1.1. Nombre: Casa Mila
1.2. Author: Antoni Gaudi i Cornet (1852-1926)
1.3. Chronology: 1906-1912
1.4. Style: Art Nouveau
1.5. Type of Construction: Residential and civil.
1.6. Dimensions: The main floor is the largest, has 1,200 square meters.
1.7. Location: Barcelona Eixample Cerdà, Paseo de Gracia
Gaudi is the highest figure of Catalan architecture and is known around the world.
Born on 25 June 1852, made his baccalaureate studies at the Pious Schools Reus, moving then to Barcelona where he studied at the Institute for Teaching Middle School Science.
In 1873 he joined the Provincial School of Architecture, where he graduated in 1878, obtaining his degree in architecture. His professional life took place in Barcelona, where you can see the backbone of his work. The social situation in which he lived, a period of strong economic and urban development in the city, the patronage of a powerful middle class with a desire to approach the trends prevailing in Europe, coinciding with the phenomenon of the Renaissance They serve as breeding ground for fantasy and imagination of Gaudí. Influenced by Viollet le Duc and Ruskin was one of the cornerstones of the "Art Nouveau" style in which he ranks, although their aesthetic is, like many geniuses, difficult to classify, being many opinions included in the other artistic currents. The biography of Gaudí is closely related to the Güell family - see a portrait of Count Güell below - a family of great prestige in the artistic and industrial environments at the time Barcelona. For this family built a large part of his work, such as Palau Guell, the Crypt of the Güell and Park Güell among other works.
Besides a wide representation of urban and residential buildings, the architectural work of Gaudí sublimate into the religious sphere in which they can classify some of his most important works, such as the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona the Crypt of Colonia Güell, Santa Coloma de Cervello and the College of St. Teresa of Ganduxer also in Barcelona.
His vision of architecture as a whole, making their mark not only manifest in the facades and external areas of their buildings, but the interiors which reflect intense work developed with the collaboration of many artisans .
After the critical time and neglect that led Noucentisme (dominant artistic movement in Catalonia between 1920 and 1936), at present, the fame of Gaudi is a fact recognized worldwide both by specialists, and the general public.
Gaudí died in Barcelona hit by a tram on June 10, 1926.
3.1. Constructivos Materials: Stone (Vilafranca del Penedès and Garraf), brick, ceramics and iron.
3.2. Floor-space: aixamfranada rectangular with undulating side walls. The building has two large interior courtyards. Unlike the constructions were carried out at that time Gaudi was envisaged to install a lift there and make a small scale for the benefit of the residents space and courtyards of the light.
3.3. System CONSTRUCTION: It combines architecture and arquitravada back with new material
3.4. Items soporte: The building holds on stone pillars, iron and brick, supporting beams (thick iron beams). This structure is a kind of bones to relieve the walls and the facade of its function of load. It is a precedent that later, Le Corbusier called "open plan" technical change that allowed the distribution of apartments changing or replacing the walls.
3.5. Parts sostenidos: One of the most extraordinary of the quarry are the attic, a kind of winding corridor that runs along the top of the building. It emphasizes the presence of 270 catenary arches, brick floor plan and variable, which hold the weight of a terraced roof. The name is due to the catenary arch shape, similar to that adopted when a chain hanging from two points and only supports its own weight.
3.6. Lighting: The front wall and the floor free of charge made possible a good exterior openings for light I'entrada. The courtyards, large, contribute to the interior lighting on all floors. On crossing the threshold of the main entrance A, on the ground floor, reached one of two courtyards 6B containing the building and provide ventilation and natural light inside.
3.7. Decorativos Elements: The decor is also the work of Gaudí Intervention his partner and architect Josep Maria Pujol. Inside: The ripples of the balconies are designed as a sculptural element dynamics and cause a very decorative set of chiaroscuro. The stones were carved balconies precisely spot for stonemasons, so someone named, sarcastically building with the name of the quarry. The wrought iron railings simulate vegetated interlocking shapes and embossed upper ledge stone is inscribed the prayer to Mary: "Ave Gratia" M (monogram of Mary) / (the pink one rosary) / full Domnus tecum. EI roof top, the water tanks, stairways and chimneys are coated with organic shapes and are brittle. According to the initial project, at the top there should be a tower topped by a sculpture of the Virgin of the Rosary (1226). * The outbreak of the Tragic Week in Barcelona (1909), but this was interrupted, and I did not ever do. Interior: The interior is based on the layout of the rooms irregular polygonal, irregular walls and suspended ceilings with sinuous shapes of waves. These features required to have made pieces that were designed by Gaudi himself, so it guarantees the consistency of the total building. Unfortunately though, when Gaudi died of modernism and fashion was abandoned, the interiors were remodeled and can impose Iínies straight.
