What caused the bipolar world u.S ussr

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5. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (1947-1991) 5.1. EXTREME TENSION (1947-1956) The blockade of Berlin:  Berlin was in the area occupied by the Soviets After the war it was divided into four: British, French, American and Soviet. In 1948 the allies unified their areas of occupation >Stalin responded by blocking access to West Berlin. >The allies provided the population with food and essential goods by means of plans >The blockade was ended in 1949. The Korean War: After the war the peninsula of Korea was divided through the middle by the 38o North parallel. The north: communist goverment controlled by the ussr. The south: anticommunist dictatorships under american control. the North started a war invading the South : China and Russia supported the North and the usa helped the south.T ended in 1953 with the reestablishment of the previous frontier. 5.2. PERIOD OF COEXISTENCE: THE DÉTENTE (1956-1976) the ussr emerged as a nuclear power>not only the usa could start a nuclear war>the possibility of mutually assured destruction>a period of dialogue and relaxed international political tensions(the detente) started.During this period there were a number of conflicts that put this period of dialogue in danger. In 1961 the communists built the Berlin wall, which physically separated West Berlin from the eastern part. In 1962 the USSR attempted to install military bases in Cuba and provoked the Cuban Missile Crisis. Vietnam War. The communist government of North Vietnam tried to unify the country and the USA intervened to help the pro- Western government of the South .The Soviets Khrushchev and Breshnev and The Americans Kennedy and Nixon tried to end with the political tensions . Reasons: 1internal protests againts the vietnam war in the usa. 2. The failed rebellion in czechoslovakia. 3.The formation of a new group of non-aligned countries.Consequences : The weapons race was limited , A red telephone line was established between Moscow and Washington.  Americans abandoned Vietnam, which subsequently unified under a communist government. 5.3. A RETURN TO TENSION AND THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1977-1991) Tension period (1977-1985)  The USSR: Tried to achieve military hegemony by installing nuclear missiles (US-20) in Asian and European territories under its control, some of them directly pointing towards Western Europe. The invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 in support of the communist government . USSR intervention in some African conflicts.Tension period (1977-1985) The USA:Supported some Latin American dictatorships and increased its military budget.President Ronald Reagan started a Program of Strategic Defense, known as Star Wars, to develop an anti-missile shield. The end of the Cold War. The URSS led by Gorbachev changed its policy (1985)Reopened the dialogue with the USAWithdrew troops from AfghanistanGave more autonomy to the socialist republics. The Cold War finished with the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.The USA then became the sole world super power. 6. THE CAPITALIST BLOC (1973-1991) 6.1. THE TRIUMPH OF DEMOCRACY  70s-80s: the dictatorships in Southern Europe gave way to parliamentary regimes.  Portugal, where the Carnation Revolution (1974) ended the dictatorship of Oliveira Salazar . Greece with the end of the Dictatorship of the Colonels (1974) Spain when Franco died and a period of transition began (1975)


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