Comparing the surface wind to the 3000ft wind:

Classified in Geology

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 INTERNAL FORCES IN THE FORMATION OF RELIEF

  • VOLCANOES: Cracks in the earth´s crust can be deep enough to reach areas where there is magma . The magma rises and passes through the volcano´s crater to the surface in a volcanic eruption. Volcanic eruptions expel gases, ash, rocks and lava. When these materials come into contact with the air, they cool down and form a volcanic cone.
  • EARTHQUAKES: are the result of the movement of the earth´s tectonic plates. This movement travels in all directions in the form of seismic waves. Earthquakes usually lat for only a few seconds, but they cause he ground to shake and can have devastating effects. Earthquakes can be of different magnitudes.
              EXTERNAL FORCES IN THE FORMATION OF RELIEF
  • THE ACTION OF WATER: Water is the main external force that changes relief. It can hav various effects:
    •  Rainwater runs downhill and erodes mountains. Rivers create ravines and valleys by carrying away soil and rocks. When running water slows down , it leaves materials, forming plains and deltas.
    • Water in the form of snow accumulates on mountains. Its weight can move soil and rocks, creating glacial valleys.
    • Water penetrates cracks in rocks. The pressure of the ice can break rocks.
    • Water reacts chemically with some components in rocks causing them to dissolve and form cracks. 
    • Waves , ocean currents and tides erode coastlines over time.
  • THE ACTION OF WIND 
    • The wind erodes rocks and transport small particlessuch as sand and dust. These effects are greater in dry places places with little or no vegetation.
  • THE ACTION OF VEGETATION
    • Vegetation can also change relief . Plant roots penetrate the ground and can break rocks.

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