4. Outdoor Space
4.1. Volumes: the building was designed to occupy the land for the expansion ∙ I had assigned, and respected the way predetermined by the Cerdà plan made by the residential buildings.
4.2. Facades: The facade is a harmonious mass of stone that has a plastic unit. It is built with stone from Vilafranca del Penedès and Garraf. The masons worked on the site itself, for which it is popularly known as La Pedrera building. The formal unity of the facade is not symmetrical but achieves a great balance through the rows of balconies s'ondulen alternately and irregularly. EI is topped white tiling.
4.3. Urban Planning: While planning that respects the rules of the Eixample, their irregularity makes the building stand out above the rest. Part of the expansion project began in 1859 Cerdà.
5. Significance of the construction
5.1. Cultural and historical context: In the early twentieth century, Barcelona suffered a strong social and political upheaval. In 1905, some officers of the garrison of Barcelona stormed the newsroom of two publications of the League: the Cu-cut! Voice and Catalonia. As a reaction to these events, was established in 1906 an alliance of all Catalan parties: the Catalan Solidarity. In Spain, the defeat of 1898 contributed al'esfondrament during the early twentieth century, the political regime of the Restoration. Meanwhile, in Catalonia, the league-the dominant party in the first half of the twentieth century - fought against the centralism of successive governments in Madrid and tried to stop the conflict with the labor movement that was growing. In July 1909 Barcelona broke a violent revolutionary movement whose causes were varied: Radical populist, anti-clericalism, anti-conservative policy of Maura, etc.. The immediate source of discontent was a revolt by the mobilization of reservists il Boarding troops intended to contain attacks Morocco to Melilla. As a protest against these facts, the unions were promoting the general strike in Barcelona. With relative ease, due to the uncertainty of the law enforcement authorities and the anarchists were the masters of the city for several days (Tragic Week). Once restored order, anarchism suffered a tough crackdown. One of its ideologues, Francisco Ferrer Guardia, who was in Barcelona in those days, was accused of having encouraged the riots. While the international campaign that was done to save him, was sentenced to death and executed. From that moment, the workers felt that the Catalan bourgeoisie was the class enemy, began to leave and lerrouxisme They join the anarchist labor movements.
5.2. Propios Elements of Style:
Around the turn of the century (1890-1910) Art Nouveau emerged in Europe. This movement suggests the emancipation of architecture in favor of some decorative types inspired by nature, trying to react against academic historicism that had dominated the art of s. XIX.The industrialized rich bourgeoisie and the aristocracy of claim forms refined than those of industrial production. Modernism different names in each country in Europe. In all cases present a common characteristic: finally break with tradition and take advantages of technology and industry. Modernism was expressed with the use of serpentine lines and floral and geometric motifs. The building was left be conceived as a closed block formed by planes and edges and gave preference to curved surfaces, with sinuous lines and undulating, with large openings and gaps, with viewpoints and balconies that are freed from symmetry, and the incorporation of decorative motifs based on color materials, wrought iron and wood cuts with organic forms that evoke nature. An absolute freedom governed the layout of the plants while the interiors are subject to a rigorous organization.
5.3. Significance La Pedrera was the last great civil building by Antoni Gaudí before devoting himself to work on the Sagrada Familia. It was commissioned by Peter Milan and his wife, Rose Sigismund. The marriage remained important differences with the architect and the construction, which received critical force at the time, was never liked by owners. It is believed that Gaudí was staged Ovid's Metamorphoses, which which expresses the continuing transformation of the natural world. At the top of the facade are the inscription "Ave Gratia Plena Dominus Tecum ', a M (an anagram of Mary) and symbols like the rose or lilies. All this had to accompany the image of the Virgin of the Rosary, flanked by St. Gabriel and St. Michael, who had presided over the building. However, the project was not carried out, either because the sculpture did not like to Milan, either because the facts of the Tragic Week did not recommended.
6.4. Role: Initially, the quarry was conceived as a private house. The owners occupy the main floor and the rest were inhabited by tenants. Today is owned bank Caixa Catalonia has become a cultural center and exhibition hall of its foundation. The building was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 2 November 1984.
6. Modelos e influencias
The quarry had a direct influence on the aesthetics of architecture Expressionist works (1538), especially for structural and organic design of the building. Even when modernism became fashionable and it criticized the enfarfegament decorative, some architects as Le Corbusier (1426) continued to admire the structure of the quarry. Moreover, and as within the arts, the building was admired by the Surrealists, led by Salvador Dali and Man Ray, who published an article on the building. Today the world of Gaudi is admired by all contemporary architects, who n'aprecien the relationship between art, aesthetics, function and space.