ITEM 10. SEX EDUCATION IN THE STAGE CHILDREN. DISCOVERY AND IDENTIFICATION OF OWN SEX. THE CONSTRUCTION OF MALE AND FEMALE ROLES. Sex typing. EDUCATION STRATEGIES TO AVOID DISCRIMINATION GÉNERO.1. Introducción. / "The legal education and education in valores.2.La sexual education during childhood. / - What purpose should pursue sex education? / -basic attitudes criterios. /-Sex Education and currículo./3.Descubrimiento and identification of construction sexo./4.La own male and female roles. Sexual./5.Estrategias educational typing to avoid 'gender discrimination /-Concepts básicos. /-Role of escuela./6.Conclusión. / 7.Bibliografía. / / INTRODUCTION. / / The topic I will discuss is the issue ten kindergarten sex education. / / For the development of delivery of a fundamental idea, namely that pre-primary education is proposed comprehensive development the child, which covers the aspects of his personality, sexuality being one of these areas. / / This is accentuated in the current law 7 / 2010 of Education in Castilla la Mancha, which emphasizes the values education. / / It is therefore necessary to examine sexual education during childhood, and how the child discovers and identifies with one's own sex. Then describe how to build gender roles and what strategies are essential to prevent gender discrimination. / / Next, and although not shown as point in the index of the item, it is important to analyze LEGISLATION AND LEGAL EDUCATION values education for sexuality then try one of these fundamental values. / / The Organic Law 2 / 2006 of May 3, Royal Decree 1630/2006 of 29 December established the curricula for the second cycle of Early Childhood Education Decree 67/2007 of 29 May by regulating the curriculum for the second year of Nursery Education in Castilla la Mancha and the current Education Act 7 / 2010 of 20 July of this community, make implicit or explicit mention elements of values education. / / The contents do not appear in a particular area but are covered in all areas of the curriculum. More specifically, values education is one of the cross-curricular educational project that should be collected. / / This values education, it must be based on the following principles / "It must be seen in all elements of the educational . /-moral and civic education a pillar of the aspects of education in valores. /-Values education should be evaluada. /-management teams are to encourage cross-disciplinary treatment / "The counselors can advise teachers. /-Values education must be integrated into all daily activities. / / Knowing where the legal part of health education, analyzed EDUCATION CHILD SEXUAL STAGE. / define sexuality as a set of anatomical conditions and physiological factors that characterize each Sex. / In developing sexuality, affectivity is important because it is formed to contact with others, be a decisive factor in the understanding and acceptance of one's body and sex and sexuality has two aspects or dimensions, a dimension of knowledge and appreciation of the body, and another referring to assume certain roles sexuales. / This concept of sexuality, about childhood, analyze it, Freud and Villamarzó Fernandez./ 1.Freud speak first of infantile sexuality, and distinguished between two sexes. Biological sex determined at fertilization, and the psychological sex, the factors affecting family and social environment, which will mark the child's personality and adulta. / Some features of infantile sexuality according to Freud, are: / "Let the child is a sexual being from conception, and that in its first years of life, taking shape their sexuality and personality, and that infantile sexuality is the basis of sexuality adulta. / "At first, the whole body is a source of pleasure for the child, but as it matures its central nervous system, become more sensitive areas like the mouth, anus and genitals, giving names to the stage, praying, anal and phallic, which are the main erogenous zones in childhood. / · Stage oral: in the first year of life, the main leisure activities comes through the mouth. / · Stage anal two to three years, together with bowel control, where the child gives him pleasure retention and expulsion of sphincters. / · phallic or genital stage: three to six years, the child would cause pleasure in touch with your genitales. /-The sexualidd is expressed curiosity, observation, manipulation, exploration and preguntas. / In the evolution of sexuality, stresses three points: / "The prenatal, indicating that together with the biological basis, there is a desire, parenting skills, acceptance or not of the sex of the child, and this will form a psychological basis for niño. /-The Perinatal refers to the biological and together there is an acceptance family psychology and environment that takes a base for exploring social beings with the same or different Sex. /-The postnatal integrates the biological, psychological, social, with educational activity influence the development of sexualidad. / For both the development of sexuality are fundamental family, environment and education. / / 2.Fernández Villamarzó states that "infantile sexuality is the germ of what will be the adolescent and adult sexuality. " Your sexuality depends on the early years of VIDA / In their study distinguishes two parameters: /-A parameter sets a source-related stages which starts the libido, erogenous zones, which indicate three evolutionary phases or stages, oral, anal and fálica. / "Another parameter sets three stages or phases taking into account the object towards which the libido. / • In the first place autoerotic stage as the child takes the different parts of your body as a source of interest, satisfied himself as autoerotic. Your body is the source of pleasure. / · Second narcissistic stage, which takes itself as object of love and concern. His person is the source of pleasure. / • Third, stage of relationship with the object, in which the child begins to interested parents. The others are the source of pleasure. / / Knowing the concept of sexuality, and two authors who have studied this term, step by analyzing what purpose should pursue sexual education. / / The Sex Education appears treated as part of the Education Health, believes that health is the principal element or general concept that covers other topics, among which is sexual education. / / An important component of sex education is the