Composicion of English

Classified in English

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There is a list of translation strategies is independent of the form-based translation types. They follow a continuum that ranges from the world level to the message itself, and from the specific to the general.
•    Literal translation: are possible in simple sentences, the closer the languages involved (eg. The movie is long > la pelicula es larga or hablame en ingles > talk to me in English). However, as soon as the words are embedded in polysemic structures this ceases to be the case (e.G. Hablame en Cristiano > talk to me in Christian, i.E.: talk to me in a language I understand). Machine translation is limited still at the beginning of the 21th century because it is not able to interpret all the possible combinations (e.G once uon a time > erase una vez but una vez que sobre un tiempo)
•    Borrowings: when equivalence is not possible at the word level, Vinay and Darbelnet realize the need to borrow words from the source language and use them in the TL, others are not necessary. There has been a concerted effort to minimize the use of foreign words, especially from English and allow them to take over existing forms. Borrowings from English are called anglicisms and those from Spanish hispanicisms, and both are considered naturalized once they appear in dictionaries. Anglicisms extend to phrases or syntactic structures as well; such as the use of the short, coordinated sentences of English in Spanish instead of the longer subordinated ones natural to the Spanish language. Hispanicisms in English are corral, burro, flan, machismo, mosquito, tortilla.
•    Calques: translate a foreign or SL structure literally into the TL (e.G kindergarten > jardines de infancia, skyscraper > rascacielos, sangre azul > blue-blood)

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