-vasoconstriction: a small ring of muscles closes off the entrance to the capillaries closer to the skin surface. The blood is shunted along capillaries deep in skin. Heat is kept inside the body.
-sweating: is reduced.
-Hair erection: Muscles make the hairs stand up, trapping a lauer of air as insulation, (air is a oor conductor of heat). This is more beneficial in animals but it still occurs in humans (goose gumps)
-Shiwering: The muscle action of shivering releases extra heat from the incresased respiration.
-Insulation: A layer of fat under the skin acts as insulation.
-Vasodilation: a small ring olf muscles constricts the entrance to the capillaries deep in the skin and blood is force into capillaries near to the surface.
-Sweating: sweat is released on to skin surface and as it evaporates, heat is taken away.
-Hairs: Lay flat so less air is trapped and more heat is trapped and more heat is transferred from the skin.
-Shivering: no shivering.