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1.What force pulled a nebula inward to make Our solar system?  gravity

2.How much of the solar nebula was pulled Into the sun (percentage)?  99%

3.How were the planets made from the Leftover gas and dust? The gas & dust contracted Into planetesimals, which collided, merged and formed protoplanets. The Protoplanets accumulated more rocks until they became planets.

4.How did Earth get its layers?  Differentiation; the Most dense matter moved to the center, lighter masses were pushed up.

5.Which gases made up Earth’s earliest Atmosphere? What happened to them?  Hydrogen and helium; they floated off into space because the Earth’s gravity was not strong enough to hold them down.

6.What gases were next to fill the atmosphere? Where did they come from?  Nitrogen, water vapor, ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide & Sulfur dioxide. They were released by volcanoes in outgassing.

7.What is the current composition of Earth’s Atmosphere? What was necessary for oxygen to form?  78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, some argon & carbon dioxide.  Photosynthesis created O2.

8.How are the inner planets different from The outer planets? Inner planets are small, rocky and Dense, with large amounts of heavy elements. Outer planets are liquid with a Gaseous surface, colder and mostly contain small atoms.

9.Explain why Jupiter and Neptune both have Giant spots on their surface if they are made of gas.

The giant spots are huge Storms in the gases on the surface of the planets.

10.Why Is Pluto no longer considered a planet? What are we calling it now? Pluto is now considered a dwarf planet, because it is too Small to clear the area near it in space. The decision was made when many other Dwarf planets were discovered.

11.Describe Earth’s moon. Grey, covered with crushed rock (regolith), craters and mares (pools of black volcanic rock.)

12.Why Do we always see the same side of the moon?  The moon takes just as long to orbit the earth As it does to rotate on its axis, so one side always faces the Earth.

13.What layers does the moon have? How did They form? Crust, mantle and small iron core; they Formed when the most dense made the core and the lighter layers were pushed to The surface. This process is called differentiation.

14.How Do solar and lunar eclipses occur? Solar: the Moon Moves between the Earth and the Sun, blocking the sun; lunar: the Earth moves Between the Sun & the Moon.

15.What Are the phases of the moon? Which are waxing? Which are waning? What side is Light on?

Waxing:  waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing Gibbous, full moon – light on right

Waning:  waning gibbous, third quarter, waning Crescent, new moon – light on left.

16.How does the moon cause tides? When are The tides strongest? The moon’s gravity pulls the Oceans toward it, causing the tides.  They are strongest when the sun and moon are in line, during full moon And new moon.

17.What Are moons?  Celestial Bodies that orbit a larger celestial body.

18.What Are the Galilean moons? What is Pluto’s largest moon?  Galilean moons are The moons of Jupiter that Galileo discovered: Io, Ganymede, Europa & Callisto. Pluto’s largest moon is Charon.

19.Which Moons are the five largest? What planets do they orbit?  The five largest Moons are Ganymede (Jupiter), Titan (Saturn), Callisto (Jupiter), Io (Jupiter) And The Moon (Earth.)

20.Describe The three areas where small celestial bodies are found in our solar system.

Asteroid Belt – flat orbit with many irregular rocks, made of Carbon, silicates or metal.

Kuiper Belt – flat orbit with many irregular bodies, mostly made of Frozen water, ammonia or methane.

Oort cloud – hollow sphere with many bodies, similar to comets in Composition

21.List the three types of small celestial Bodies. Asteroids, meteoroids & comets.

22.Differentiate Between meteoroid, meteor and meteorite.

Meteoroid – in space.

Meteor – falling through The atmosphere, glowing or burning.

Meteorite – remnants of a Meteor, found on Earth’s surface.

23.What is a meteor shower? What causes them? When Earth passes through debris left by a comet, lots Of pieces enter Earth’s atmosphere and burn up, so there is a shower of Shooting stars.

24.What are the parts of a comet? Where do The tails point?  Head: nucleus (core) and coma (big ball of gas.) Tail: ion tail and dust Tail.  The ion tail points away from the Sun, while the dust tail follows the comet.

25.What are the two places comets travel From?  How did the comets get there? Comets travel from the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud. Comets May have been bumped into their orbit by a collision, or broken off a larger body when two large objects collided.

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