask.

-During a rapid decompression in a 2 crew aircraft, the other pilot becomes incapacitated, your first action is to: don your own oxygen mask.

-During a steady climb above Flight Level 100 if cabin pressurization fails: The effects of hypoxia may be gradual and difficult to recognise.

-During flight all crewmembers have one or more of the following symptoms: 1. blue lips 2. mental disturbances 3. tingling sensations in arms and/or legs 4. reduction of peripheral vision Which is the possible cause? Hypoxia.

-During flight in IMC, the most reliable sense which should be used to overcome illusions is the: visual sense, interpreting the attitude indicator

-During gas exchange, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli is: lower than in the blood

-During hyperventilation: acidity level of the blood is reduced

-During paradoxical sleep:  rapid eye movements can be observed

-During poor weather conditions a pilot should fly with reference to instruments because: perception of distance and speed is difficult in an environment of low contrast

-During sustained positive G-forces the order of symptoms you can expect is: grey-out, tunnel vision, black-out and unconsciousness.

-During the conflict resolution process it is important to : 1. realise and to accept the conflict. 2. verbalise mutual expectations. 3. search for common agreements. 4. express one's own viewpoint: 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct.

-During the cruise, at night, when the workload is low, it is recommended that: the lighting in the cockpit be increased in order to prevent low vigilance

-During the cruising phase of a short-haul flight the captain starts to smoke a cigarette in the cockpit. The flying copilot asks him to stop smoking because he is a non-smoker. The captain tells him: 'This is your problem', and continues smoking. What should the co-pilot do? He should not further discuss this issue but should come back to this conflict during the debriefing

-During the decision making process in the cockpit: the amount of time available has a large influence on the analysis of the situation.

-During the pre-flight phase in the cockpit the captain notices that his copilot on the one hand is rather inexperienced and insecure but on the other hand highly motivated. Which kind of leadership behaviouris is most appropriate? The captain lets the copilot fly and observes his behaviour without any comments

-Early symptoms of hypoxia could be: 1. euphoria 2. decreased rate and depth of breathing 3. lack of concentration 4. visual disturbances:   1,3 and 4 are correct

-Empty field myopia is caused by: lack of distant focal points

-'Environmental capture' is a term used to describe which of the following statements? 1.The tendency for a skill to be executed in an environment in which it is frequently exercised, even if it is inappropriate to do so 2.The tendency for a skill acquired in one aircraft type to be executed in a new aircraft type, even if it is inappropriate to do so 3. The tendency for people bo behave in different ways in different social situations 4. The gaining of environmental skills: 1 and 2 are correct

-Environmental sources of stress in the cockpit could be: 1. noise and vibration 2. acceleration 3. radiation 4. extreme temperatures Which of the following lists all the correct answers? 1, 2, 3 and 4

-Equalization of air pressure between the outer and the middle ear is: important to prevent pain and loss of hearing during flight.

-Equalization of pressure is limited between the middle ear and the ambient, when: the eustachian tube is blocked

-Ergonomics are associated with: the human/workplace interface

-Even at normal cabin altitudes (i.e. around 8000 ft) you can get severe abdominal pain and flatulence after eating gas forming foods or fizzy drinks. The correct counter-measure is: descend to a lower altitude

-Excessive exposure to noise can damage: the sensitive membrane in the cochlea

-Excessive intake of aspirin can cause: Gastric bleeding

-Expanded abdominal air following rapid decompression at 30 000 feet: may be dangerous causing great pain.

-Expressed as a simple mathematical statement when considering a crew of two, good synergy is: 1 + 1 = > 2

-Fatigue and stress: lower the tolerance to hypoxia

-Fixation or tunnel vision is primarily to be expected when: stress is high

-Flickering light when reflected from spinning rotor blades: can cause spatial disorientation and/or nausea

-Flights immediately after SCUBA-diving (compressed gas mixtures, bottles) (>10 m depth):   are forbidden

-Flights immediately after SCUBA-diving, using compressed gas, to depths greater than 10 metres: are to be avoided because of the possibility of decompression sickness

-Flying a coordinated level turn will: make the body`s pressure receptors feel an increased pressure along the body`s vertical axis

-Flying a non-pressurized light aircraft at 9 000 feet your passenger develops blue lips: assuming he is suffering from hypoxia you reduce altitude and supply him/her with oxygen.

-Flying at pressure altitude of 10 000 ft, a pilot, being a moderate to heavy smoker, has an oxygen content in the blood equal to an altitude: above 10 000 FT

-Flying from Frankfurt to Moscow you will have a lay-over of 4 days. What time measure is relevant for your circadian rhythm on the 3rd day? LT (local time).

-Flying immediately after SCUBA diving involves the risk of getting: decompression sickness without having a decompression

-Flying immediately following a dive with SCUBA diving equipment (> 10 m depth) is forbidden because it: can cause decompression sickness even when flying at pressure altitudes below 18 000 FT

-Flying while suffering from a cold may expose a pilot to: otic and sinus barotrauma.

-Flying with a "common cold":may lead to incapacitation due to severe sinus or ear pain.

-Following a rapid decompression at 30.000 feet, the time of useful consciousness would be about: between 45 seconds and 1 minute 30 seconds

-For a normal and healthy person, personality traits are: stable.

-Free running circadian rhythms normally have a cycle of approximately: 25 hours

-From the list below which answers are correct ? Feedback gives information about : 1. the sender 2. the sender's intentions 3. the situation:  1, 2 and 3.

-Galactic Radiation is: Steady and reasonably predictable

-General Adaptation Syndrome is characterised by the following phases: -1: alarm -2: alert phase -3: resistance phase -4: exhaustion phase -5: vigilance phase: 1,3,4

-Generally, the time required for dark adaptation is: 30 min

-Glaucoma 1. can lead to total blindness 2. can lead to undetected reduction of the visual field 3. reduces visual acuity in its final stage: 1, 2 and 3 are correct

-Glaucoma is due to: Increase in pressure of the liquid within the eye

-Glaucoma is: high intra-ocular pressure

-Glaucoma: is a condition detected by pressure testing the eye ball.

-Group norms regulate the interaction and the behaviour between the members of a group.

-Habits and routine can influence decision-making in a way that: shows a tendency to select the most familiar solution first and foremost, sometimes to the detriment of achieving the best possible result

-Haemoglobin has an affinity for carbon monoxide of ...............times over oxygen: 210 – 250

-Haemoglobin is: in the red blood cells

-Having a cold or an infection of the upper respiratory tract you: should not fly because the congestion of the frontal sinuses may cause great pain which can seriously affect your ability to control yourself and the aircraft.

-Having a serious cold it is better not to fly, due to the extra risk of: 1. flatulence 2. pain in the ear during descent 3. vertigo 4. pain in the nasal sinuses:  2,3 and 4 are correct

-Having a serious cold, you are going to fly. What can you expect? pain in the sinuses

-Having interrupted the Captain for a sound reason, the co-pilot should: Remind him/her of his/her last action before the interruption

-Having made an important decision, a Commander of an aircraft should: Always try to make time to explain the reasons for the decision even if it is after landing

-Healthy people are usually capable of compensating for a lack of oxygen up to: 10,000 - 12.000feet

-Hearing Tests are carried out during pilot medicals to: detect early signs of deafness.

-Heart attack (myocardial infarction) : Is the commonest cause of death in men over the age of 40

-Heart Attack (myocardial infarction): is a total blockage of a coronary artery leading to the death of a piece of heart muscle.

-Henry's Law explains the occurrence of: decompression sickness

-Hepatitis 'A' is transmitted through: food or water which has been contaminated.

-High arousal leads to: faster but less accurate responses.

-How are oxygen and carbon dioxide transported throughout the body? Circulation

-How can a pilot increase his tolerance to +Gz ? Tightening of the stomach muscles.

-How can a pilot overcome vertigo, encountered during a real or simulated instrument flight? 1. Establish and maintain an effective instrument cross-check. 2. Always believe the instruments; never trust your sense of feeling. 3. Ignore arising illusions. 4. Move the head sidewards and back and forth to "shake-off" illusions: 1, 2 and 3 are correct

-How can a pilot prevent spatial disorientation in flight? Establish and maintain a good instrument cross check.

-How can the process of learning be enhanced? By reinforcing successful performance

-How can vertigo be prevented in conditions of good visibility? By looking at the horizon

-How do you understand the statement 'one cannot not communicate'? Being silent as well as inactive are nonverbal behaviour patterns which express a meaning.

-How do you understand the statement 'one cannot not communicate'? Being silent as well as inactive are nonverbal behaviour patterns which express a meaning.

-How does an increase in altitude affect the haemoglobin oxygen saturation? As altitude increases, the haemoglobin oxygen saturation decreases.

-How is haze effecting your perception? Objects seem to be further away than in reality.

-How is oxygen mainly transported in the blood? Haemoglobin in the red blood cells.

-How is yellow fever contracted? A virus transmitted by an infected mosquito.

-How many stages of sleep are there including REM sleep? 5 stages

-How will hyperventilation cause the acid-base balance of the blood to be affected? Hyperventilation causes too much CO2 to be removed from the blood causing the level of carbonic acid to fall.

-How will the successful completion of a stressful task affect a pilot's performance when a similar situation is experienced in the future? The amount of stress experienced will be less.

-How would you describe the leadership style of a captain who primarily is interested in a friendly atmosphere within his crew, who is always constructive and encouraging, who usually compromises in interpersonal conflicts, who trusts in the capabilities of his crew-members, and who leaves the crew freedom for own decisions? Low task-orientation and high relationship-orientation

-Human behaviour is determined by: biological characteristics, social environment and cultural influences

-Human error rates during the performance of a simple and repetitive task can normally be expected to be approximately: 1 in 100

-Human errors are frequent and may take several forms: an error can be described as the mismatch between the pilots intention and the result of his/her actions

-Hypertension: increases the risk of a heart attack and stroke.

-Hyperventilation causes:  a reduction of carbon dioxide in the blood

-Hyperventilation is due to an excessive rate of breathing and can produce the following symptoms: dizziness, tingling sensation in the fingers and toes, nausea and blurred vision

-Hyperventilation is: a normal compensatory physiological reaction to a drop in partial oxygen pressure (i.e. when climbing a high mountain)

-Hyperventilation is: an increased lung ventilation

-Hypoglycaemia can be caused by: not eating regularly or fasting.