question of gender relations and the formation of gender identity, so we refer to the topic of education for gender equality. / / So, a good sex education must seek to develop students' respect as knowing your body and the other, acquire and become familiar with appropriate vocabulary. Moreover, in relation to equality of opportunity between the sexes, for example, propose to promote activities related to domestic life. / / In short, we can say that the purpose of child sex education is to help students to value one's sexual identity, sexual differences and respecting the diversity of roles. / / To carry out this sex education, we must take into account abasic attitudes and approaches to developing education in the stretch. / / There are many reasons for sexual education in education, because through observation, manipulation ... the child is discovered, and that this curiosity should be enhanced by the adult form needed for the child not come to false conclusions. / / But this treatment should not be made through the hidden curriculum ua existing attitudes and basic criteria that can be applied, including: / 1.Responder interests and curiosities of children with the fundamental verdad./2.Es natural climate and confidence by promoting the games dialogo./3.Respecto sexual in nature, it is best not to pay attention and intervene in extreme cases such as when there is a clear age difference or level of development among children at play, when some children impose these games to others who do not wish to participate, when an ongoing obsession, by imitating adult sexual behavior, when they involve physical harm, whether sexist or aggressive content is and if accompanied by vocabulary indebido./4.Es important to know the ways of thinking, theories, fantasies and myths prevalent in this edad./5.Debemos promote discrimination among them is because it is given, as the genitals, and that is because society requires it, as the characteristics of a positive género./6.Hablar of sexuality to any respuesta./7.Y exploit any situation to guide and train children in proper vision and healthy relationships. This is important to involve families to achieve a balance with the school and to encourage consistency, as shows the Education Law 2 / 2006. / / Known these aspects, we will as reflected in sexuality education curriculum Child, Royal Decree 1630 which establishes the curricula for the second cycle. Sex education and curriculum. / / Sex education and education for equal opportunities between sexes have been introduced into the curriculum as common elements which is hampering through objectives and content for different areas. / / psicoevolutivas features of children of this age, recommend a treatment globalization of content through interest centers or projects. / / So sex education and equal opportunities will be considered from a holistic approach with the overall objectives of the stage and through the three areas of expertise are the treatment of the same. / / Since the general objectives of phase, we find equality in education objectives as: / "Discovering, understanding and controlling the body, forming a positive image and self-adjusted, assessing their sexual identity ... /-act autonomously in their daily activities, emotional security and emotional buying. / / Since the general objectives of each area, work is sex education for each of ellas. /-Area A Knowledge of self and personal autonomy: acceptance of one's body and identity development sexual. /-Area B of knowledge and interaction with the environment, assessment of different forms of life, in public, private or domésticos. /-Area C of languages, communication and representation: the communication between
children through teamwork, using appropriate language and are not sexist. / / We should also avoid taboos or stereotypical behavior, discrimination, and promote respect. / / A first step in the evolution of sexuality of the child is to know your sex, It describes the discovery E IDENTIFICACIÓON WITH OWN SEX, / / 1.First there is a concern for one's sexual organs, through your body, taking pleasure in contact with his genitals to two years and there is interest medio./2.Después sex differences after three years. / 3.Posteriormente, the discovery of one's sex is manifested by curiosity, the child's spontaneous expression that manifests with: / drive-Exploration: first manifestation of the child's curiosity as it occurs in the neurological development of their axes cauda and distal cephalic next, the child reacts touching everything, and in his quest is his body. When you touch your genitals experience placer. /-Trends exhibitionists, refer the child experiences pleasure in showing his body. / "The curiosity about the body of demás. /" And the curious relationship between the parents. / / The discovery of sexual differences, is linked to the situation ediptica that span children's relationships with his parents, four to six years. Children join most mothers (Oedipus complex) and girls parents (Electra complex). It produces a false infatuation because of envy. / / Oedipal manifestations in children with strokes to his mother with a serious expression and protective, assert their manhood with possessive behavior among others. This link can hit the parent and the child sees the parent of the same sex as a rival but also feel admiration and affection, base to overcome this time. / / For the girl's father is the source of obedience, kindness, love and submission. With the mother becomes unruly, but have feelings of tenderness and love with her. / / Since the imitation of behaviors, sharing tasks or observe behaviors, roles will be built. The following describes the construction of gender roles. Sex typing. / Family and school are the primary social spaces and secondary respectively, where the child acquires the social roles based on gender, which reinforce and maintain gender stereotypes present in the culture that are in the child's strength, autonomy and aggressiveness, and the girl obedience, kindness and afectividad. / The child has to assume its role as determined by the roles played by people of entorno. / school here, pontencia gender equality, promoting activities designed to equalize the roles of child and niña. / * Avoid taboo or behaviors esteriotipadas. /-Avoiding discrimination and promote respeto. /-present with equal importance the roles