12. What does a libertarian believe in and what is libertarianism?
Libertarians believe in free will, that they are free to choose what they want. They think they are no tpre-determined. That have the power of their liberty. So we are free.
13. Differences between skepticism & dogmatism?
Skept: assert that noming can be known for vertain. They doubt every thing and therefore no knowledge is possible.
Dogma: knowledge is possible, we can discaer statements and accept them as mandatory.
14. Differences between utilitarianism & Kant's ethics?
Kantian ethics has its basis on respect and dignity. Kant uses categorical imperatives and has its basis on ·do to others as you would like others to do to you". For Kant, if you want to "maximize benefits" you'll end up treating people as objects, which in morally wrong.
Utilitarianism is based on the consequences & tries to maximize hapiness, to "the greatest good for the greatest number".
wealth of nations --> smith: capitalism
das kapital--> Marx: communism
the republic--> Plato
the prince--> Machiavelli
16. What's the state of nature?
The state of nature is a state in which people lived freely, without rules or formal laws.
The social contract is the consent to be ruled. According to Hobbes, man kin's basic nature i insecurity and fear and consequently.