-Hypoxia can affect night vision:   at approximately 5 000 ft

-Hypoxia can be caused by: 1. low partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere when flying at high altitudes without pressurisation and supplemental oxygen 2. a decreased saturation of oxygen in the blood due to carbon monoxide attached to the hemoglobin 3. blood pooling in the lower extremities due to inertia (+ Gz) 4. malfunction of the body cells to metabolize oxygen (i.e. after a hangover): 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

-Hypoxia can be caused by: a lack of red blood cells in the blood or decreased ability of the haemoglobin to transport oxygen

-Hypoxia is a situation in which the cells: have a shortage of oxygen

-Hypoxia is caused by: reduced partial oxygen pressure in the lung

-Hypoxia is: a physical condition caused by a lack of oxygen to meet the needs of the body tissues, leading to mental and muscular disturbances, causing impaired thinking, poor judgement and slow reactions

-Hypoxic hypoxia may be caused by: 1. climbing to a high altitude without using additional oxygen 2. malfunction in the oxygen supply system 3. loss of cabin pressurization at high altitude Which of the following lists all the correct answers? 1, 2 and 3

-If a crew is having a stop-over for less than 24hrs before returning to their homebase, what coping strategy should be used for jet lag? Maintain eating and sleeping cycle based on home time.

-If a stop-over is more than 24 hours, the correct action is to: Move to the new time as soon as possible

-If coping with a stress situation is impossible, one will remain in the state of: distress

-If during flight a pilot is in a mental condition of "optimum arousal" he/she will be: prepared best to cope with a difficult task

-If one error is allowed to effect a whole system, the system is described as: Vulnerable

-If somebody starts breathing faster and deeper without physiological need: the blood turns more alkaline

-If someone hyperventilates due to stress his/her blood will become: more alkaline

-If the co-pilot continuously feels unfairly treated by the Captain, he/she should: point out the problem, concentrate on his/her duties and clarify the matter at a more appropriate time

-If warned of an imminent thunderstorm: cockpit lights should be turned up.

-If you are disorientated during night flying you must: rely on your instruments

-If you are subjected to an illusion during night flying you should: continue on instruments

-Illuminated anti-collision lights in IMC: can cause disorientation

-Illusions that pilots experience in conditions of fog or mist are that: Objects appear further away than they really are and can lead to steep approaches.

-In 1972, a psychologist named Edwards presented a concept of the interface between flight crew and other parts of the airspace environment. What is this concept called and the names of those elements involved ? The SHELL Concept. Software, hardware, environment, and liveware

-In a complex task high levels of arousal: narrow the span of attention

-In an abnormal situation the pilot has an apparently correct explanation for the problem. The chance that he/she now ignores or devalues other relevant information, not fitting into his/her mental picture is: not usual

-In case of in-flight stress, one should: use all available resources of the crew

-In civil air transport, linear accelerations (Gx): - 1: do not exist - 2: have slight physiological consequences - 3: may, in the case of pull-out, lead to loss of consciousness - 4: may cause sensory illusions on the pitch axis: 2,4

-In decision-making, the selection of a solution depends on: 1. objective and subjective criteria 2. the objective to be achieved 3. the risks associated with each solution 4. the personality of the decision-maker: 1, 2, 3, 4

-In his/her behaviour, the "ideal professional pilot" is: both "person" and "goal" oriented

-In order to avoid hypoglycaemia: a pilot should eat regularly and ensure he/she has a balanced diet

-In order to completely resynchronise with local time after zone crossing, circadian rhythms require:   less time when flying from east to west

-In order to get rid of excess nitrogen following scuba diving, subsequent flights should be delayed: 24 hours

-In order to limit stress when flying, a pilot should: maintain his competence by practicing his professional skills and learning from past experiences

-In order to make communication effective, it is necessary to: -1: avoid the synchronization of verbal and non-verbal channels. -2: send information in line with the receiver's decoding abilities. -3: always concentrate on the informational aspects of the message only.-4 : avoid increasing the number of communication channels, in order to simplify communication. The correct statement(s) is (are): only 2 is correct

-In order to make sound decisions it is important to: understand why and how we make decisions.

-In order to overcome an overload of work during the flight, it is necessary to: -1: know how to use one's own reserve of resources in order to ease the burden on the crew. -2: divide up tasks among the crew. -3: ensure that the long-term memory is used as much as possible as short term memory will add to the stress. -4: drop certain tasks and stick to high-level priorities. The correct statement(s) is (are): 1, 2 and 4 are correct

-In order to perceive colour vision, it is necessary: 1. for there to be a sufficient amount of light (ambient luminosity) 2. at night to look at the point to be observed at an angle of 15° 3. to allow the eye a period of time to get used to the light 4. to avoid white light:    1

-In order to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease, exercise should: double the resting heart rate for at least 20 minutes, three times a week

-In problem-solving, what determines the transition from rule-based activities to a knowledge-based activity? The unsuitability of the known rules for the problem posed

-In terms of decision-making, the intention to become integrated into the team, to be recognised as the leader or to avoid conflicts may lead to: the attempt to agree on decisions made by other crew members

-In the absence of external reference points, the sensation that the vehicle in which you sitting is moving when it is in fact the vehicle directly alongside which is moving is called: illusion of relative movement

-In the Alarm stage of response to stress what does the body do? Recognises the stressor and prepares the body for action.

-In the alveoli gas exchange takes place (external respiration). Which gas will diffuse from the blood into the lungs? Carbon dioxide.

-In the case of changes to circadian rhythms, the readjustment to a new time zone: is most rapid when flying westbound

-In the case of fire in flight most fatalities are caused by: Suffocation from fumes caused by aircraft furnishing and wiring.

-In the decision-making process, confirmation bias results in: a tendency to look for information which confirms the validity of the decision

-In the event of fuel spillage onto the body it is advisable that the affected area is: initially washed with copious water and without the use of soap.

-In the event of rapid decompression the first action for the flight deck crew is: don oxygen masks and ensure oxygen flow

-In the short-term-memory, information is stored for approximately: 20 seconds

-In tropical zones, it is recommended that: cold drinks be taken from sealed containers

-Incapacitation is most dangerous when it is : insidious

-Incorrect perception: can be highly persuasive.

-In-flight incapacitation of a pilot is most frequently caused by: acute gastrointestinal disorders

-Informal roles within a crew: evolve as a result of the interactions that take place among crew members

-Information received from the senses is lost: within 10 - 20 seconds unless it is rehearsed and deliberately placed in the Long Term Memory.

-Information stays in the short-term memory: about 20 seconds

-Inhaling carbon monoxide can be extremely dangerous during flying. Which of the following statements is correct? Carbon monoxide is odourless and colourless.

-Internal conflict within oneself is termed as: Intra-personal conflict

-Internal respiration: is a metabolic process that takes place inside the cells during which oxygen is used and carbon dioxide produced.

-Is it possible to suffer from Aerodontalgia in the descent? No.

-Is it possible to survive depressurized flight at 40 000 feet for more than 10 minutes? Yes -provided 100% oxygen is immediately available from masks.

-It is desirable to standardize as many patterns of behaviour (operating procedures) as possible in commercial aviation mainly because: such behaviour reduces errors even under adverse circumstances

-It is generally considered that the most serious non-professional stressor is: death of a spouse or partner.

-It is inadvisable to fly when suffering from a cold. The reason for this is: pain and damage to the eardrum can result, particularly during fast descents

-It is inadvisable to fly when suffering from a cold. The reason for this is: the tissue around the nasal end of the Eustachian tube is likely to be swollen thus causing difficulty in equalising the pressure within the middle ear and the nasal/throat area. Pain and damage to the eardrum can result, particularly during fast descents

-Judgement is based upon: a process involving a pilot´s attitude to take and to evaluate risks by assessing the situation and making decisions based upon knowledge, skill and experience

-Less experienced pilots differ from experienced pilots in the following way: inexperienced pilots refer to information more than experts when carrying out the same task

-Linear acceleration when flying straight and level in IMC may give the illusion of: climbing

-List the constituent parts of the blood and state their function: Red cells carry oxygen, white cells are involved in immunity and platelets coagulate blood.

-Loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens due to ageing occurs in: presbyopia

-Man possesses a system for maintaining his internal equilibrium in the face of variations brought about by external stimulations. This internal equilibrium is called: Homeostasis

-Mark the two most important attributes for a positive leadership style: 1. dominant behaviour 2. excellent role-behaviour 3. mastery of communication skills 4. "Laissez-faire" behaviour:  2 and 3

-Medical conditions such as high blood pressure, coronary problems and diabetes are associated with: obesity

-Mental rehearsal is helpful to improve flying skills:  at all levels of flying proficiency

-Metacommunication is defined as: Flying immediately following a dive with SCUBA diving equipment to a depth greater than 10 metres is not advisable because: can cause decompression sickness even when flying at pressure altitudes below 18 000 FT

-Mode Error is associated with: Automation

-Motivation is an important attribute which contributes to flight safety. Which of the following statements is correct with regards to motivation? Excessive motivation leads to stress which adversely affects performance

-Motivation, crew-climate and "Confirmation Bias" are factors that: can influence the situational awareness.

-Motor programmes are: stored routines that enable patterns of behaviour to be executed without continuous conscious control

-Name the commonest problem of the Long Term Memory and how would you counteract it? Unless an item is recalled regularly, it becomes more and more difficult to retrieve from the LTM store.

-Night vision: requires up to 30 minutes to reach its best performance

-Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is caused by: a blocked Eustachian tube

-Noise induced hearing loss is influenced by: the duration and intensity of a noise

-Noise Induced Hearing Loss: is a condition resulting in permanent hearing loss of selected frequencies.

-Non-verbal communication: can serve as a substitute for oral speech.

-Nonverbal communication: supports verbal communication

-Of the following alternatives, which effects are due to positive acceleration (+ Gz)? - 1: Decrease in heart rate - 2: Pooling of blood into lower parts of the body - 3: Drop in blood pressure above heart-level - 4: Downward displacement or deformation of soft or mobile organs:    2,3,4

-Of the following statements regarding stress, which is correct? Stress may be positive, fatigue is always negative.

-Of the following statements, which apply to coordinated cooperation? -1: It allows for synergy in the actions between the captain and the co-pilot. -2: It represents the simultaneous execution of a single action by the various members of the crew. -3: Communication here results in synchronised actions and the natural and easy distribution of responsibilities. -4: Communication is centred around the outside world. The correct statement(s) is (are): 1 and 3

-On approach, by day, in snowy conditions, without reference to glideslope information: judgement of height is extremely difficult

-On ascent the gases in the digestive tract will: expand

-On average most human adults require approximately how many hours sleep per night? 8 hrs

-On experiencing a vestibular illusion in straight and level flight, it is recommended that: you avoid head movements and rely on your instruments

-Once a pilot has constructed a mental model he/she tends to: give undue weight to information that confirms the model

-Once a pilot has developed a certain way of thinking about a problem he will probably: find it difficult to get out of that way of thinking and difficult to try a different interpretation of the data

-One negative aspect of the highly automated cockpit results in: complacency among the crewmembers

-One of the dangers of extreme cold is that: sleepiness occurs associated with a feeling of contentment or apathy.

