Chapter 1 : Matter and change
Branches of chemistry
Organic Chemistry – the study of most carbon-containing compounds.
Inorganic Chemistry – the study of most non-carbon-containing compounds.
Physical Chemistry – the study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy.
Biochemistry – the study of substances and processes occurring in living things.
Analytical Chemistry – the identification of the components and composition of materials.
Theoretical chemistry – the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behaviour and to design and predict the properties of new compounds.
Atom – the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element.
Element – pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances and is made of only 1 type of atom.
Physical Change & Chemical Change
Physical change – a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance. Example: chopping wood
Chemical change – a change in a substance that does involve a change in the identity of the substance. Example: Rusting of iron
Homogeneous mixtures – mixtures that are uniform in composition.
Heterogeneous mixtures – mixtures that are not uniform throughout.
Period and Group
Group – the vertical columns of the periodic table.
Period – the horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table.