of men and women in the family, history . /-will diversify the roles that children can develop, without dialing the role they desempeñar. /-teach them to take decisions about their tastes, opportunities and características. /-prioritize objectives aimed at development and self-esteem autonconcepto adecuados. / city-knowing and the hidden curriculum, which covers all the behaviors that indirectly convey to students. / / All aspects have to make them aware of the cloister and talk to everyone. / / But not all schools are under the same conditions of gender equality, there are areas where the school should give more feedback to diversify the roles or roles assigned to each sex. So I will describe EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES TO REDUCE THE GENDER DISCRIMINATION. / / Before educational strategies to address gender discrimination, we analyze basic concepts (stereotypes, prejudice, sexism and discrimination) by Smith and Mackie. / / The stereotype is a representation or impression of a social group of individuals, to be associated with a particular group characteristics and emotions.Is a negative phenomenon that gives rise to a distortion of reality because it represents a strong generalization. / / These impressions not only provide the basis for prejudice, but also its justification. The bias is positive or negative evaluation of a social group and its members. / / So Smith and Mackie specific prejudice based on sex constitute sexism. / / On the other hand, stereotyping and prejudice lead to discrimination is any positive or negative behavior directed toward a social group and its members. / / In most cases, the stereotypes are learned from interaction with members of stereotyped and information that others give us on this group. Thus, the main transmitters of groups or gender stereotypes are the family and school. / / Therefore, the school tends to inculcate in the learner in social values and norms, last step to analyze the role of the school on gender discrimination. / / The center should be an example of non-discrimination, avoiding sexism and helping children build their personality, helping you to know their characteristics and limitations and act accordingly. / / These strategies should be integrated into the Educational Project, reaching the Classroom programming. / / The differences in the assessment of behaviors considered for either sex, can be corrected with early educational interventions, which treat both sexes equally. / / highlight some strategies coeducational: / 1.Water girls situations that relate to the field experiences of children and vice versa. In this case, our performance will be directed to consider the motivation to access them and provide detailed instructions on how to perform these activities without being involved in exceso./2.Proponer activities to students to enable them to be active and independent equip them with confidence in their posibilidades./3.Proponerles tasks to develop the autonomy of mind, enabling them to make decisions and experience the results themselves, our intervention is aimed at encouraging management to take on tasks, and to assume duties in solitario./4.Criticar the results obtained in their work, demanding and valuing their achievements. Therefore introduce the self, and teach them to detect and correct errores./5.Reforzar self-concept of girls in developing their social and professional skills, and autoconcpeto of children in their household-affective skills. / 6.Realizar learning that sexual identity differ from the traditional role associated with each sex. / / In the classroom, we must give equal opportunities to both boys and girls through corners and games. / / Later we will conduct an evaluation how is preventing gender discrimination in the classroom and around the school, as the Education Project. / / So Organic Education Law 2 / 2006 of May 3, highlights in his article two between their ends, education in respect of the rights and fundamental freedoms, equal rights and opportunities between men and women, and equality of treatment and non discrimination of persons with disabilities. Also among the objectives that the brand LOE for Early Childhood Education, is releasing its own body and that of others, their possibilities for action and learn to respect differences. Likewise, the same law stipulates in Article 126, which once established the School Board, shall appoint a person to boost educational measures to promote real equality between men and women. / / Finally, by way of summary, we present the followingCONCLUSION. / / In this issue we have studied the importance of sex education in the educational process of our students. / / For this, I analyzed first sexual education during childhood, and how the child discovers and identified with the same sex. Then I described how to build gender roles and what strategies are essential to prevent gender discrimination. / / As we see, we face an issue of particular importance, since education for equal opportunities for both sexes, arises from social needs that the school must respond. / / We must get children have equal rights and equal opportunities, not only to live with respect and tolerance, but know they have different characteristics and assimilate this as something natural, without an attitude of rejection. / / The subject is co-educational approach, and that through the cooperative work and mutual understanding of boys and girls, promote equality and prevent discrimination based on gender. / / Before the end of the track, I'll make a reference to the documentation I have consulted for its preparation. Bibliography. / / For the teaching context, include the following works: / VILLAMARZO-FERNANDEZ, P. / Child sexual Source adulthood: a psychodynamic approach. / Ed Amaru. Salamanca, 1994. / /-FREUD, S. / Child sexuality and neurosis. / Ed Alliance. Madrid, 2004. / / NAVARRO-LOPEZ, E. and MORENO, P. / sex education. / Ed Pyramid. Madrid, 2001. / /-SMITH, E. and Mackie, D. / social psychology. / Ed Pan America. Madrid, 1998. / / And on the legal framework: / - LAW 7 / 2010 of July 20, education of Castile Mancha. /-Decree 67/2007 of May 29, laying down the curriculum for the second cycle of Infantil. /-Organic Law on Education, May 6 2006./-REAL Decree 1630/2006 of 29 December, which sets the curricula for the second cycle of Early Childhood Education (MS).