-One of the earliest and most significant features of Hypothermia (extreme cold) is: apathy

-One of the first effects to be noticed on gradual exposure to high positive radial accelerations is: grey-out

-One of the major protective measures against illusions is: comprehensive briefing and de-briefing

-One of the most dangerous symptoms of hypoxia concerning flight safety is: impaired judgement

-One of the substances present in the smoke of cigarettes can make it significantly more difficult for the red blood cells to transport oxygen and as a consequence contributes to hypoxia. Which substance are we referring to? Carbon monoxide

-One of the waste products of the metabolic process in the cell is: carbon dioxide

-Organisational factors which affect or may have some influence on human error are: 1. malfunction of technical systems. 2. fuel-saving policies. 3. rostering. 4. weather phenomena. Which of the following lists all the correct answers? 2 and 3

-Orientation in flight is accomplished by 1. eyes 2. utriculus and sacculus 3. semicircular canals 4. Seat-of-the-pants-Sense:   1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

-Otic Barotrauma is worse during the descent than climb because: the air in the middle ear is at a lower pressure than the cabin, this closes the eustation tube so that the pressure cannot be equalised.

-Our body takes its energy from: 1: minerals 2: protein 3: carbonhydrates 4: vitamins: 2,3

-Our mental model of the world is based: on both our past experiences and the sensory information we receive

-Out of the list of possible measures to counteract hyperventilation, the most effective measure is: breathe into a plastic or paper bag

-Oxygen transport to the tissues: depends on haemoglobin level and blood flow.

-Oxygen, combined with haemoglobin in blood is transported by:  red blood cells

-Ozone in the air of a pressurized cabin can be eliminated by: ozone-converters

-Pain in the Joints ("bends") is a symptom of: decompression sickness

-Pain in the middle ear during descent may be eased by: levelling off and possibly climbing

-Perception is based upon: information received as well as past experience and knowledge.

-Perceptional illusions are: normal and can be prevented by trusting instrument read-out.

-Personality is based on: 1. Heredity 2. Upbringing 3. Experience 4. Childhood:    1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

-Phobic states or obsessional disorders will: may require successful treatment before flying may be permitted

-Physical Stress takes place when: outside conditions put a strain upon the homeostatic mechanisms of the body.

-Physiological problems due to increasing altitude are caused by: decreased atmospheric pressure

-Physiological stressors include: Noise, temperature (low or high), humidity, sleep deprivation

-Pilot stress reactions: differ from pilot to pilot, depending on how a person manages the particular stressors

-Pilots are more easily inclined to take greater risks when: they are part of a group of pilots and they feel that they are being observed and admired (e.g. air shows)

-Pilots should not fly immediately following giving a donation of blood: because there is a small increased risk of low blood pressure due to loss of blood volume.

-Pilots should not take antihistamines because they may cause: 1. Drowsiness and dizziness 2. Hypoglycaemia 3. Hyperventilation 4. Flatulence Which of the following lists all the correct answers? only 1

-Planning: allows crew members to anticipate potential risky situations and decide on possible responses

-Positive g will cause the blood flow to the brain to: decrease

-Positive linear acceleration when flying in IMC may cause a false sensation of: pitching up

-Presbycusis causes initial loss of: high tones.

-Presbycusis results in: reduction in the perception of high tones first

-Presbyopia causes a: decrease of accommodation

-Presbyopia is: long sightedness linked with age

-Presbyopia:  is common over the age of 50.

-Preventing hypoxia at altitude is achieved by: pressurizing the air inside the aircraft to achieve oxygen saturation in blood of more than 90%.

-Professional languages have certain characteristics, for example: -1: They use a limited vocabulary . -2: They are rich and adapted to the context, which sometimes lead to ambiguities. -3: Their grammar is rather complicated and complex. -4: Context provides meaning, therefore reduces the risk of ambiguities: 1 and 4 are correct

-Raising the sensory threshold of a sensory organ means: a lesser sensitivity

-Records of radiation are normally kept for flights above: 49,000 ft

-Resonance of the body parts can result from: vibrations from 1 to 100 Hz

-Rods (scotopic visual cells) allow for: good night-vision after adaptation to darkness (30 min)

-Safety is often improved by applying the principles of CRM, e.g.: expression of doubts or of a different opinion

-Saturation of oxygen in the blood at sea level is approximately 98%. This saturation decreases with: 1. decreasing air pressure 2. carbon monoxide poisoning 3. increasing altitude 4. increasing air pressure: 1, 2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false

-Scanning at night should be performed by: slight eye movements to the side of the object

-Select from the following list environmental stressors: 1. Heat 2. Humidity 3. Divorce 4. Lack of rest 5. Loss of job 6. Noise:   1, 2 & 6

-Select from the following list the advantages of teamwork. 1. Workload is lessened 2. Conformity to group norm 3. Flight safety enhanced 4. Risky Shift 5. Work stress is reduced 6. Improved decision-making:1, 3, 5 & 6

-Sensory input to the "Seat-of-the-Pants" sense is given by:  subcutaneous pressure receptors and muscle activity sensors

-Signs of stress include: Perspiration, dry mouth, dilated pupils, fast breathing.

-Situations particularly vulnerable to "reversion to an earlier behaviour pattern" are: 1. when concentration on a particular task is relaxed 2. when situations are characterised by medium workload 3. when situations are characterised by stress:  1. and 3.

-Sleeplessness or the disruption of sleeping patterns 1. can lead to symptoms of drowsiness, irritability and lack of concentration 2. will make an individual more prone to make errors: 1 and 2 are both correct

-Smoking 3 cigarettes in 1 hour at sea level will: cause a lower degree of hypoxic tolerance.

-Smoking cigarettes reduces the capability of the blood to carry oxygen because: haemoglobin has a greater affinity for carbon monoxide than it has for oxygen

-Smoking cigarettes reduces the capability of the blood to carry oxygen because:  Smoking cigarettes reduces the capability of the blood to carry oxygen because

-Some hours after a rapid decompression at FL 300 you experience pain in the joints. Which of following answers is correct? You should ask for medical advice (flight surgeon) since this is a symptom of decompression sickness.

-Someone who has anaemia has: not enough functional haemoglobin

-Sound is measured in: DB

-Spatial disorientation will be most likely to occur during flight: if the brain receives conflicting information and the pilot does not believe the instruments

-Spatial disorientation will be most likely to occur during flight: if the brain receives conflicting information and the pilot does not believe the instruments

-State the conditions which cause the "black hole effect" and the danger to flight safety: The "black hole effect" can be caused by flying over water at night on the approach to an airfield which can create the illusion that the aircraft is at a higher altitude than it is, leading to a low approach being flown.

-Stimuli must be of a certain strength for the receptors to pick them up. This is called: Sensory threshold

-Stress can be defined as: the unresolved pressure, strain or force acting upon an individual's physical or mental systems and the human response.

-Stress is a frequent aspect of the pilot's job. Under which of the following circumstances does it occur? 1. Stress occurs whenever the pilot must revise his plan of action and does not immediately have a solution 2. Stress occurs with inexperienced pilots when the situational demands exceed their individual capabilities 3. Stress occurs if a pilot is convinced that he will not be able to find a solution for the problem he/she faces:    1, 2 and 3 are correct

-Stress is: a mechanism by which an individual can respond to situations which he/she may have to face

-Stress management programmes usually involve: the prevention and/or the removal of stress

-Stress may be defined as: a normal phenomenon which enables an individual to adapt to encountered situations

-Stress may cause Regression which can lead to: correct actions being forgotten and substituted for procedures learnt in the past.

-Stress occurs: 1 : only in a situation of imminent danger. 2 : only when faced with real, existing and palpable phenomenon. 3 : sometimes via imagination, the anticipation of a situation or its outcome. 4 : because of the similarity with a formerly experienced stressful situation. The correct statement(s) is (are): 3,4

-Subcutaneous pressure receptors are stimulated by: the pressure created on the corresponding body parts when sitting, standing or lying down

-Symptoms caused by gas bubbles in the lungs, following a decompression are called: chokes

-Symptoms of decompression sickness: are bends, chokes, creeps and neurological symptoms

-Tattooing and immunization with the use of improperly sterilized needles or syringes may expose the receiver to which of the following? Hepatitis B or C

-Tetanus is transmitted through: Bacteria in the form of spores via a puncture in the skin

-The "Break Point" is that point after which, if stress continues to rise: performance is degraded.

-The "Effective Performance Time" or "Time of Useful Consciousness" after a decompression at 35 000 ft is: between 30 and 60 seconds

-The "ideal" cockpit can be termed as: Synergistic

-The "Leans" or Somatogyral illusion can be caused by: Reducing bank following a prolonged turn

-The "Seat-of-the-Pants-Sense": can give false inputs to body orientation when visual reference is lost

-The 5 human senses tend to adapt: This statement is true.

-The ability of the human eye to read alphanumeric information is: limited to the foveal area of the retina

-The ability of the human eye to read alphanumeric information: is limited to the foveal area of the retina

-The ability of the lens to change its shape is called: accommodation

-The ability to monitor information which could indicate the development of a critical situation: is necessary to maintain good situational awareness

-The ability to withstand g forces is reduced by a number of factors, among these factors are: Low blood sugar, obesity and hypoxia

-The acquisition of a motor programme (skill) will mean that: the more behaviour is automated, the less it requires conscious attention and thus the more it frees mental resources

-The acquisition of a skill comprises three stages (Anderson model): cognitive, associative and automatic

-The amount of light which strikes the retina is controlled by: the pupil

-The approximate time required for complete adaptation of the eye when moving from darkness to light is: 10 seconds

-The assessment of risk in a particular situation will be based on: subjective perception and evaluation of situational factors

-The atmosphere contains the following gases: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0,03% carbon dioxide, rest: rare gases

-The atmosphere contains the following gases: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0,03% carbon dioxide, rest: rare gases

-The atmospheric pressure at 18,000 feet altitude is half the atmospheric pressure at sea level. In accordance with this statement, the partial oxygen pressure at that altitude will also drop to 1/2 of the pressure of oxygen at sea level

-The autocratic leadership style is synonymous with: an authoritarian style

-The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) regulates: sweating, arterial pressure, body temperature and the General Adaption Syndrome.

-The available cognitive resources of the human brain: are limited and make it impossible to perform two attentional tasks at the same time

-The average pulse of a healthy adult at rest is about: 60 to 80 beats/min

-The barometric pressure has dropped to 1/2 of the pressure at sea level at: 18 000 feet

-The behaviour of a leader depends on: the situation, the goals and composition of the group.

-The behavioural effects of stress may include: -1: manifestation of aggressiveness. -2: a willingness to improve communication. -3: a willingness for group cohesion. -4: a tendency to withdrawal. The combination of correct statements is: 1 and 4 are correct

-The best method to avoid Confirmation Bias is to: Search for information that will falsify the hypothesis

-The biological reaction to stress is identical regardless of the cause of stress. This mechanism occurs in three phases and is referred to, by Selye, as the "General Adaptation Syndrome". The sequence is:    alarm phase - resistance phase - exhaustion phase

-The 'Black hole' phenomenon occurs during approaches at night and over water, jungle or desert. When the pilot is lacking visual cues other than those of the aerodrome there is an illusion of: being too high and too far away, dropping low and landing short

-The blood in the pulmonary artery is: lacking in oxygen and rich in carbon dioxide

-The blood-pressure depends on: 1. the work of the heart 2. the peripheral resistance 3. the elasticity of the arterial walls 4. the blood volume and viscosity:  1,2,3 and 4 are correct

-The body loses water via: 1. the skin and the lungs 2. the kidneys Which of the following lists all the correct answers ? 1 and 2 are correct

-The body obtains its energy from: carbohydrates, protein and fats.

