FIRST STAGE :
after the military conquest, Al Andalus became a province or emirate that was dependent on the Umayyad caliphate of Damascus.
In 750 the caliphs in Damascus were overthrown by the Abbasids of Baghdad. The last member of the Umayyad family, Prince Abd al-Rahman, fled to Al-Andalus in 756.
He broke away from the Baghdad Caliphate, declared himself an independent emir under the name of Abd al-Rahman I and founded the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba. This meant breaking the political unity of the Islamic Empire, although the state of Al-Andalus remained under the religious authority of the caliph of Baghdad.
In the early 10th century the emir Abd al-Rahman III wanted to impose his authority, and, in 929, he proclaimed himself caliph and established the Caliphate of Córdoba, a territory independent from the authority of Baghdad.
By 1031, Al-Andalus was divided into more than 25 independent kingdoms called taifas.
The taifas experienced a period of prosperity. However, they were militarily weaker.
To stop the Christian advance, new Muslim armies arrived from North Africa (Almoravids in the 11th century and Almohads in the 12th century) and temporarily stopped the Christian advance.
The only territory that survived the Christian advance of the 13th century was the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada.
The prosperous economy allowed the sultans to pay high taxes in gold to Castile to avoid attack. This made their survival possible until 1492 when Boabdil, the last ruler of Granada, surrendered to the Catholic Monarchs.