-The cabin pressure in airline operation is: normally between 6 000 to 8 000 feet

-The cabin pressure in airline operation is: normally between 6 000 to 8 000 feet

-The carcinogen (a substance with the ability to produce modifications in cells which develop a cancer) in cigarettes is: tar

-The causes of human error can be abundant and complex. Which of the following factors could contribute to human error? 1. Personality. 2. Motivation and attitudes. 3. Emotional state. 4. External environmental factors. Which of the following lists all of the correct factors ? 1, 2, 3 and 4

-The chemical substance responsible for addiction to tobacco is: nicotine

-The choice of the moment you select flaps depending on situation and conditions of the landing is: skill and/or rule based behavior

-The choice of the moment you select flaps depending on situation and conditions of the landing is: skill and/or rule based behavior

-The choice of words and their packaging become more important in the cockpit of an aircraft because: Loss of body language

-The circulation of blood: 1. transports oxygen to the body cells 2. withdraws waste products from the cells 3. conveys nutrients to the cells Which of the following lists all the correct answers? 1, 2 and 3

-The circulatory system, amongst other things, allows for: 1. transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide 2. transportation of information by chemical substances Which of the following lists all the correct statements ? 1 and 2 are correct

-The Cocktail Party Effect is associated with: attention mechanisms.

-The 'cocktail party effect' is: the ability to pick up relevant information unintentionally

-The cognitive effects of stress may include: -1: excessive haste. -2: an improvement in memory. -3: a complete block: action is impossible. -4: a risk of focusing on a particular aspect. -5: ease of decision-making. -6: an increase in the rate of mistakes: 1,3,4,6

-The confirmation bias of decision making is: a tendency to ignore that information which indicates that a hypothesis or decision is poor;

-The confirmation bias of decision making is: a tendency to ignore that information which indicates that a hypothesis or decision is poor;

-The consumption of medicines or other substances may have consequences on qualification to fly for the following reasons: 1. The disease requiring a treatment may be cause for disqualification. 2. Flight conditions may modify the reactions of the body to a treatment. 3. Drugs may cause adverse side effects impairing flight safety. 4. The effects of medicine do not necessarily immediately disappear when the treatment is stopped:   1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

-The Coriolis effect in spatial disorientation occurs as a result of: simultaneous stimulation of several semicircular canals

-The cornea and the crystalline lens of the eye: cause the convergence of light rays onto the retina

-The damaging effects of noise on the pilot depends on: 1. The intensity of the noise 2. The frequency of the noise 3. The exposure time to noise 4. Proper use of the headset in the cockpit Which of the following lists all the correct statements:   1, 2, 3 and 4

-The distribution of primary causes of accidents in the worldwide jet aircraft commercial fleet shows that human error is involved in: about 70% of cases

-The dry atmosphere of the flight deck may cause dehydration, which may lead to a reduction in the ability to pay attention. To prevent this, it is appropriate to: drink sufficient non-carbonated liquids

-The duration of a period of sleep is governed primarily by: the point within your circadian rhythm at which you try to sleep

-The effect of experience and repetition on performance: can both be beneficial and negative

-The effects of Galactic radiation: Increases with altitude

-The effects of sleep deprivation on performance: 1. increase with altitude 2. decrease with altitude 3. increase with higher workload 4. decrease with higher workload Which of the following lists all the correct statements ? 1 and 3 are correct

-The errors of a motor programme are: Action Slip and Environmental Capture (Habituation)

-The errors resulting from an illogical indexing system in an operations manual are related to an interface mismatch between: The errors resulting from an illogical indexing system in an operations manual are related to an interface mismatch between

-The Eustachian tube connects the: middle ear and the throat

-The Eustachian tube is the passage way between the: throat and the middle ear

-The exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood is due to: diffusion

-The expression "when perception matches reality" describes: Situational Awareness

-The eye can fully adjust to: high levels of illumination in 10 seconds and darkness in 30 minutes.

-The first cockpit tool that tends to suffer as a result of stress: Cockpit communications

-The first stage in the information process is:  sensory stimulation

-The following actions are appropriate when faced with symptoms of decompression sickness: 1. climb to higher level 2. descent to the higher of 10000 ft or MSA and land as soon as possible 3. breathe 100 % oxygen 4. get medical advice about recompression after landing:  2, 3 and 4 are correct

-The following can be observed when the internal body temperature falls below 35°C: shivering, will tend to cease, and be followed by the onset of apathy

-The following course of action should be taken if gastrointestinal complaints in flight crew occur before to take-off: -1: take the standard medicines and advise the doctor on returning from the flight -2: assess your own ability to fly, if necessary with the help of a doctor -3: if in doubt about fitness to fly - do not fly! -4: reduce the cabin temperature, and drink before you are thirsty so as to avoid dehydration:   2,3

-The following three conditions will decrease your G-tolerance: obesity, alcohol, sleep deprivation.

-The fovea is: the area of best day vision and no night vision at all

-The function of the Eustachian tube is to equalise the pressure between the: middle ear and the external atmosphere

-The General Adaption Syndrome is associated with the: ANS (Autonomic Nervous System)

-The group of tiny bones (the hammer, anvil and stirrup) are situated in:  the middle ear

-The heart muscle is supplied with blood by: the coronary arteries

-The human circadian rhythm is based on a cycle of about: 25 hours

-The human ear is capable of perceiving vibrations between the frequencies: 20 - 20000 Hz

-The human vestibular system performs spatial orientation by: measuring linear and radial acceleration within the inner ear.

-The impression of an apparent movement of light when stared at for a relatively long period of time in the dark is called:  "autokinesis"

-The individual's perception of stress depends on: the subjective evaluation of the situation and one's abilities to cope with it

-The individual's perception of stress depends on: the subjective evaluation of the situation and one's abilities to cope with it

-The individual's personality: refers to unique psychological characteristics.

-The inner ear is able to perceive: 1. angular acceleration 2. linear acceleration 3. noise:  1 and 2 and 3 are correct

-The intensity of a sound is measured in: decibels

-The level at which a pilot will experience a situation as stressful: depends on the individual's perception of available abilities in comparison to the perceived demands

-The level of automation helps to conserve resources. On the other hand, it may result in: routine errors (slips)

-The long term memory is influenced by: experience, repetition, suggestion, desires and expectations.

-The low level of humidity found in a pressurised aircraft cabin: should be compensated for by drinking water before one gets thirsty

-The lowest level of Maslow's Model of the hierarchy of Human Needs is: physiological needs.

-The main function of the red blood cells is: to transport oxygen

-The main limitation of the long-term memory is: unless information is accessed from time to time, retrieval of information can be difficult

-The main purpose of lumbar support is to: produce an even pressure of the discs by allowing the lower spine to curve naturally.

-The main reason why it is inadvisable to fly when suffering from a cold is that: pain and damage to the eardrum can result, particularly during fast descents

-The maintenance of man's internal equilibrium is called: Homeostasis

-The maximum number of unrelated items that can be stored in working memory is: about 7 items

-The mechanism of accommodation is controlled by: the functioning of the ciliary muscle around the lens

-The metabolisation of alcohol: is a question of time

-The most dangerous characteristic of perception is, that it: is frequently extremely resistant to correction

-The most dangerous symptoms of hypoxia at altitude are: euphoria and impairment of judgement

-The most dangerous type of incapacitation in flight is one that: develops slowly and gradually (insidious).

-The most significant item of technical equipment introduced in the 1980s & 1990s which has contributed to a reduction in accidents is: GPWS

-The noise induced damage to a pilot depends on: 1. The intensity of the noise. 2. The frequency of the noise. 3. The duration of the noise 4. Proper usage of the headset. 1,2,3,4

-The normal arterial blood-pressure of a healthy adult at rest is (systolic/diastolic): 120/80 mm Hg

-The normal rate of breathing of an adult at rest is about: 16 cycles per minute

-The normal rate of breathing when at rest is: 12 to 20 cycles a minute

-The normal sleep cycle is approximately every ................minutes:   90

-The organ which metabolises alcohol from the body is the: liver.

-The ossicles (the malleus, incus and stapes) are: located in the middle ear.

-The otoliths in the inner ear are sensitive to: linear acceleration and gravity

-The ozone-layer is situated in the: stratosphere

-The part(s) of the eye responsible for night visión: are the rods

-The partial pressure of oxygen in inspired air: is a highly significant factor in ensuring that oxygen diffuses from the lungs to the blood.

-The percentage of oxygen in cabin air: is the same as at sea level.

-The percentage of oxygen in the air at an altitude of approximately 34 000 ft is: 21%

-The percentage of oxygen in the troposphere in dry air: is independent of altitude.

-The Peripheral Nervous System passes information from the: sensory inputs to the CNS through sensory and motor nerves

-The peripheral vision is important for: detecting moving objects

-The phases of General Adaption Syndrome are: Alarm, Resistance and Exhaustion.

-The phases of learning a Motor Programme are: Cognitive, Associative and Automatic phases

-The photosensitive cells being responsible for night vision are called: the rods

-The physiological effects of accelerations to the human body depend on: 1. the duration of the G-forces 2. the onset rate of the G-forces 3. the magnitude of the G-forces 4. the direction of the G-forces: 1,2,3 and 4 are correct

-The physiological rhythms of a pilot in a new time zone will resynchronise to this new time zone at a rate of about: 1 - 1.5 hours a day

-The pressoreceptors are located in: the carotid and aortic arterial vessels

-The primary factor in controlling the rate and depth of breathing is the: pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood

-The primary symptom of Decompression sickness/illness is: the Bends

-The procedure to be followed in the event of decompression when flying above 10,000 ft must: allow for the rapid supply of oxygen in order to prevent hypoxia

-The procedure to be followed in the event of decompression when flying above 10,000 ft must: allow for the rapid supply of oxygen in order to prevent hypoxia

-The process of responding to a sender by confirming the reception of a message is called: feedback

-The proprioceptive senses ("Seat of-the-Pants-Sense"):may give incorrect information, when outside visual reference is lost

-The proprioceptive senses (seat-of-the-pants sense) are important for motor coordination. They: are completely unreliable for orientation when flying in IMC

-The proprioceptors do not orient an individual to his/her surroundings, but informs him/her of: the relative motion and relative position of his body parts

-The quality of learning: is promoted by feedback on the value of one's own performance

-The rate and depth of breathing is primarily controlled by: the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood

-The rate and depth of breathing is primarily regulated by the concentration of: carbon dioxide in the blood

-The re-adjustment of the biological rhythms after a time shift is normally more difficult: with flights towards the East

-The relationship between arousal and flying performance is:  approximately the form of an inverted U

-The relevance of check procedures during flight becomes even more important when: flying an unfamiliar type of aircraft and experiencing mental pressure

-The requirement of good sunglasses is to: absorb enough visible light to eliminate glare without decreasing visual acuity

-The respiratory process consists mainly of: the diffusion of oxygen through the respiratory membranes into the blood, transportation to the cells, diffusion into the cells and elimination of carbon dioxide from the body

-The retina allows for colour perception as a result of the: The retina allows for colour perception as a result of the: cones located in its central part

-The retina of the eye: is the light-sensitive inner lining of the eye containing the photoreceptors essential for vision

-The risk of barotrauma of the middle ear is more likely to occur: with colds and rapid descents

-The risk of spatial disorientation increases when: there is contradictory information between the instruments and the vestibular organs

-The risk of spatial disorientation increases when: there is contradictory information between the instruments and the vestibular organs

-The Seat-of-the-Pants Sense involves receptors in the: muscles, tendons and joints sensitive to the position and movement of body parts

-The semicircular canals form part of the: inner ear

-The semicircular canals of the inner ear monitor: angular accelerations

-The severity of hypoxia depends on the: 1. rate of decompression 2. physical fitness 3. flight level 4. individual tolerance: 1,2,3 and 4 are correct

-The Skill-based, Rule-based, Knowledge-based Model (Jens Rasmussen) is associated with: behaviour.

-The sleep cycles repeat during the course of a night's sleep. 1. Each succeeding cycle contains a greater amount of REM-sleep. 2. Frequent interruption of the REM-sleep may be harmful: 1 and 2 are both correct

-The sleep pattern is closely associated with: Body temperature

-The so-called "Seat-of-the-Pants" sense is: not suitable for spatial orientation when outside visual references are lost

-The Somatogravic illusion gives the pilot a false impression of: climbing or descending.

-The symptoms caused by gas bubbles under the skin following a decompression are called: creeps

-The symptoms of hypoxia include: Visual disturbances, lack of concentration, euphoria.

-The system which controls breathing, digestion, heart rate, etc., over which there is no voluntary control, is: the autonomic nervous system

-The team spirit of a cockpit-crew depends most likely on both pilots: respecting each other and striving for the same goals

-The team spirit of a cockpit-crew depends most likely on both pilots: respecting each other and striving for the same goals

-The thin walls of capillaries are permeable for: gases

-The three types of Authority Gradient Cockpits are: Autocratic, Laisser-Faire and Synergistic

-The time an eye needs to adapt fully to the dark is about: 25 - 30 minutes

-The time between inadequate oxygen supply and incapacitation is called TUC (Time of Useful Consciousness). It: varies individually and depends on cabin pressure altitude

-The Time of Useful Consciousness may vary according to: 1: physical activity of the subjected crew 2: the experience of the pilot on the type of aircraft in question 3: the strength and time of decompression 4: the time of day: 1,3

-The time required for complete adaptation is: for high levels of illumination 10 sec and for full dark adaptation 30 min

-The total gas volume of the lung is the sum of: 1. tidal volume 2. inspiratory reserve volume 3. expiratory reserve volume 4. residual volume Which of the following lists the correct combination?  1, 2, 3 and 4

-The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture. This is: Dalton´s law

-The transfer of carbon dioxide from the blood to the alveoli can be described by: the law of diffusion

-The transfer of oxygen from the alveoli to the blood can be described by: the law of diffusion

-The trend in aeroplane hull-loss rate over the last three decades seems to be related to: the crew

-The two types of fatigue are: Chronic short-term and acute

-The type of hypoxia, which occurs at altitude is a explained by: Dalton´s law

-The unique organisation of characteristics which determine the typical or standard behaviour of an individual is known as: personality

-The use of check lists should be carried out in such a way that: their execution should not be done simultaneously with other actions

-The use of check lists should be carried out in such a way that: their execution should not be done simultaneously with other actions

-The use of professional languages offers: quick comprehension and simplified grammar

-The Vestibular Apparatus consists of the: Semi-circular canals and the otoliths

-The vestibular apparatus:  reacts to linear/angular acceleration and gravity

-The vestibular system is composed of -1: two ventricles -2: a saccule -3: a utricle -4: three semicircular channels:   2,3,4

-The volume of air exchanged during a normal breathing cycle (tidal volume) is about: 500 ml of air

-The volume percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere at 30.000 feet remains at 21 %; but the partial pressure of oxygen: decreases with decreasing barometric pressure

-The volume percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere is 21% which:  is constant at all altitudes for conventional aircraft

-Thinking on human reliability is changing: Human errors are now considered as being inevitable

-Through which part of the ear does the equalization of pressure take place, when altitude is changed? Eustachian tuve

-To avoid incapacity due to gastro-intestinal problems, it is recommended that a simple, easily digested meal before boarding the aircraft should be accompanied by: non-carbonated water

-To avoid wrong decisions by the pilot, an aircraft system should at least be able to:  report its malfunction

-To maintain good situational awareness you should: (1) believe only in your own interpretation of the data (2) gather as much data as possible from every possible source before making inferences (3) question whether your hypothesis still fits the situation as events progress and try to make time to review the situation (4) consider ways of testing your situational hypothesis to see whether it is correct: 2, 3 and 4 are correct

-To optimise one's night-vision performance, it is necessary: - 1: to spend some time getting adapted to low levels of illumination - 2: to increase the instrument panel lighting by reducing the cockpit lighting - 3: not to focus on the point to be observed - 4: to avoid blinding sources of light:1,3,4

-To prevent empty field myopia at higher altitudes: it is recommended that a pilot uses short sharp scans, or periodically focuses on a distant object such as a wingtip or cloud edge

-To prevent gastro-intestinal problems in tropical climates you should: 1. not eat salad or raw vegetables 2. always peel fruit 3. only eat food that has been properly cooked 4. avoid ice-cream Which of the following lists all the correct answers?  1, 2, 3 and 4

-To prevent vertigo in flight we should: not move the head suddenly while we are turning

-To resynchronize a circadian rhythm, it takes more time after: eastbound flights

-Tolerance to decompression sickness is decreased by: 1. SCUBA diving 2. Obesity 3. Age 4. Body height.:  1, 2 and 3 are correct

-Trace elements should be obtained through: A balanced diet

-Trapped intestinal gases can cause severe pain. When is this the case? More frequent when flying above 18 000 FT in a non-pressurized aircraft.

-TUC (Time of Useful Consciousness) is: the length of time during which an individual can act with both mental and physical efficiency; measured from the moment at which he/she is exposed to hypoxia

-Under normal circumstances, which gas will diffuse from the blood to the alveoli: carbon dioxide

-Up to what altitude is blood oxygen saturation reduction unlikely to affect a pilot's judgement? 10,000 FT

-Using the Body Mass Index (BMI) formula, when will a pilot be classed as obese? Over 30 for males and 29 for females

-Very high ambition and need for achievement: disturb the climate of cooperation

-Vision of terrain relief (e.g. hills, valleys, etc.): is based on binocular vision at short distances and the rules of proportion and perspective for objects that are further away

-Visual acuity during flight at high altitudes can be affected by: 1. anaemia 2. smoking in the cockpit 3. carbon monoxide poisoning 4. Hypoxia: 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

-Visual disturbances can be caused by: 1. hyperventilation 2. hypoxia 3. hypertension 4. Fatigue:   1, 2 and 4 are correct

-Visual perception of depth at close to medium distance is primarily due to: binocular vision

-Vitamin A and possibly vitamins B and C are chemical factors and essential to good night vision: 1. Vitamin deficiencies may decrease night vision performance 2. An excess intake of vitamin A will improve night vision performance significantly 3. Pilots should be carefully concerned to take a balaced diet containing sufficient vitamin A. 4. Vitamin deficiencies may decrease visual acuity in photopic vision but not in scotopic visión: 1 and 3 are correct, 2 and 4 are false

-Waiting for takeoff on the runway, a pilot is informed by the tower that the tail wind component is 12 kt. According to the manual, the limitation is 10 kt max. The pilot makes a decision to take-off anyway, as the runway is long: This is a violation.

-We can observe the following in relation to a state of hypothermia: reasoning problems as soon as body temperature falls below 37°C

-We generate Mental Models on: Past experience and learning

-What aircraft equipment marked a substantial decrease in hull loss rates in the eighties? GPWS

-What are main signs indicating the loss of vigilance ? 1. Decrease in sensory perception 2. Increase in selective attention 3. Sensation of muscular heaviness 4. Decrease in complacency Which of the following lists all the correct statements ? 1 and 3

-What are the characteristics of the alarm phase of the stress reactions? -1: increased arousal level as a result of adrenaline secretion. -2: an increase in heart rate, respiration and release of glucose. -3: a decrease in stress resistance. -4: activation of the digestive system. -5: secretion of cortisol to mobilize attention. The combination of correct statements is:   1,2,3

-What are the communication qualities of a good briefing? A good briefing must: -1 : contain as much information and be as comprehensive as possible. -2 : be of a standard type so that it can be reused for another flight of the same type. -3 : be short and precise. -4 : be understandable to the other crew member(s). The correct statement(s) is (are): 2,3 and 4 are correct

-What are the effects of excesive stress? It increases vigilance for a longer period than stress itself, but may focus attention inappropriately

-What are the main advantages of the human over the machine? Creativity, innovation, and aptitude to deal with novel situations.

-What are the main advantages that the human possesses over those of a machine in the decision making process? Creativity, innovation and adaptability.

-What are the main characteristics of active errors ? They: 1. are detectable only with difficulty by first-line operators 2. have rapid and direct consequences on the action in progress 3. occur at the human/machine interface 4. lie dormant and are undetected at first: 2,3

-What are the main consequences of latent errors? They: -1: remain undetected in the system for a certain length of time. -2: may only manifest themselves under certain conditions. -3: are quickly detectable by the front-line operator whose mental schemas on the instantaneous situation filter out formal errors. -4: lull pilots into a false sense of security The correct statement(s) is (are): 1,2 and 4

-What are the main effects of a lack of sleep on performance? It increases fatigue, reduces concentration and increases the risk of sensory illusions

-What are the main factors which bring about reduced or low vigilance (hypovigilance) ? 1. The monotony of the task 2. Tiredness and the need for sleep 3. A lack of stimulation 4. Excessive stress1:   1,2,3

-What are the main limits of short-term memory ? It is: -1: very sensitive to interruptions and interference -2: difficult to access -3: limited in size -4: information is lost within approximately 20 seconds unless it is actively or deliberately placed into the long term memory: 1,3 ,4

-What are the main parts of the Central Nervous System and where is vision processed? The brain and spinal chord are the main parts of the CNS and vision is processed at the cortex.

-What are the main sources of radiation at height? Galactic (Cosmic) caused by galactic particles and Solar radiation caused by solar flares.

-What are the most frequent results of an self-centred captain on the flight deck ? In a two-pilot flight deck, the co-pilot is ignored and may react by disengaging, showing delayed responses or aggression

-What are the three phases of General Adaptation Syndrome ? Alarm, resistance, exhaustion.

-What are the two inputs to a simple model of stress? The perceived demand of the task to the pilot and the pilot's perceived ability to complete the task.

-What are the two main categories of fatigue? Acute and Chronic.

-What are two types of attention ? Selective and divided

-What can a pilot do to avoid "Flicker vertigo" when flying in the clouds? Switch strobe-lights off

-What can a pilot do to avoid automation complacency? Regard the automatic system as additional crew members that needs to be crosschecked as well

-What can be said concerning the following two statements? 1. Euphoria can be a symptom of hypoxia. 2. Someone in an euphoric condition is more prone to error: 1 and 2 are both correct

-What can cause spatial disorientation? False perception of orientation of the aircraft with respect to spatial references.

-What could be symptoms of hypoxia (when flying without oxygen) above 12,000 ft? Headache, fatigue, dizziness, lack of coordination

-What could cause hyperventilation ? Fear, anxiety and distress

-What counter-measure can be used against barotrauma of the middle ear? Close the mouth, pinch the nose tight and blow out thereby increasing the pressure in the mouth and throat. At the same time try to swallow or move lower jaw

-What diseases can be associated with contaminated water? Typhoid, Cholera, Dysentery.

-What distinguishes status from role ? While role defines- via behaviour- the functions that must be performed by individuals, status defines the hierarchical position and its recognition by the group

-What do you do, when you are affected by "pilot's vertigo"? 1. Establish and maintain an effective instrument cross-check. 2. Believe the instruments. 3. Ignore illusions. 4. Minimize head movements: 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

-What does not impair the function of the photosensitive cells? High speed

-What elements establish synergy within the crew ?   Synergy must be built up from the start of the mission (briefing) and be maintained until it comes to an end (debriefing)

-What event can cause a hyperventilation (not required by physical need)? 1. Pressure breathing. 2. Anxiety or fear. 3. Overstress. 4. Strong pain. 5. Jogging:  1,2,3 and 4 are correct, 5 is false

-What factors can lead to a deterioration in vision? 1. Hypoxia 2. Smoking 3. Poor diet, lacking Vitamin A 4. Exposure to bright lights. Which of the following lists all the correct statements? 1, 2, 3 and 4

-What human function is most sensitive to lack of oxygen? Night vision.

-What illusion may occur if an aircraft is flying into fog, snow or haze? Objects seem to be farther away than in reality

-What is "automation complacency"?The circumstance where monitoring and cross-checking is reduced because of the belief in the infallibility of the automatic systems.

-What is "divided attention"?The management of several matters of interest dealt with individually one after the other

-What is a physiological Stressor? A stimulous that produces a change in any of the homeostatic mechanisms of the body.

-What is a stressor? An external or internal stimulus which is interpreted by an individual as being stressful

-What is characterized by a "laissez-faire" cockpit ? A passive approach by the captain allows decisions, choices and actions by other crew members

-What is decompression sickness? A condition resulting from the formation of nitrogen bubbles in bodily tissues and fluids after a cabin pressure loss at high altitude

-What is hypoxia ? Any condition where the oxygen concentration of the body is below normal limits or where the oxygen available to the body cannot be used due to some pathological condition

-What is hypoxia ? Any condition where the oxygen concentration of the body is below the limits to meet the needs of the body tissues

-What is meant by "passive monitoring" in terms of automation complacency? A pilot watching what is going on rather than analyzing and constantly checking.

-What is meant by metabolism? The generation and utilisation of energy by the body's cells and tissues

-What is meant by presbycusis? Gradual loss of hearing with age.

-What is meant by the term 'complacency'? Unjustified self-confidence

-What is self-concept? How you see yourself.

-What is synergy in a crew ? The coordinated action of all members towards a common objective, in which collective performance is proving to be more than the sum of the individual performances

-What is the "Time of Useful Consciousness" for a rapid decompression at 25,000 ft ? Between 3 and 5 minutes depending on the physical activities of the subjected pilot

-What is the approximate Time of Useful Consciousness for a seated pilot following a rapid decompression at 35,000 ft ? 45 seconds

-What is the approximate Time of Useful Consciousness for a seated pilot following a rapid decompression at 35,000 ft ? 45 seconds

-What is the correct action to counteract vertigo? Believe the instruments

-What is the current approach to human error? Realisation that humans are fallible and that systems and procedures should be designed to minimise human error.

-What is the effect of increasing altitude on the total pressure and partial pressure of the main gases in the atmosphere? The total pressure will decrease and the partial pressures will decrease.

-What is the effect of stress on performance ? -1: It always reduces performance. -2: Optimum performance is obtained with optimum arousal. -3: Excessive stress weakens performance. -4: Insufficient stress weakens performance. The combination of correct statements is: 2,3,4

-What is the effect of tiredness on attention ? It reduces the ability to manage multiple matters

-What is the main adverse effect of expectation with regards to perception? Expectation often guides the focus of attention towards a particular aspect, while possible alternates are neglected

-What is the main adverse effect of expectation with regards to perception? Expectation often guides the focus of attention towards a particular aspect, while possible alternates are neglected

-What is the main problem caused by positive (+Gz) accelerations? A pooling of blood in the lower portions of the body, and hence less blood available

-What is the maximum JAA blood/alcohol limit for flight and cabin crew? 20 milligrams per 100 milliliters of blood.

-What is the name of the functional connection between neurones? Synapse.

-What is the procedure above 10.000 ft altitude when faced with explosive decompression? Don an oxygen mask and descend to below 10,000 ft

-What is the relationship between the perceived level of arousal and the difficulty of a task to be completed? At the outset, the level of arousal should be within the optimum range and therefore at a level where performance does not suffer.

-What is the sender's frequent reason to communicate implicitly ('between the lines')? Afterwards he/she always can claim to have been misunderstood.

-What is the Time of Useful Consciousness ? The length of time during which an individual can act with both mental and physical efficiency, measured from the moment at which he/she loses his/her available oxygen supply

-What is understood by air-sickness? A sensory conflict within the vestibular system accompanied by nausea and vomiting

-What law(s) governs the oxygen transfer at the alveoli? Gas Diffusion Laws

-What may become the main risk of a "laissez-faire" cockpit ? Inversion of authority

-What may trigger stress in humans? The subjective interpretation an individual gives to a situation experienced

-What optimises crew co-operation ? 1. Sharing and common task 2. Confidence in each others capability 3. Precise definition of functions associated with each crew members role: 1, 2, 3

-What physical symptoms can be attributed to stress? Insomnia, loss of appetite and a dry mouth.

-What role should automation play with respect to flight safety? Automation should be used as an aid to the pilot and not as an end in itself.

-What seems to be the main role of Orthodox sleep? It essentially allows for physical recovery

-What should a pilot do to optimise his/her night vision (scotopic vision)? Not smoke before start and during flight and avoid flash-blindness

-What strategies can be used to combat human error? -1: Reducing error-prone mechanisms. -2: Improving the way in which error is taken into account in training. -3: Sanctions against the initiators of error. -4: Improving recovery from errors and its consequences. The correct statements are: 1, 2 and 4

-What strategy should be put in place when faced with an anticipated period of stress? A strategy of preparing decisions

-What would be the effect if, in a tight turn, one bends down to pick up a pencil? Coriolis effect.

-When a pilot is facing a problem during flight he should: take as much time as he needs and is available to make up his mind

-When a pilot is starring at an isolated stationary light for several seconds in the dark he might get the illusion that: the light is moving

-When a pilot suffers from hypothermia (e.g. after loss of cabin heating) his/her demand for oxygen will be: initially increased

-When accelerating forward the otoliths in the utriculus/sacculus will: give the illusion of climbing (body tilting backwards, nose of the a/c going up)

-When accelerating in level flight we could experience the sensation of a: climb

-When assessing an individual's risk of developing coronary artery disease, the following factors may contribute: 1.obesity 2.chronic stress 3.smoking 4.family history:  1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

-When can a system be said to be tolerant to error? When: the consequences of an error will not seriously jeopardise safety

-When can the General Adaption Syndrome activate? Responding to an imaginary threat.

-When considering the eating-habits of pilots: breakfast should bring about 25% of the daily calorie intake

-When exhaling, the expired air contains: more carbon dioxide than the inspired air

-When faced with sustained cold temperature, how does the body resist this physical stress? By intense vasoconstriction.

-When flying above 10.000 feet hypoxia arises because: the partial oxygen pressure is lower than at sea level.

-When flying at night the first sense to be affected by a slight degree of hypoxia is the: vision

-When flying through a thunderstorm with lightning you can protect yourself from flashblindness by: a) turning up the intensity of cockpit lights b) looking inside the cockpit c) wearing sunglasses d) using face blinds or face curtains when installed: a), b), c) and d) are correct

-When focussing on near objects: the shape of lens gets more spherical

-When hyperventilating you should: control your rate and depth of breathing

-When might a pilot have the sensation of a nose-low attitude? When decelerating in straight, horizontal flight.

-When problem-solving, what determines the transition from rule-based activities to knowledge-based activities? Unsuitability of known rules for the problem posed.

-When scanning, how does the eye move and how is smooth vision achieved? The eyes move in short jerky movements called saccades. Smooth vision is achieved in the visual cortex.

-When stopping the rotation of a spin we have the sensation: that we are starting a spin in the opposite direction

-When suffering from Hypoxia short-term memory impairment starts at approximately at: 12,000 ft

-When the optical image forms in front of the retina; this results in: myopia

-When the pressoreceptors signal a lowering of the blood-pressure there are adaptation mechanisms which result in: 1. an increase of respiratory activity 2. the arteriols to constrict 3. an increase of cardiac output 4. the heart rate to rise: 2,3 and 4 are correct, 1 is false

-When the weather is foggy, on approach, a pilot may get a feeling of: the airfield being further away than actually is

-When turning in IMC , head movements should be avoided as much as possible. This is a prevention against: coriolis illusion

-When using the Body Mass Index (BMI) formula - when is a pilot considered as obese ? Over 30 for males; 29 for females

-When you stare at a single light against the dark (i.e.. an isolated star) you will find the light appears to move after some time. This phenomenon is called: autokinetic phenomenon

-Where on the arousal/performance graph is a pilot best placed to cope with a difficult task without performance degrading? Below the "breakpoint".

-Which behaviour is most likely to promote a constructive solution of interpersonal conflicts? Active listening.

-Which biases relate to human decision making? 1. Personal experience tends to alter the perception of the risk of an event occurring 2. There is a natural tendency to want to confirm our decision even in the face of facts which contradict it 3. The group to which an individual belongs tends to influence the particular decision 4. There is natural tendancy to select only objective facts for decision-making purposes:  1,2,3

-Which counter-measure can a pilot can use against a barotrauma of the middle ear? Stop descending, climb again and then descend with reduced sink rate

-Which counter-measure can a pilot use against a barotrauma of the middle ear? Stop descending, climb again and then descend with reduced sink rate

-Which flight-manoeuvre will most likely induce vertigo? Turning the head while: banking

-Which force(s) affect(s) the otoliths in the utriculus and sacculus? Gravity and linear acceleration

-Which gas most readily combines with haemoglobin? carbon monoxide

-Which is correct? 1. Paradoxic (REM) sleep refreshes the brain, memory and body. 2. Paradoxic (REM) sleep decreases during the night: Neither

-Which is the audible range to human hearing? Between 20 Hz and 20 KHz

-Which is the most likely of the following scenarios which might lead to a conflict between status and role? Two Training Captains flying together.

-Which is the procedure to be followed when symptoms of decompression sickness occur? Descend to the lowest possible level and land as soon as possible

-Which measure(s) will help to compensate for hypoxia? 1. Descend below 10 000 FT. 2. Breathe 100 % oxygen. 3. Climb to or above 10 000 FT. 4. Reduce physical activities: 1, 2 and 4 are correct

-Which of the following answers are correct concerning the Long Term Memory ? 1. Long Term memory can be affected by expectation and suggestion 2. Long Term Memory is also known as the Working Memory 3. Long Term Memory is limited to plus or minus 7 pieces of disassociated pieces of information 4. Long Term Memory is where Motor Programmes (skills) are kept: 1 only is correct

-Which of the following answers is correct? Behaviour is the outward result of personality and attitude and is adaptable.

-Which of the following applies to carbon monoxide poisoning? Several days are needed to recuperate from a carbon monoxide poisoning.

-Which of the following applies when alcohol has been consumed? Even after the consumption of small amounts of alcohol, normal cautionary attitudes may be lost

-Which of the following are either cumulative or tend to escalate? 1. Stress Factors (stressors) 2. Errors 3. The effects of carbon monoxide poisoning 4. Human conflict 5. Colour blindness:  1, 2, 3 and 4

-Which of the following are included in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs? 1. Freedom from pain and danger 2. Expressions of capacities and talents 3. Self-esteem needs 4. Self-fulfilment needs 5. Physiological needs: all the above

-Which of the following are strategies for resolving conflict? 1. Seeking arbitration 2. Actively listening to other people 3. Abandoning facts so as to move the conversation to a more emotional level 4. Becoming aware of cultural influences:   1,2,4

-Which of the following are the most favourable solutions to manage phases of reduced or low vigilance (hypovigilance)? 1. Healthy living 2. Use of amphetamines 3. Reducing the intensity of the light 4. Organising periods of rest during the flight:  1,4

-Which of the following characteristics apply to short-term memory ? - 1 : It is limited in time and size - 2 : It is unlimited in time and limited in size - 3 : It is stable and insensitive to disturbances - 4 : It is limited in time and unlimited in size:   1

-Which of the following components belong to the middle ear? Ossicles

-Which of the following concepts relating to human reliability is true ? If equipment is designed in such a way that it can be operated wrongly, then sooner or later, it will be.

-Which of the following could a pilot experience when he is hyperventilating? 1. Dizziness 2. Muscular spasms 3. Visual disturbances 4. Cyanosis:   1,2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false

-Which of the following describes an autocratic cockpit? The captain's excessive authority considerably reduces communications and consequently the synergy and cohesion of the crew

-Which of the following drawbacks are associated with automation ? 1. Reduced competence in manually controlling the aircraft 2. Increased likelihood of slips while programming automatic systems 3. Difficulties in adapting to the use of a sidestick 4. General decrease in technical reliability:   1,2

-Which of the following elements make up the personality of an individual ? 1. Heredity 2. Childhood environment 3. Upbringing 4. Past experience:  1,2,3,4

-Which of the following gases is fundamentally responsible for decompression sickness? Nitrogen.

-Which of the following human error rates can be described and pretty good realistic and pretty good, after methodical training: 1 in 1000 times

-Which of the following illusions are brought about by conflicts between the visual system and the vestibular system ? -1: Illusions concerning the attitude of the aircraft -2: Autokinetic illusion (fixed point viewed as moving) -3: Illusions when estimating the size and distance of objects -4 : Illusions of rotation:   1,4

-Which of the following is an example of human underload? An unexpectedly poor landing at an airfield with which the pilot is familiar in perfect weather conditions.

-Which of the following is correct? 70% - 80% of information processed by man enters the visual channel.

-Which of the following is most likely to be overlooked should a pilot make a rushed decision? analysis of the current actual situation and instead applying a decision prepared beforehand

-Which of the following is most true? Regular exercise is beneficial to general health, but the most efficient way to lose weight is by reducing calorie consumption

-Which of the following is the best definition of episodic memory? It is the memory of events which are held in the long-term memory and can be influenced by suggestion.

-Which of the following is true concerning carbon monoxide? It is to be found in the smoke of cigarettes lifting up a smoker's "physiological altitude".

-Which of the following is true with reference to semantic memory? It is the meaning of words and general knowledge of the world; it lasts for a longer period of time and tends to be more accurate than episodic memory.

-Which of the following is true with regards to sleep? 1 - metabolic rate falls 2 - arterial blood pressure falls 3 - the pulse rate decreases 4 - the sensitivity level of the senses is increased: 1, 2 and 3 only are correct

-Which of the following is/are the symptom(s) of hypoxia ? Lack of concentration, fatigue, euphoria

-Which of the following laws explains bubbles of nitrogen coming out of solution in body tissues due to a decrease in atmospheric pressure? Henry´s law

-Which of the following list are symptoms of fatigue? 1 - Tiredness 2 - Faster reactions 3 - Diminished motor skills 4 - Tunneled concentration 5 - Increased long term memory capacity: 1, 3, and 4 only.

-Which of the following list are symptoms of fatigue? 1. Diminished accommodation 2. Slowed reactions 3. Long-term memory access problems 4. Being over-talkative 5. Diminished motor skills: 1, 2, 3 & 5

-Which of the following list can cause fatigue? 1 - Sleep loss 2 - Jet lag 3 - Boredom 4 - Low levels of external stimulation:   1, 2, 3 and 4.

-Which of the following list may stress effect? 1. Attention 2. Concentration 3. Memory 4. Judgment:  1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

-Which of the following list of statements concerning stress are correct? 1 - Stress is an inevitable part of human life and in small amounts is necessary to achieve optimum performance. 2 - Each individual has a stress limit which, if exceded, could result in inability to handle even a moderate workload. 3 - Anxiety creates worry which may lead to stress. 4 - Stress is often perceived by the brain as some form of threat which may cause adrenaline to be released into the blood stream: 1, 2, 3 & 4.

-Which of the following mechanisms regulate body temperature when exposed to extreme high environmental temperatures? -1: Shivering -2: Vaso-constriction of peripheral blood vessels -3: Sweating -4: Vaso-dilation of peripheral blood vessels:   3,4

-Which of the following occurs in man if the internal body temperature increases to 39°C? Impairment of physical and mental performance

-Which of the following operations are performed more effectively by automatic systems than by people ? 1. Waiting for an infrequent phenomenon 2. Long term controlling of a set value (e.g holding of trajectory) 3. Monitoring to ensure that certain values are not exceeded (e.g holding of flight path) 4. Qualitative decision-making: 1,2,3

-Which of the following operations are performed more effectively by people than by automatic systems ? 1. Qualitative decision-making 2. Waiting for an infrequent phenomenon 3. Monitoring to ensure that certain values are not exceeded 4. Detections of of unusual conditions (smell, noise, etc.):   1,4

-Which of the following physical stimuli may cause stress reactions? -1: noise. -2: conflict. -3: temperature. -4: an administrative problem. -5: hunger. The combination of correct statements is: 1,3,5

-Which of the following provides the basis of all perceptions? The intensity of the stimuli.

-Which of the following responses is an example of "habit reversion" (negative habit transfer): A pilot who has flown many hours in an aircraft in which the fuel lever points forward for the ON position, may unintentionally turn the fuel lever into the false position, when flying a different aircraft, where the fuel lever has to point aft to be in the ON position.

-Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct ? - 1: The retina has rods on its peripheral zone and cones on its central zone - 2: The retina has cones and the crystalline lens has rods - 3: The rods allow for night-vision - 4: The cones are located on the peripheral zone of the retina:   1,3

-Which of the following statements about hyperthermia is correct ? Complete adaptation to the heat in a hot country takes about a fortnight.

-Which of the following statements about long-term memory are correct? -1: Information is stored in the Semantic, Episodic and Procedural memories. -2: The period of time for which information is retained is limited by the frequency with which this same information is used. -3: It processes information quickly and has an effective mode of access in real time. -4: Ease and speed of access is dependent upon, to a large extent, the frequency with which the information is recalled: 1 and 4 are correct

-Which of the following statements are correct ? 1 Hypothermia affects physical and mental abilities. 2 Man has effective natural protection against intense cold. 3 Shivering makes it possible to combat the cold to a certain extent, but uses up a lot of energy 4 Disorders associated with hypothermia appear at a body temperature of less than 35°C:  1,3,4

-Which of the following statements are correct ? -1: Modern aircraft allow for 50 - 60% relative humidity in the cabin air under any conditions of flight, which is satisfactory for the body -2: Thirst is a belated symptom of dehydration -3: Dehydration may lead to clinical manifestations such as dizziness and fatigue -4: Drinking excessive quantities of water must be avoided since resistance to periods of low hydration will otherwise be lost:     2,3

-Which of the following statements are correct with regard to alcohol? It is absorbed directly from the stomach and intestines into the bloodstream.

-Which of the following statements are correct with regard to the design of a check list? -1 : The longer a check list, the more it must be subdivided into logical parts. -2 : The trickiest points must be placed in the middle of the check list. -3 : Check lists must be designed in such a way that they can be lumped together with other tasks. -4 : Whenever possible, a panel scan sequence should be applied -5 : Critical points should have redundancies. The combination of correct statements is:   1, 4 and 5 are correct

-Which of the following statements are correct: -1: Scuba diving may be practiced without restriction -2: Many medicines have effects which are incompatible with flight safety -3: An adequate amount of fluid should be drunk when flying -4: Alcohol has no effect on the inner ear: 2 and 3 are correct

-Which of the following statements are correct? 1. Interesting information is easier to take into consideration for creating a mental picture than boring information. 2.The sequence in which information is presented is also important for the use the pilot makes of it:   1 and 2 are both correct

-Which of the following statements are correct? 1. The first information received determines how subsequent information will be evaluated. 2. If one has made up one's mind, contradictory information may not get the attention it really needs. 3. With increasing stress, attention is limited thereby reducing the flow of information to the central decision maker: 1, 2 and 3 are correct

-Which of the following statements best characterise a self-centered cockpit ? Without taking note of what the other members are doing, each one does his own thing while at the same time assuming that everyone is aware of what is being done or what is going on

-Which of the following statements best characterise a synergetic cockpit? 1. Decisions are taken by the captain, but prepared by the crew 2. There is little delegating of tasks 3. Communications are few in number but precise and geared purely to the flight 4. Fluid, consensual boundaries exist in regard to leadership-style, which fluctuate between authority and laissez-faire: 1,4

-Which of the following statements best fits the definition of an active error? Active error is: produced by the operator and can be rapidly detected

-Which of the following statements best fits the definition of an active error? Active error is: produced by the operator and can be rapidly detected

-Which of the following statements concerning check list is correct? The most important items should be placed at the beginning of a check list since attention is usually focused here

-Which of the following statements concerning communication is valid? Professional communication means: using a restricted and specific language that is tailored to minimise misunderstandings.

-Which of the following statements concerning conflicts is correct ? Conflict management involves the participation of all involved parties in finding an acceptable collective solution

-Which of the following statements concerning hypovigilance is correct ? Hypovigilance : may occur at any moment of the flight

-Which of the following statements concerning hypoxia is correct? It is a potential threat to safety.

-Which of the following statements concerning information is correct ? 70% of information processed by man enters via the visual cannel

-Which of the following statements concerning stress are true ? 1. Adaptation is a new state of equilibrium after having coped with a stressful situation. 2. An individual's anticipation of the situation and his/her perceived abilities to cope with it will determine the type and strength of stress: 1 and 2 are both true

-Which of the following statements concerning tiredness is correct ? Tiredness is a subjective sensation which may result in hypovigilance

-Which of the following statements concerning tiredness is correct ? Tiredness is a subjective sensation which may result in hypovigilance

-Which of the following statements fits best the concept of latent error? Latent errors: have been present in the system for a certain length of time and are difficult to identify as a result of the time lag between the generation and the occurrence of the error

-Which of the following statements in regard to motivation is correct? Extremely high motivation in combination with excessive stress will limit attention management capabilities

-Which of the following statements is correct concerning flight in an environment of low contrast (fog, snow, darkness, haze)? It is difficult to estimate the correct speed and size of approaching objects.

-Which of the following statements is correct regarding decision making? Deciding means choosing between alternatives.

-Which of the following statements is correct? 1. Psychosomatic means that mental and/or emotional stressors can be manifested in physical reactions. 2. Psychosomatic means that a physical problem is always followed by psychological stress:   1 is correct, 2 is false

-Which of the following statements is correct? Scotopic Vision is vision through the operation of the Rods.

-Which of the following statements is correct? Short-term memory is affected by interruptions.

-Which of the following statements is correct? The blood-pressure which is measured during flight medical checks is the pressure:   in the artery of the upper arm (representing the pressure at heart level)

-Which of the following statements is false? Stress has essentially negative effects and the human will operate efficiently with an absence of stress.

-Which of the following statements is true concerning regular physical exercise: 1. it increases pulse rate and stroke volume in the short term 2. it reduces blood pressure and heart rate in the long term 3. it reduces the human tolerance to hypoxia: 1, 2, 3.

-Which of the following statements is true concerning the pulse rate: It has a normal range of 60-100 beats per minute

-Which of the following statements is true? Stressors accumulate thus increasing the likelihood of exhaustion.

-Which of the following statements is/are correct? 1. A person experiencing sleep loss is unlikely to be aware of personal performance degradation 2. Performance loss may be present up to 20 minutes after awaking from a short sleep (nap): 1 and 2 are both correct

-Which of the following statements is/are correct? 1. REM-sleep becomes shorter with any repeated sleep cycle during the night. 2. REM-sleep is more important for the regeneration of mental functions than all the other sleep stages are: 1 is false, 2 is correct

-Which of the following statements regarding interpersonal interactions are correct? -1 If the sender perceives that the receiver is incompetent, he/she will increase the length of the message -2 If the receiver is of non-native tongue, the sender will reinforce what he is saying by using more complicated words so as to optimize understanding -3 If the sender considers the receiver incompetent, he/she tends to simplify the content of the sentences -4 It is much safer to fly with a crew who know each other well because communication will always be excellent. The correct statement(s) is (are): 3 only is correct

-Which of the following statements summarises the impact that motivation may have on attention? It increases alertness and attention

-Which of the following symptoms can indicate hypoxia? 1. Blue lips and finger nails. 2. Euphoria. 3. Flatulence. 4 .Unconsciousness: 1, 2 and 4 are correct.

-Which of the following symptoms can mark the onset of hyperventilation? Dizzy feeling

-Which of the following symptoms may a pilot experience when subjected to hypoxia? 1. Fatigue. 2. Euphoria. 3. Lack of concentration. 4. Pain in the joints. 5. Pain in the inner ear:   1, 2 and 3 are correct

-Which of the following systems are involved in motion sickness ? -1: Hearing -2: The vestibular system -3: Vision -4 The proprioceptive senses "Seat-of-the-Pants-Sense") -5: The gastrointestinal system: 2,3,4,5

-Which of the following tasks are possible to do simultaneously without mutual interference? Maintain manual straight and level flight and solve a problem.

-Which part of the ear could be affected due to air pressure changes during climb and/or descent? The Eustachian tube and the tympanic membrane (ear drum)

-Which part of the inner ear is responsible for the perception of sound? The cochlea

-Which part of the vestibular apparatus is affected by changes in gravity and linear acceleration? The sacculus and utriculus

-Which part of the vestibular apparatus is responsible for the detection of angular acceleration? The semicircular Canals

-Which problem may occur, when flying in an environment of low contrast (fog, snow, darkness, haze)? Under these conditions it is: difficult to estimate the correct speed and size of approaching objects

-Which procedure is recommended to prevent or overcome spatial disorientation? Rely entirely on the indications of the flight instruments.

-Which scanning technique should be used when flying at night? Look to the side (10 - 15 deg) of the object.

-Which sensations does a pilot get, when he is rolling out of a prolonged level turn? Turning in the opposite direction

-Which statement about acute or chronic fatigue is INCORRECT? Acute fatigue generally has psychological roots.

-Which statement applies to hypoxia? sensitivity and reaction to hypoxia varies from person to person

-Which statement is correct ? Oxygen diffusion from the blood into the cells depends on the partial oxygen pressure gradient.

-Which statement is correct regarding alcohol in the human body? Judgement and decision making can be affected even by a small amount of alcohol.

-Which statement is correct? 1. Smokers have a greater chance of suffering from coronary heart disease 2. Smoking tobacco will raise the individuals physiological altitude during flight 3. Smokers have a greater chance of contracting lung cáncer:  1,2 and 3 are correct

-Which statement is correct? Problems in the personal relationships between crew members are likely to hamper the communication process.

-Which statement is correct? Problems in the personal relationships between crew members are likely to hamper the communication process.

-Which symptom does not belong to the following list: Bends, Chokes, Creeps, Leans:     leans

-Which symptom of hypoxia is the most dangerous for conducting safe flight ? The degradation of reasoning and perceptive functions.

-Which symptom of hypoxia is the most dangerous for conducting safe flight ? The degradation of reasoning and perceptive functions.

-While flying VFR "wings level" on top of clouds at 10000 feet, your artificial horizon indicates a 20 degree bank. You trust the instrument and level off according to the instrument read-out.

-Whilst flying a coordinated turn, most of your activity is: skill based behavior

-Who in the Aviation Industry is responsible for flight safety ? Everyone involved

-Why are Mnemonics are used in aviation? Because they help to increase retention of information.

-Why is hypoxia especially dangerous for pilots flying solo? Since the first signs of hypoxia are generally hard to detect.

-Why must flight safety considerations consider the human error mechanism? -1: It is analysis of an incident or accident which will make it possible to identify what error has been committed and by whom. It is the process whereby the perpetrator is made responsible which may lead to elimination of the error. -2: If we have a better understanding of the cognitive error mechanism, it will be possible to adapt procedures, aircraft interfaces, etc. -3: It is error management procedure which enables us to continuously adjust our actions. The better we understand the underlying mechanism of an error, the better will be our means for detecting and reducing future errors. -4: Since error is essentially human, once it has been identified by the use of procedures, a person will be able to anticipate and deal with it automatically in the future. The correct statement(s) is (are):    2 and 3

-With a heart rate of 72 beats per minute and a stroke volume of 70 ml the cardiac output is about: 5 litres/min

-With hyperventilation, caused by high levels of arousal or overstress: an increased amount of carbon dioxide is exhaled causing muscular spasms and even unconsciousness

-With reference to the relationship between arousal and performance, the highest level of performance is achieved when the arousal level is: optimum.

-With reference to the SHELL Model, S represents: Software (which includes check lists)

-With regard to central vision, which of the following statements are correct ? -1: It is due to the functioning of rods -2: It enables details, colours and movement to be seen -3: Its very active both during the day and at night -4: It represents a zone where about 150.000 cones per mm are located to give high resolution capacity:   2,4

-With regard to communication in a cockpit, we can say that: communication uses up resources, thus limiting the resources allocated to work in progress

-With regard to decompression sickness associated with flight, we know that: age, obesity and scuba diving are risk factors

-With regard to short-term memory, we can say that: it holds information for immediate use, and is limited in its capacity for storing and retaining data

-With regard to short-term memory, we can say that: it is made up of everyday information for immediate use, and is limited in its capacity for storing and retaining data

-With regard to the average influence of age on pilot performance, it may be said that age: has little impact when the pilot is able to compensate for it by his/her flight experience

-With regard to the practice of English, which of the following statements is correct? All pilots should master it because the aeronautical world needs one common language.

-With regards to stress, as it affects human beings, which of the folowing statements is correct? ´Stress´is a term used to describe how a person reacts to demands placed upon him/her.

-With too much cohesion, Groupthink can be: negative

-Within communication, what element suggests that a message has been received and understood ? Feedback.

-Without visual reference, what illusion could the pilot get, when he is stopping the rotation to recover from a spin? He will get the illusion of: spinning into the opposite direction

-Working memory enables us, for example: to remember a clearance long enough to write it down

-Working memory: is sensitive to interruptions which may erase all or some of its contents

-Workload essentially depends on: the current situation, the pilot's expertise and the ergonomics of the system

-You are crossing the Alps in a non-pressurised aircraft at an altitude of 15.000 feet. You do not use the oxygen mask because you feel fine. This is unsafe, because: your judgement could be impaired

-You can overcome hyperventilation by breathing into a plastic or paper bag. The intention is: to raise the level of CO2 in the blood as fast as possible

-You can survive at any altitude, provided that: enough oxygen, pressure and heat is available

-You climb from 0 to 50.000 ft and measure the decrease of the pressure per 5.000 ft. The absolute difference in barometric pressure is greatest between: 0 and 5.000 feet

-You fly VFR from your home base (runway width 27 m), to an international airport (runway width 45 m). On reaching your destination there is a risk of performing a: high approach with overshoot

-You fly VFR from your home base (runway width 45 m) to a small airfield (runway width 27 m). On reaching your destination there is a risk of performing a: low approach with undershoot

-You suffered a rapid decompression without the appearance of any decompression sickness symptoms. What should you do before flying ? seek prompt aeromedical advice

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